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Approximately one-third of children in the USA are either overweight or obese. Understanding the perceptions of children is an important factor in reversing this trend.
An online survey was conducted with children to capture their perceptions of weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors.
Within the USA.
US children (n 1224) aged 8–18 years.
Twenty-seven per cent of children reported being overweight; 47·1 % of children overestimated the rate of overweight/obesity among US children. A higher percentage of self-classified overweight children (81·9 %) worried about weight than did self-classified under/normal weight children (31·1 %). Most children (91·1 %) felt that it was important to not be overweight, for both health-related and social-related reasons. The majority of children believed that if someone their age is overweight they will likely be overweight in adulthood (93·1 %); get an illness such as diabetes or heart disease in adulthood (90·2 %); not be able to play sports well (84·5 %); and be teased or made fun of in school (87·8 %). Children focused more on food/drink than physical activity as reasons for overweight at their age. Self-classified overweight children were more likely to have spoken with someone about their weight over the last year than self-classified under/normal weight children.
Children demonstrated good understanding of issues regarding weight, overweight, nutrition, physical activity and related socio-behavioural factors. Their perceptions are important and can be helpful in crafting solutions that will resonate with children.
To examine the relationship between intake of whole grains and BMI Z-score in rural children.
General linear models and logistic regression were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between whole grain intake and BMI Z-score, prevalence and odds ratios of overweight and obesity. Dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Screener for ages 2–17 years. Children were classified into three categories according to servings of whole grain intake: <1·0 serving/d, 1·0–1·5 servings/d and >1·5 servings/d.
The CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active and Nurturing Growing-up Environments) study, an obesity prevention intervention in elementary schools in eight rural US communities in California, Mississippi, Kentucky and South Carolina.
Seven hundred and ninety-two children attending 3rd–6th grade.
After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, physical activity and state of residence, whole grain intake was inversely associated with BMI Z-score (0·90 v. 0·61 in the lowest v. the highest whole grain intake category; P trend = 0·01). Children who consumed >1·5 servings of whole grains/d had a 40 % lower risk of being obese (OR = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·95, P = 0·02) compared with children who consumed <1·0 serving/d. Further adjustment for potential dietary predictors of body weight (fruit, vegetable and dairy intakes) did not change the observed associations.
Increasing the intake of whole grains as part of an overall healthy lifestyle may be beneficial for children to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
To demonstrate that patients who have been intubated for prolonged periods of time will have an increased likelihood of developing bacterial biofilm on their endotracheal tubes.
We collected endotracheal tubes from patients at the time of extubation, and analysed representative sections with scanning electron microscopy for morphologic evidence of biofilms.
From September 2007 to September 2008, 32 endotracheal tubes were analysed with electron microscopy. Patients who had been intubated for 6 days or longer had a significantly higher percentage of endotracheal tubes that exhibited bacterial biofilms, compared with patients intubated for less than 6 days (88.9 versus 57.1 per cent, p = 0.0439).
Longer duration of intubation is associated with a higher incidence of bacterial biofilm. Further research is needed to link the presence of bacterial biofilms to acquired laryngotracheal damage.
A novel, water-soluble AB-block copolymer of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEM) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was synthesized by anionic polymerization. Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (PEGME) was converted into the corresponding potassium salt by reacting with potassium metal. The PEG salt was used as a macroinitiator for the polymerization of DEAEM to yield a PEG-b-PDEAEM block copolymer. Carbon dioxide was used to terminate DEAEM polymerization with a carboxylic acid group. This polymer, loaded with dye, was tested for pH sensitivity by release studies into solutions of various pH.
Zn substitution for Cu in YBa2Cu3O7 rapidly reduces the superconducting transition temperature, Tc. Superconductivity is quenched between x=0.08 (T =30 K) and x=0.10. The normal state paramagnetism grows with Zn substu-tition, presumably due to increased localization on the Cu sublattice. Susceptibility studies of oxygen depleted (nonsuperconducting) Zn-substituted samples support this. Strong non-linear isothermal magnetization suggesting an internal magnetic field is found at T=4.2 K in samples with Zn concentration near to the critical value for suppression of superconductivity. The results are discussed in terms of increased localization of d-electrons on the Cu sites with increasing Zn concentration, which is consistent with recent EPR data.
Single phase orthorhombic YBa2(Cuy1−xZnx)3O7 samples were formed for 0<x<0.16. The high T superconductivityXfor x=6 (T =90 K) is rapidly depressed with increasing x, and is quenched for x>0.08. Low field (<100 G) cooled magnetization studies show that the superconducting component decreases as x approaches the critical value for suppression of superconductivity, and this is supported by high resolution specific heat measurements in the vicinity of T. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity studies for x<0.08 show metallic behavior; for x>0.10 semiconducting behavior. The electrical resistance was studied at high quasihydrostatic pressures also, and for x=0.08 showed that T is depressed with increasing pressure: T → 0 K for P >10 GPa. This is in°contrast to YBa2(Cuy1−xZnx)3O7 where dT /dP>0. The data support evidence for the high sensitivity to chemical and ice perturbations of the physical properties of samples near the superconducting-normal transition region.
We report a comparison of InAs/AlSb and In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) for high speed switching applications. Theoretical simulations are performed for both heterostructure systems using a two band tunneling model, which includes the effects of strain and band bending. Experimental peak current densities are observed to agree well with the calculated values over the range 1×104 A/cm2 to 5× 105 A/cm2. In both types of structures, the maximum peak current density (directly related to switching speed) is determined by device heating. In this regard, InAs/AlSb RTDs are found to be slightly superior to In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs RTDs due to the low contact and series resistances of InAs. However, higher peak-to-valley ratios and swing voltages are obtained in the In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs devices up to their maximum attainable peak current density (3.1×105 A/cm2 in this study). Both heterostructure systems yield RTDs with estimated switching times near 1 ps.
In this paper, we report a novel low thermal budget process (<800°C) for engineered ultra thin oxynitride dielectrics with high nitrogen concentration (>5% a.c.) using vertical high pressure (VHP) process. VHP grown oxynitride films show >1 OX lower leakage current, higher drive current and superior hot-carrier reliability compared to control SiO2 of identical thickness (Tox,eq) grown by RTP in O2.
Two YBa2Cu3O7−x powders were investigated: one was nearly stoichiometric, and the other, CuO-rich. After being sintered at 950 °C, samples from both powders were heat-treated in oxygen at 845, 860, and 910 °C for up to 10 days. The samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy, iodometric titrations, and measurement of their superconducting properties (electrical resistivity, critical temperature, and critical current density). The electrical properties of the nearly stoichiometric material improved with time at all temperatures. On the other hand, the electrical properties of the CuO-rich material deteriorated with temperature, possibly owing to problems associated with grain growth at 910 °C.
Constipation is a frequent effect of treatment with antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs as a result of interference with neuronal control of colonic muscular activity. Motilin, a circulating peptide, is involved in induction of myoelectric complexes in the colon. Significantly elevated circulating basal motilin levels were found in patients receiving tricyclic antidepressant drugs, mean 128±33 pmol/l (control 48±6 pmol/l) or neuroleptic therapy, mean 213±29 pmol/l (control 87±8 pmol/l).