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Since its launch in November 1995, the Infrared Space Observatory ISO has converted mid-infrared spectroscopy into a mature tool. Due to its proximity, brightness, and the wealth of complementary information, the center of our Galaxy remains a unique testbed for studies of galactic nuclei. A first analysis of the 2.4-45μm spectrum obtained with ISO-SWS (Fig. 1) has been presented by Lutz et al. (1996a). One of the surprises is a determination of the mid-infrared extinction law from comparison of the Galactic center hydrogen recombination line fluxes and case B expectations: The extinction law clearly lacks the deep minimum near 7μm expected for standard graphite/silicate mixes. External galaxies are less close to the ideal ‘screen’ case and cannot provide the detail of the GC recombination line spectrum needed to derive an extinction law. However, simple ratios of the strongest recombination lines are inconsistent with a classical extinction law and any dust configuration.
We are exploring the properties of obscured starburst galaxies, using observations of atomic fine structure lines taken with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer aboard ISO. However, it is important to ascertain how well our starburst models can recover the properties of the stellar populations in more distant starbursts. For this purpose, we use observations of a nebular “shell” in the 30 Doradus region, to show that our models reliably predict the presence of the very massive stars observed directly in the 30 Doradus region.
Near-infrared longslit spectra of NGC 253 obtained with IRSPEC at the ESO NTT are presented. By analysis of the 12CO 2.29μm bandhead we find that the stellar population in the central starburst region (r ∼ 150 pc) rotates more slowly than the gas, but has a velocity dispersion of 128 km/s, about twice the value found for emission lines from the gas in this region. This implies an about five times higher dynamical mass than previously derived (Rieke et al. 1980), removing the need to invoke a lower mass cutoff in the starburst initial mass function. The peak of near-infrared emission is displaced from the dynamical center.
The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is opening the 2.5 to 200 μm band for detailed infrared spectroscopy. Concentrating on ionic and molecular emission lines observed with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) we discuss ISO's first results on Galactic and extragalactic sources.
We present spectroscopic mid-IR observations of prominent starburst galaxies obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer onboard the Infrared Space Observatory. The wavelength range accessible by ISO-SWS (2.5–45 μm) contains a large number of emission lines of atomic and molecular hydrogen and several other atomic species. In this paper we discuss the interpretation of the [Ne III] 15.5 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm line-ratio, the faint [OIV]25.9 μm line and the pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen observed in our target galaxies.
The objective of this study was to determine whether altered maternal energy supply during mid-gestation results in differences in muscle histology or genes regulating fetal adipose and muscle development. In total, 22 Angus cross-bred heifers (BW=527.73±8.3 kg) were assigned randomly to the three dietary treatments providing 146% (HIGH; n=7), 87% (INT; n=7) or 72% (LOW; n=8) of the energy requirements for heifers from day 85 to day 180 of gestation. Fetuses were removed via cesarean section at day 180 of gestation and longissimus muscle (LM) and subcutaneous fat were collected and prepared for analysis of gene expression. Samples from the LM and semitendinosus (ST) were evaluated for muscle fiber diameter, area and number. The right hind limb was dissected and analyzed to determine compositional analysis. Fetal growth and muscle histology characteristics of the LM and ST were similar among treatments. Preadipocyte factor-1 expression was up-regulated in fetal LM (P<0.05) of HIGH fetuses as compared with INT, whereas LOW fetuses showed increased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBP-β) expression in LM as compared with INT (P<0.05). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γand C/EBP-α did not differ as a result of dietary treatment in LM or subcutaneous fat samples. There was a tendency for increased expression of fatty acid synthase in LM of LOW fetuses as compared with INT (P<0.10). Myogenin was more highly expressed (P<0.05) in LM of the LOW fetuses, whereas μ-calpain expression was increased in the HIGH treatment compared with INT. A tendency for increased expression of IGF-II was observed for both LOW and HIGH fetuses compared with INT (P<0.10). Expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, myoblast determination protein 1, myogenic factor 5, myogenic regulatory factor-4, m-calpain, calpastatin, IGF-I and myostatin was similar between treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that fetal growth characteristics are not affected by the level of maternal nutritional manipulation imposed in this study during mid-gestation. However, differences in expression of fetal genes regulating adipose and muscle tissue growth and development could lead to differences in postnatal composition and warrants further investigation.
The question of the title of Commission 24, obviously, offers a difficult problem as already mentioned in recent reports. Photographic Astrometry no longer describes the whole scope of the commission. This problem has continued during the last three years especially in view of the preparations for the astrometric tasks of the NASA Space Telescope and of the ESA satellite HIPPARCOS.
We discuss 2.5–45 µm spectra of the Circinus galaxy and of Cen A, obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The large number of detected ionic fine structure lines, observable also in visually obscured sources, provides strong constraints on the shape of the ionizing spectrum, which is found to exhibit a UV bump peaking at ~ 70 eV in the case of Circinus. Pure rotational emission of molecular hydrogen, directly probing warm molecular gas, can for the first time be detected in external galaxies.
Observations in the 1 µm to 1 cm wavelength band give important information on the physical processes occurring in and immediately around active galactic nuclei. Concentrating on recent results on ionic, atomic, and molecular emission lines, we discuss as examples the first ISO results on the nature of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, and near-infrared and millimeter measurements of the central 100 parsecs of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068.
Various AGNs, starburst galaxies, and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are observed as part of the ISO-SWS central program of mid-infrared spectroscopy on bright galactic nuclei. Prototypical template sources are scanned over the full spectral range of SWS (2.5–45µm) in order to get a complete census of spectral features in this wavelength domain. As an example we present the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Circinus. The application of results from this survey to the study of the nature and evolution of other galaxies can be demonstrated by an analysis of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220.
In recent years, the theory of Borel summability or multisummability of divergent power series of one variable has been established and it has been proved that every formal solution of an ordinary differential equation with irregular singular point is multisummable. For partial differential equations the summability problem for divergent solutions has not been studied so well, and in this paper we shall try to develop the Borel summability of divergent solutions of the Cauchy problem of the complex heat equation, since the heat equation is a typical and an important equation where we meet diveregent solutions. In conclusion, the Borel summability of a formal solution is characterized by an analytic continuation property together with its growth condition of Cauchy data to infinity along a stripe domain, and the Borel sum is nothing but the solution given by the integral expression by the heat kernel. We also give new ways to get the heat kernel from the Borel sum by taking a special Cauchy data.
We present near-infrared integral field observations of the super star cluster in the amorphous galaxy NGC1705. Data have been collected with SINFONI mounted on the VLT. Adaptive optics was used under good seeing conditions. Mosaics of the cluster and its immediate surrounding have been constructed. The cluster is not spatially resolved. Its radius is smaller than 2.85 ± 0.50pc. The K-band spectrum of the cluster is dominated by strong CO absorption bandheads. It is typical of a Galactic K 4–5 supergiant. Its age is estimated to be 12 ± 6Myr. The large error bar is rooted in the uncertainties of the input physics and ingredients of different evolutionary models.
Extensive research has shown that agricultural land-use practices have substantial impacts on the environment, including (1) release of 50 percent of soil carbon (C) following cultivation of the soil, (2) enhanced soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, (3) reduced soil fertility, (4) increases in nitrate (NO3−) leaching into groundwater and streams, (5) changes in plant production, and (6) changes in energy balance and water fluxes (Pielke et al. 2007). By linking observed detailed land-use data for the U.S. Great Plains over the past 150 years to the DayCent ecosystem model (Parton et al. 1998), this review demonstrates how historical changes in land use have affected soil organic carbon (SOC), soil fertility, plant production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. A detailed description of the procedure used to link the observed U.S. Great Plains land-use data with the DayCent model, along with a comparison of observed and DayCent simulated historical changes in crop yields for the major crops (corn, wheat, sorghum, hay, and cotton) is presented by Hartman et al. (2011).
The Great Plains region of the United States is unique because by the time it was settled by Euro-American farmers, many modern institutions for information gathering and data analysis were already in place. The settlement and subsequent ecological transformation of this region is therefore well documented in the U.S. censuses of population and agriculture, which contain detailed data at the county level regarding changes in land use, animal production, yields for crops grown under both dryland and irrigated conditions, economic value of animal and crop raising, and movements of human populations, first on the decadal scale and then every five years for agriculture beginning in 1925. These data have been digitized for the Great Plains and are now publicly available in machine-readable form (Gutmann 2005a, 2005b).
Deep far-infrared photometric surveys studying galaxy evolution and the nature of the cosmic infrared background are a key strength of the Herschel mission. The PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) guaranteed time key program obtains deep photometric surveys of some of the key extragalactic multiwavelength fields at wavelengths between 70 and 160 μm. This contribution gives an overview of first science results, illustrating the potential of Herschel in providing calorimetric star formation rates for various high redshift galaxy populations, thus testing and superseding previous extrapolations from other wavelengths, and enabling a wide range of galaxy evolution studies.
The Herschel Key Project SHINING performs a study of the ISM in star forming and active
infrared bright galaxies (starbursts, AGN, (U)LIRGs, interacting and low metallicity
galaxies) at local and intermediate redshifts. Here we present some surprising and
promising first results from parts of this programme, including spatially resolved PDR
diagnostics, line deficit diagnostics, and large scale molecular outflows traced by the OH
A year-long intervention trial was conducted to characterise the responses of multiple biomarkers of Se status in healthy American adults to supplemental selenomethionine (SeMet) and to identify factors affecting those responses. A total of 261 men and women were randomised to four doses of Se (0, 50, 100 or 200 μg/d as l-SeMet) for 12 months. Responses of several biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P (SEPP1), plasma glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX3), buccal cell Se, urinary Se) were determined relative to genotype of four selenoproteins (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, selenoprotein 15), dietary Se intake and parameters of single-carbon metabolism. Results showed that supplemental SeMet did not affect GPX3 activity or SEPP1 concentration, but produced significant, dose-dependent increases in the Se contents of plasma, urine and buccal cells, each of which plateaued by 9–12 months and was linearly related to effective Se dose (μg/d per kg0·75). The increase in urinary Se excretion was greater for women than men, and for individuals of the GPX1 679 T/T genotype than for those of the GPX1 679 C/C genotype. It is concluded that the most responsive Se-biomarkers in this non-deficient cohort were those related to body Se pools: plasma, buccal cell and urinary Se concentrations. Changes in plasma Se resulted from increases in its non-specific component and were affected by both sex and GPX1 genotype. In a cohort of relatively high Se status, the Se intake (as SeMet) required to support plasma Se concentration at a target level (Sepl-target) is: .
In this report, the fabrication and electrical characterization of fully vertically integrated complementary resistive switches (CRS), which consist of two anti-serially connected Cu-SiO2 memristive elements, is presented. The resulting CRS cells are initialized by a simple procedure and show high uniformity of resistance states afterwards. Furthermore, the CRS cells show high switching speeds below 50 ns, making them excellent building blocks for next generation non-volatile memory based on passive nanocrossbar arrays.