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Warfare was a recurrent phenomenon of fundamental importance throughout Roman history. Its scale and form varied across time and place, but it had wide-ranging impacts on politics, society and economy. This book focuses on important themes in the interplay between warfare and these broader contexts, including attitudes to war and peace, the values associated with military service, the role of material resources, military mutiny and civil war, and social and cultural aspects of the military. It also examines experiences of warfare, focusing on approaches to Roman battle and the impact of war on civilians. Importantly and distinctively, these different themes are traced across a millennium of Roman history from the Republic through to the end of Late Antiquity in the early seventh century, with a view to highlighting important continuities and changes across Roman history, and alerting readers to valuable but often less familiar material from the empire's final centuries.
Waters, Ruiz, and Roisman (2017) recently published evidence based on the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA) that sensitive caregiving during childhood is associated with higher levels of secure base script knowledge during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAIsbs). At present, however, little is known about the role of variation in atypical caregiving, including abuse and/or neglect, in explaining individual differences in AAIsbs. This study revisited data from the MLSRA (N = 157) to examine the association between experiencing abuse and/or neglect in the first 17.5 years of life and secure base script knowledge measured at ages 19 and 26 years. Several aspects of abuse and/or neglect experiences were assessed, including perpetrator identity, timing, and type. Regressions revealed that childhood abuse and/or neglect was robustly associated with lower AAIsbs scores in young adulthood, above and beyond previously documented associations with maternal sensitivity and demographic covariates. Follow-up analyses provided evidence that the predictive significance of abuse for secure base script knowledge was specific to perpetration by parental figures, rather than non-caregivers. Exploratory analyses indicated that abuse and/or neglect: (a) in middle childhood and adolescence (but not infancy and early childhood) and (b) physical abuse (but not sexual abuse or neglect) were uniquely associated with lower AAIsbs scores.
To evaluate the effect of definitive radiotherapy dose on survival in patients with human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients staged T1–3 and N0–2c, who received definitive radiotherapy (fraction sizes of 180 cGy to less than 220 cGy), were identified from the National Cancer Database 2010–2014 and stratified by radiation dose (50 Gy to less than 66 Gy, or 66 Gy or more).
A total of 2173 patients were included, of whom 124 (6 per cent) received a radiation dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. With a median follow up of 33.8 months, patients had a 3-year overall survival rate of 88.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 87.1–90.1 per cent). On multivariate Cox analysis, a radiotherapy dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy (hazard ratio = 0.95, 95 per cent confidence interval = 0.52–1.74, p = 0.86) was not a predictor of increased mortality risk.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients had excellent outcomes with definitive radiotherapy doses of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. These results further support patients enrolling into clinical trials for radiation dose de-escalation.
In 2014, a Nutrition Report Card (NRC) was developed as a sustainable, low-cost framework to assess the healthfulness of children’s food environments and highlight action to support healthy eating. We summarise our experiences in producing, disseminating, evaluating and refining an annual NRC in a Canadian province from 2015 to 2019.
To produce the NRC, children’s food environment indicator data are collected, analyzed and compiled for consensus grading by an Expert Working Group of researchers and practitioners. Knowledge translation activities are tailored annually to the needs of target audiences: researchers, practitioners, policymakers and the public. Evaluation of reach is conducted through diverse strategies, including tracking media coverage and website traffic. Assessment of impact on diets and health outcomes is planned.
The grading process has facilitated refining the NRC to enhance its relevance and utility as a tool for its target audiences. Its public release consistently captures media interest and policymakers’ attention. The importance of partnerships in revealing data sources and in strategising to enhance policy approaches to improve food environments is apparent. The NRC has benchmarked progress and stimulated dialogue regarding healthy food environments for children.
The NRC may help to foster a supportive climate for improving the quality of children’s food environments. As an engaging and accessible document, the NRC represents a key mechanism for collating data related to children’s food environments and ensuring it reaches the audiences best positioned to use it. Efforts are underway to expand the NRC across Canada.
Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) crowding is an international health system issue that is worsening. Further, ED crowding and “hallway medicine” has been identified as one of the most significant healthcare challenges currently facing Canadians. One contributor is preventable transfers from long-term care facilities (LTCFs) to Emergency Departments (EDs). In Canada, there were 63,752 LTCF patient transfers to the ED in 2014, with 24% (15,202) of them due to potentially preventable conditions. Each preventable transfer exposes patients to transport and hospital-related complications, and costs the healthcare system thousands of dollars. There have been many proposed and studied interventions aimed at alleviating the issue, but few attempts to assess and evaluate different interventions across institutions in a systematic manner. Methods: A scoping review of the literature using three electronic databases was conducted. A scoping review methodology was used due to the range of interventions and the heterogeneity in study design and outcome. Inclusion criteria included: studies on interventions designed to reduce transfers from LTCFs, studies that reported key outcomes such as number of ED transfers, and studies with a control or comparison group. Articles were screened by two independent reviewers (Cohen's k = 0.68), and study quality was assessed using the National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute quality assessment tools. Results: Findings were organized into five intervention types (telemedicine, outreach teams, interdisciplinary teams, integrated approaches, and other), and both a tabular and narrative synthesis was completed. Eleven studies had a good quality assessment rating, 13 studies had a fair rating, and two studies had a poor rating. Twenty out of the 26 studies reported statistically significant reductions in ED transfer rate, ranging from 10-70%. Interdisciplinary healthcare teams staffed within LTCFs were the most effective interventions. Conclusion: There are several promising interventions that have successfully reduced the number of preventable transfers from LTCFs to EDs, in a variety of health system settings. Further analysis of the relative resource requirements of each intervention, and practices that can enable successful implementation are needed to inform healthcare policy and administrative decision making. Widespread implementation of these interventions has the potential to considerably reduce ED crowding.
Introduction: Crowding is associated with poor patient outcomes in emergency departments (ED). Measures of crowding are often complex and resource-intensive to score and use in real-time. We evaluated single easily obtained variables to establish the presence of crowding compared to more complex crowding scores. Methods: Serial observations of patient flow were recorded in a tertiary Canadian ED. Single variables were evaluated including total number of patients in the ED (census), in beds, in the waiting room, in the treatment area waiting to be assessed, and total inpatient admissions. These were compared with Crowding scores (NEDOCS, EDWIN, ICMED, three regional hospital modifications of NEDOCS) as predictors of crowding. Predictive validity was compared to the reference standard of physician perception of crowding, using receiver operator curve analysis. Results: 144 of 169 potential events were recorded over 2 weeks. Crowding was present in 63.9% of the events. ED census (total number of patients in the ED) was strongly correlated with crowding (AUC = 0.82 with 95% CI = 0.76 - 0.89) and its performance was similar to that of NEDOCS (AUC = 0.80 with 95% CI = 0.76 - 0.90) and a more complex local modification of NEDOCS, the S-SAT (AUC = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.74 - 0.89). Conclusion: The single indicator, ED census was as predictive for the presence of crowding as more complex crowding scores. A two-stage approach to crowding intervention is proposed that first identifies crowding with a real-time ED census statistic followed by investigation of precipitating and modifiable factors. Real time signalling may permit more standardized and effective approaches to manage ED flow.
Introduction: Helmets are effective in preventing brain injury and fatality in cyclists. Methods to promote their use include legislation and non-legislative interventions (NLIs) such as education, social interventions, and subsidies. These have been systematically reviewed and proven effective in pediatric populations. We conducted a scoping review regarding NLIs to promote helmet use amongst adult cyclists. Methods: We conducted a scoping review of NLIs to promote helmet use amongst cyclists age 18 or older. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SportDiscus, in addition to grey literature. Articles were excluded if non-English, focused on age <18, on legislative interventions, or did not report on outcomes related to helmet use or ownership. Study inclusion and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. Data were extracted regarding participant demographics, setting, intervention details and effects, and were reported using descriptive statistics with a narrative synthesis. A limited quality assessment was conducted. Results: A total of 16 papers were included, stratified as 4 randomized-controlled trials and 12 pre-post studies. Only 4 were specific to adults. Community cyclists (5/16, 31%) and community members were most commonly targeted, with most interventions taking place in the community (8/16, 50%) or in a healthcare setting (4/16, 25%). Most interventions were multi-faceted, involving components of community awareness programs, education, information distribution, helmet giveaways and monetary incentives, use of mass media, motivational interviewing, and social marketing. The studies were heterogeneous in quality. Changes in helmet rate use varied between -6% and 26%, with half the studies (8/16, 50%) noting a statistically significant increase. Duration of follow-up of helmet use rates following the intervention varied between 4.5 weeks and 11 years (median 1.38 years, mean 3.0 years.) Conclusion: NLIs to encourage bicycle helmet use were frequently multi-faceted and generally associated with an increase in use amongst adults. Studies were heterogenous in quality, varied in their targeted audiences and often not focused on adults. Further evidence is needed to better characterize the efficacy of non-legislative interventions to achieve sustained helmet use in adult cyclists.
This study aimed to assess whether increasing operative experience results in better surgical outcomes in endoscopic middle-ear surgery.
A retrospective single-institution cohort study was performed. Patients underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty between May 2013 and April 2019 performed by the senior surgeon or a trainee surgeon under direct supervision from the senior surgeon. Following data collection, statistical analysis compared success rates between early (learning curve) surgical procedures and later (experienced) tympanoplasties.
In total, 157 patients (86 male, 71 female), with a mean age of 41.6 years, were included. The patients were followed up for an average of 43.2 weeks. The overall primary closure rate was 90.0 per cent.
This study demonstrates an early learning curve for endoscopic ear surgery that improves with surgical experience. Adoption of the endoscopic technique did not impair the success rates of tympanoplasty.
Persons suffering from bipolar affective disorder have a wide range of cognitive deficits, but there have been limited understanding of prospective memory performance. Time-based prospective memory is remembering to perform an action at a specific time, whereas event-based prospective memory is remembering to perform an action when an external cue appears.
Assess the time-based and event-based prospective memory performance in Chinese persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder.
Identify factors associated with prospective memory performance.
A sample of 40 persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder were recruited from a psychiatric outpatient clinic. All participants completed the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, Test of Nonverbal Intelligence - Third Edition, the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.
The mean total score of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test of persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder was 24.4 ± 7.0. Time-based prospective memory performance was worse than event-based PM task. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test total score was associated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test score. The performance of time-based prospective memory tasks was associated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score, and the performance of event-based prospective memory tasks was associated with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test total score.
Persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder are found to have worse time-based than event-based prospective memory performance. The importance for everyday functioning and independent living needs to be explored in future studies.
The Bipolar Spectrum is usually presented as a Clinical Spectrum. We attempt to demonstrate that there is a neurobiological basis to this spectrum.
We carried out a review of the literature.
There is evidence, at a neuroimaging level, at a genetic level, and also at an intracellular level for a biological basis to the bipolar spectrum.
What arises from this review is that the bipolar spectrum may be wider than previously thought. It is of interest that similar neuroimaging findings may be found in PTSD, Unipolar Depression, Bipolar Illness, and Borderline Personality Disorder.
The key biological issue regarding the bipolar spectrum is the mechanism by which unipolar depression evolves over time into bipolar illness. At present we can only speculate about this mechanism, but its elucidation will clarify how these illnesses are related in the bipolar spectrum.
Little is known about medication adherence among Asians and Asian Americans in psychiatric treatment.
We conducted a systematic review of studies of Asian American and Asian patients with depression or schizophrenia to understand adherence rates and tools used to measure adherence.
A key word search of PubMED and PsycINFO, restricted to journal articles available in English or Chinese and published between 1960 and March 2010 was performed. Reference lists of studies meeting inclusion criteria were manually reviewed and content experts were consulted. Two investigators independently reviewed all identified publications for inclusion using predetermined criteria and a pilot tested data-abstraction form.
Of the 1520 journal articles retrieved, 10 met criteria for inclusion. Adherence rates among patients with schizophrenia ranged from 5–71%; adherence rates among patients with depression ranged from 16–67%. Adherence rates varied among Asian sub-populations: Chinese patients’ rates ranged from 6–56%; Taiwanese patients’ rate was 46–61%; Asian American patients’ rate was 16%; Japanese patients’ rate was 56–71%; and Singaporean patients’ rate was 4.3%. Adherence was measured by: self-report; blood levels; refill rates; chart review; or physician/nurse or family caregiver report.
Medication adherence rates varied across clinical populations and country of origin. Nearly all of the rates are lower than many clinicians would consider acceptable. A critical step to research on improving adherence will involve reaching consensus on how to measure rates.
The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence of night eating syndrome (NES) and its correlates in schizophrenicoutpatients.
The 14 items of self-reported night eatingquestionnaire (NEQ) was administered to 201 schizophrenic patients in psychiatricoutpatient clinic. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics, bodymass index (BMI), subjective measures of mood, sleep, binge eating, andweight-related quality of life using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI),Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Koreanversion of Obesity-Related Quality of Life Scale (KOQoL), respectively.
The prevalence of night eaters in schizophrenicoutpatients was 10.4% (21 of 201). Comparisons between NES group and non-NES grouprevealed no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics, clinical status and BMI. Compared to non-NES, patients with NES reportedsignificantly greater depressed mood and sleep disturbance, more binge eatingpattern, and decreased weight-related quality of life. While 'morning anorexia'and 'delayed morning meal' (2 of 5 NES core components in NEQ) were notdiffered between groups, 'nocturnal ingestions', 'evening hyperphagia', and'mood/sleep' were more impaired in NES group.
These findings are the first to describe theprevalence and its correlates of night eaters in schizophrenic outpatients. These results suggest that NES has negative mental health implications, although it was not associated with obesity. Further study to generalize theseresults is required.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the factors associated with bipolar disorder in pregnant female, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, suicidal idea and sleep.
A total of 84 pregnant female were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ).
Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive K-MDQ scores, suggesting the present of bipolarity. Positive EPDS group had twenty subjects (25%) who had depressive symptoms. The diathesis of bipolar disorder was associated with marital dissatisfaction, social conflict, depression and sleep. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only poor sleep was a risk of bipolarity.
Pregnant female with bipolarity were more depressed and sleep problems than those without bipolarity. The results showed that the most important factor of influencing bipolarity was sleep.
This study aimed to explore thedifference in emotional recognition of musical auditory stimulation and artfulvisual stimulation between helathy people and patients with schizophrenia.
20 songs and 20 paintings thatcontained sad or cheerful emotions were presented to 123 patients withschizophrenia and 224 healthy people as control group. The subjects were askedto tell about their emotions that they had felt from each musical auditorystimulation and artful visual stimulation. To measure such emotions, the Emotional Empathy Scale was used. The level of psychopathology in patientsgroup were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale.
The correct answer rate to musical auditoryand artful visual stimulation of the patient group was significantly lower than that of thecontrol group. Thepatient group showed lower emotional empathic ability compared to the controlgroup. In the patient group, the correct answer rate to musical and artfulstimulation showed a negative correlation with score with Formal ThoughtDisorder Rating Scale.
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties inprecise emotional recognition to auditory and visual stimulations, and this isassociated with lowered empathic ability and thinking disorder of patients withschizophrenia. If an psychosocial rehabilitation program or psychotherapy isimplemented to patients with schizophrenia, it is deemed to be necessary to make a mediation to improve the emotional recognition and expression ability of patients with schizophrenia.
This study was aimed to discover the correlation between those getting tattoos and their psychopathology relating to their delinquent behavior and emotional problems.
Date for this study was collected from 19-year-old men who were receiving a physical examination for conscription at the Korea Military Manpower Administration. 400 data sheets were collected among them. All of sjubjects were evaluated on the following measures: sociodemographic variants, Juvernile delinquency scale, State-trait anger expression inventory, Beck depression inventory, State-triat anxiety inventory, and Positive affect and negative affect schedule.
In comparison with those without tattooes, those with a tattoo scored higher in the scales that were related to delinquency, anger, depression, and negateive emotion. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between the number of tattoos and the scores for the Juvenile delinquent tendency and behavior scale as well as on the State-triat anxiety scale.
Those with tattoos had experienced anger, anxiety, and depression more strongly in comparison with those without tattoos. These reults recommended that tattooed males should be evaluated more on their regrading psychopathology compared to those without tattoos.
: Human impulsivity is a complex multidimensional construct encompassing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Previous animal studies have suggested that striatal dopamine receptors play a critical role in impulsivity. in this study, we investigated the relationship between self-reported cognitive impulsiveness and dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subdivisions in healthy subjects using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride.
Twenty-one participants completed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution PET scans with [11C]raclopride. The trait of impulsiveness was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Partial correlation analysis was performed between BIS-11 scores and D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions, controlling for the confounding effects of temperament characteristics that are conceptually or empirically related to dopamine, which were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory.
The analysis revealed that the non-planning (p = 0.004) and attentional (p = 0.007) impulsiveness subscale scores on the BIS-11 had significant positive correlations with D2/3 receptor availability in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate. There was a tendency toward positive correlation between non-planning impulsiveness score and D2/3 receptor availability in the post-commissural caudate.
These results suggest that cognitive subtrait of impulsivity is associated with D2/3 receptor availability in the associative striatum that plays a critical role in cognitive processes involving attention to detail, judgment of alternative outcomes, and inhibitory control.
Thisstudy was to assess the prevalence and its correlates of restless legs syndrome(RLS) in outpatients with bipolar disorder.
A total of 100clinical stabilized bipolar outpatients were examined. The presence of RLS andits severity were assessed using the International Restless Legs Sydrome StudyGroup (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberg's StateAnxiety Inventory (STAI-X-1), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Koreanversion Drug Attitude Inventory (KDAI-10), Subjective Well-Beings under NeurolepticTreatment Scale-Short Form(SWN-K) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) wereused to evaluate the depressive symptomatology, level of anxiety, subjectivequality of sleep, subjective feeling of well-being, drug attitude, presence ofakathisia, respectively.
Of the 100 bipolar outpatients,7 (7%) were met to full criteria of IRLSSG and 36 (36%) have at least one ofthe 4 IRLSSG criterion. Because of relatively small sample size, non-parametricanalysis were done to compare the characteristics among 3 groups (full-RLS, 1≥positiveRLS-symptom and Non-RLS). There were no significant differences in sex, age, and other sociodemographic and clinical data among 3 groups. BDI, STAI-X-1 andPSQI are tended to be impaired in RLS and 1≥positive RLS-symptomgroups.
This is the first preliminarystudy for studying the prevalence and its correlates of RLS in bipolardisorder. The results shows that RLS was relatively smaller presentin bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Sametendencies shown in schizophrenic patients were found that bipolar patientswith RLS had more depressive symptoms, state anxiety and poor subjective sleepquality.
The aim of this study was to monitor changes of prescription trends for bipolar disorder in inpatient settings in one university hospital.
A retrospective chart review was performed and data of 188 cases (2009–2012) and 118 cases (1998–2001) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were collected. Data on demographic variables, duration of hospitalization, kinds of psychotropic medications and the patterns of prescription over each four-year period were analyzed.
The proportion of patients with manic episode was decreased, whereas those of mixed and depressive episodes were increased. The use of lithium was decreased with the increased use of valproate. Increased use of lamotrigine in depressive episode was prominent. The use of combination treatment with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics was almost same level in both periods. The use of typical antipsychotics was significantly decreased and that of atypical antipsychotics was increased. Especially, the use of quetiapine showed great increase. In bipolar depression, the use of antidepressant was increased.
Data showed that quetiapine monotherapy had favorable effect on acute manic symptoms and well tolerated. Also this result suggests that quetiapine monotherapy may improve the self-perceived quality of sleep without any daytime impairment following sleep in acute manic patients.