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Patients with psychosis often present with cognitive dysfunction during the course of their illness. Inflammatory markers such as cytokines and neurotrophins have been investigated, as they are relevant to the change in cognitive function.
To evaluate the cognitive function between patients with acute psychosis and those without. Moreover, this study also investigates cytokines and neurotrophins levels in acute psychosis and their relation with cognition, severity of psychosis and trajectory of their levels across time and under treatment.
Longitudinal, observational, pilot study, of psychiatric inpatients. Participants were assessed on the first day using brief psychiatric rating scale, CAGE, trail making test B and Wisconsin card sorting test. These assessments were repeated weekly until patients were discharged. Blood samples were also collected on the same day for cytokines and neurotrophins analysis. However, the result on cytokines and neurotrophins levels is still pending, therefore only clinical findings will be presented.
Thirty-one patients (mean age: 43.7, SD: 18.9, 14 females and 17 males) were recruited. Eleven were acutely psychotic. Generalized estimating equations modelling were used to compare these two groups based on cognitive and demographic variables. Patients with psychosis are more likely to have significantly lower scores for CAGE (Wald-x2 = 6.268, df = 1, P = 0.012), significantly more abnormal scores in Trail Making Test B (Wald–x2 = 7.338, df = 1, P = 0.007), failure to maintain set (Wald–x2 = 8.323, df = 1, P = 0.004) and perseveratives errors (Wald-x2 = 4.385, df = 1, P = 0.036) although they have more years of education than those without psychosis.
These data show individuals with acute psychosis have impaired cognitive function compared to others.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A preliminary analysis of New Caledonian Araliaceae has shown varying degrees of support for previous hypotheses on sexual system evolution in the family. Andromonoecy, rather than hermaphroditism, is strongly supported as the ancestral sexual system for the Araliaceae. Derivation of hermaphroditism from andromonoecy in Delarbrea harmsii R. Vig. and Polyscias bracteata (R. Vig.) Lowry, ined. is also strongly supported. Support for the derivation of dioecy from andromonoecy in several New Caledonian species of Polyscias J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. depends in part on an assumption that andromonoecy cannot be secondarily derived from dioecy. The derivation of hermaphroditism from andromonoecy in Schefflera candelabra Baill. and S. pseudocandelabra R. Vig. is equivocal. The hypothesis that the immediate ancestors of Arthrophyllum Blume were andromonoecious is not supported.
BK polyoma virus is a 40-45 nm DNA virus that was first identified in the urine of an immunosuppressed patient in 1971. BK virus infection often occurs in childhood and is subclinical. The majority of adults have antibodies to the virus. Asymptomatic viruria, ureteral ulceration, and ureteral stenosis have been described with infection in immunosuppressed patients. Renal graft dysfunction and interstitial nephritis have been associated with BK virus. Differentiation between rejection and infection is important. We report a case of a renal transplant patient with BK polyoma virus infection. This case illustrates the variety of methods that can be used for identification of BK polyoma virus.
The patient, a 52 year old female, presented with an asymptomatic rise in serum creatinine (1.4 to 2.1 mg/dl). Her past medical history was significant for a cadaver kidney transplant two years prior for polycystic kidney disease.
Methods are described for the semiquantitative analysis of the
tissue components of human
peripheral nerve using light microscopy. General histological preservation
assessed using haematoxylin
and eosin staining and the distribution of collagen type IV was investigated
Several techniques were investigated to establish the one giving optimum
immunobinding and greatest contrast for image analysis. Frozen sections
unsuitable for this tissue and
paraffin wax sections were therefore used. Alcohol fixation was rejected
poor preservation of the
endoneurium, although immunobinding was excellent. Ice-cold formalin fixation
for 24 h was found to be
adequate for structural preservation and antibody binding, provided that
protease step was introduced.
Trypsin was found to be superior to pepsin for exposing collagen type IV
Of the detection systems
investigated indirect immunofluorescence was not suitable due to considerable
autofluorescence of the nerve.
The avidin-biotin method provided the greatest contrast, and was therefore
the detection method of choice
for image analysis. The optimum techniques for image analysis were then
on control human sural nerve
to ascertain the best comparative method for collagen type IV in the perineurium.
A method of
semiquantitative analysis is described which takes into account the fact
there is a close linear
relationship between collagen content per unit of perineurium and perineurial
perimeter as fascicle size
increases in peripheral nerve. This means that data from 2 different sample
groups can easily be compared,
provided that a range of fascicle sizes is analysed in each case.
The publication of the latest rating of doctoral programs by the National Research Council (NRC 1995) has sparked great interest among university faculties. For some, the results vindicated years of focused efforts to improve their department's capacity, performance, and image. For others, it generated frustration because of the small change in scores from previous NRC rankings. And for still others, the NRC report occasioned soul-searching or defensive rationalization, including complaints that the reputational rankings did not reflect the “true” quality of the faculty (Magner 1995).
The NRC study conducted surveys of faculty in each of 41 scientific fields to learn about each doctoral-granting faculty's reputation for scholarly quality (93Q) and for the effectiveness of their doctoral program (93E). In addition, the NRC gathered information about the performance of departments (number of publications, citations to the publications of faculty, and external funding) as well as some other characteristics of the faculty (number of faculty, number of full professors) and doctoral student enrollments (number of students enrolled, number of Ph.D.'s granted in recent years). With these data, it is possible to explore the extent to which reputations are responsive to the performance of the faculty as well as to other department characteristics.
The Loch Shin monzogranite is host to quartz veins bearing the sulphosalts aikinite, hammarite, lindströmite, krupkaite, gladite and pekoite, which belong to the aikinite-bismuthinite series, and represents the first significant occurrence of this series in the United Kingdom. Inclusions of the sulphotelluride tetradymite occur in krupkaite-gladite. Berryite is present as inclusions in chalcopyrite. Electron microprobe analyses reveal a range of compositions in individual crystal masses from hammarite to krupkaite in one sample, and from krupkaite to gladite in a second. Compositions between friedrichite and hammarite and gladite and pekoite are notably absent.
Investigations of the March Gravels of Northam Pit, Eye, Cambridgeshire, have provided previously undescribed molluscan, ostracod and foraminiferal faunas together with pollen spectra, which enable a detailed palaeoenvironmental synthesis to be developed. The sediments were laid down in brackish-water conditions and a temperate environment, during a Late Pleistocene temperate stage.
Y.Ba2Cu3O7, a high TC superconductor powder, was shock compacted and explosively welded inside a copper matrix using the explosive fabrication methods described by Murr, Hare and Eror. The shock compression fabrication technique provides the ability to process the superconductor powders into useable structures that will minimize environmental degradation and will not negatively affect the physical or mechanical properties. Additionally, the introduction of shock induced defects are known to increase solid-state reactivity in ceramic materials. For this reason, shock compression fabrication of the superconductor/copper system offers the possibility of enhancing the superconducting properties of the YBa2Cu3O7 powders.
NMR data are presented for reactively sputtered amorphous silicon-hydrogen alloys (a-Si(H)). Measured differences in two of the samples are attributed to two distinct morphologies: a mixed phase (monohydride and dihydride) and a purely monohydride composition. Features of the mixed phase morphology have been modeled. Room temperature, 35 MHz spin-lattice relaxation times are presented for a series of monohydride samples prepared with systematically varied sputtering parameters. A correlation of proton T1 with the density of ESR states tentatively is suggested.
Since the review on virus quantitation by Sharp (1965), interest has increased in developing more accurate methods to recognize and quantitate oncornaviruses. The available quantitation procedures (Sharp 1949, Williams and Backus 1949, Kellenberger and Arber 1957), including the negative staining technique introduced by Monroe and Brandt (1970), present problems of virus recognition, especially under the following conditions: 1. highly pleomorphic particles; 2. low numbers of viral particles; 3. mycoplasmal contamination and 4. large amounts of cell debris. To improve accuracy in particle counting and particle recognition, an embedding method using pointed Beem capsules was developed.
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