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Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
We have developed a technique for determining the atomic elastic constants from measurements of the Debye-Waller factors. The Debye-Waller factors are obtained by Rietveld refinement of time-of-flight neutron diffraction data and interpreted in terms of an atomic Debye-Waller temperature. The method is applicable to powders and to materials that must be encapsulated for safety or environmental reasons. We will illustrate our technique with applications to actinide metals, to metallic hydrides and to high-temperature superconductors.
Y.Ba2Cu3O7, a high TC superconductor powder, was shock compacted and explosively welded inside a copper matrix using the explosive fabrication methods described by Murr, Hare and Eror. The shock compression fabrication technique provides the ability to process the superconductor powders into useable structures that will minimize environmental degradation and will not negatively affect the physical or mechanical properties. Additionally, the introduction of shock induced defects are known to increase solid-state reactivity in ceramic materials. For this reason, shock compression fabrication of the superconductor/copper system offers the possibility of enhancing the superconducting properties of the YBa2Cu3O7 powders.
Rumen protected fats are often included in dairy cow rations in order to increase the energy density of the ration without compromising rumen function. Various studies have examined the effects of protected fats, with some studies reporting an improvement in various fertility parameters (McNamara et al., 2003). This study examined the effect of feeding protected fat (Megalac™) on production parameters, and on the reproductive performance of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.
The Darwin–Hatherton Glacial system (DHGS) connects the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) with the Ross Ice Shelf and is a key area for understanding past variations in ice thickness of surrounding ice masses. Here we present the first detailed measurements of ice thickness and grounding zone characteristics of the DHGS as well as new measurements of ice velocity. The results illustrate the changes that occur in glacier geometry and ice flux as ice flows from the polar plateau and into the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice discharge and the mean basal ice shelf melt for the first 8.5 km downstream of the grounding line amount to 0.24 ± 0.05 km3 a−1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 m a−1, respectively. As the ice begins to float, ice thickness decreases rapidly and basal terraces develop. Constructed maps of glacier geometry suggest that ice drainage from the EAIS into the Darwin Glacier occurs primarily through a deep subglacial canyon. By contrast, ice thins to <200 m at the head of the much slower flowing Hatherton Glacier. The glaciological field study establishes an improved basis for the interpretation of glacial drift sheets at the link between the EAIS and the Ross Ice Sheet.
Although stellar interferometers are capable of measuring the angular diameters of stars, with longer baselines they may also be used to measure brightness variations across a star's surface and to provide constraints on models of stellar envelopes. In this paper we will look at the interpretation of visibility data and some of the more exciting prospects within the reach of current interferometers.
The stability of a tidewater terminus is controlled by glacial dynamics, calving processes and sedimentary processes at the grounding line. An investigation of grounding-line sediment dynamics and morainal-bank sediment budgets in Glacier Bay, Alaska, U.S.A., has yielded data that enable us to determine the debris fluxes of Grand pacific, Margerie and Muir Glaciers. Debris flux ranges from 105 to 106 m3 a−1, one to two orders of magnitude lower than the glacifluvial sediment fluxes (106−107 m3 a−1). Combined, these fluxes represent the highest yields known for glacierized basins. Large debris fluxes reflect the combined effects of rapid glacier flow, driven by the maritime climate of southeast Alaska, and highly erodible bedrock. Englacial-debris distribution is affected by valley width and relief, both of which control the availability of sediment. The number of tributaries controls the distribution and volume of debris in englacial and supraglacial moraines. At the terminus, iceberg-rafting removes up to two orders of magnitude more sediment from the ice-proximal environment than is deposited by melt-out or is dumped during calving events. Rough estimates of the sediment flux by deforming beds suggests that soft-bed deformation may deliver up to an order of magnitude more sediment to the terminus than is released from within the glacier ice.
Investigations of grounding-line sedimentation in front of tidewater termini of temperate valley glaciers demonstrate that sediment yields and dynamics provide a second-order control on glacier stability by influencing water depth at the grounding line. Sediment is delivered to the grounding line by two routes: (1) debris transported in, on and beneath the glacier, and (2) sediment transported in glacial outwash streams. Glacial streams in Glacier Bay, Alaska, U.S.A., deliver 106 to 107 m3 year−1 of sediment to the grounding lines. The glacial debris flux transports 105 to 106 m3 year−1 of debris to the ice cliffs, where approximately 10% is released at the grounding line, the remainder being transported downfjord by iceberg-rafting. An additional 105 m3 year−1 of sediment may be transported to the grounding line by shearing and advection of a deformable bed.
Previous studies have identified risk factors for femoral arterial thrombosis after paediatric cardiac catheterisation, but none of them have evaluated the clinical and economic significance of this complication at the population level. Therefore, we examined the national prevalence and economic impact of femoral arterial thrombosis after cardiac catheterisation in children.
Patients⩽18 years of age who underwent cardiac catheterisation were identified in the 2003–2009 Kids’ Inpatient Database. Patients were stratified by age as follows: <1 year of age or 1–18 years of age. The primary outcome was arterial thrombosis of the lower extremity during the same hospitalisation as cardiac catheterisation. Propensity score matching was used to determine the impact of femoral arterial thrombosis on hospital length of stay, cost, and mortality.
Among the 11,497 paediatric cardiac catheterisations identified, 4558 catheterisations (39.6%) were performed in children <1 year of age. This age group experienced a higher prevalence of reported femoral arterial thrombosis, compared with children aged 1–18 years (1.3 versus 0.3%, p<0.001). After matching, femoral arterial thrombosis in children <1 year of age was associated with similar mortality (5.4 versus 1.8%, p=0.28), length of stay (8 versus 5 days, p=0.11), and total hospital cost ($27,135 versus $28,311, p=0.61), compared with absence of thrombosis.
Femoral arterial thrombosis is especially prevalent in children <1 year of age undergoing cardiac catheterisation. Clinicians should be vigilant in monitoring femoral arterial patency in neonates and infants after cardiac catheterisation.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
Radiometric and AMS radiocarbon dating of a 6-m sediment core from Loch Ness, Scotland, indicates that it represents perhaps the very end of the Late Pleistocene, and the first ca. 7500 yr of the Holocene. Counts of laminations observed in the Holocene section of the core suggest that they are present in sufficient number to constitute annual laminations (varves), an hypothesis consistent with the pollen record, which contains a sequence of zones representative of the Early, Middle and part of the Late Holocene regional vegetation history. On the basis of BSEM and X-ray studies of sediments, and modern seston trap data, the laminations are believed to be produced by winter floods, which introduce increased silt loading into the Loch. Sediment for the rest of the year is mostly composed of clay-sized material. This hypothesis is being further tested, however, by continuing sedimentological and microfossil studies.
Time-depth relations for the core based on calibrated 14C dates and lamination counts, respectively, illustrate the close correspondence between the two sets of data. The latter are therefore now being used to develop a varve chronology for the Holocene for Loch Ness. This will then in turn be used for further chronological studies, and for investigations of palaeoclimatic variations over the eastern North Atlantic, to which the signal of lamination thickness in the sediments is thought to be particularly sensitive. They may also eventually be used for calibration studies, employing 14C dating of specific carbon compounds, or groups of compounds extracted from the sediment using modern organic geochemical methods.
The GI2T is an optical long-baseline Michelson interferometer which analyses dispersed stellar fringes in the multi-speckle mode with a spectral resolution of one Angstrom while the spatial resolution is about one milliarcsecond. This makes the GI2T a powerful instrument able to perform MSI of extended sources like Be stars or shell stars. In order to interpret these data we have developed a latitude dependent radiative wind model for Be stars. This numerical code enables us to compare directly computed 2D maps in some Balmer lines (Hα and Hβ) with high angular resolution data of some Be stars.
Several periods close to 0.5 d have been reported for μ Cen. We obtained over 300 echelle spectra and simultaneous multicolour photometry over a two-week period. We find that the period is 0.66 d and is, in fact, singly periodic. Greyscale images of many consecutive nights show moving features which do not repeat nightly, as may be expected for P = 0.5 d, but repeat approximately every alternate night. In spite of this, periodogram analysis of the radial velocity, as measured at the point of minimum intensity in the spectral line, does indeed show a 0.5-d period. The amplitude of this periodicity decreases during the course of the run. This seeming contradiction, as well as the apparent multiperiodicity, is due to the use of period finding techniques which exclude singly-periodic solutions of a complex nature. We interpret the variations as due to two, co-rotating, circumstellar clouds distributed around the star, such that they are separated by a time interval of 0.5 d. It appears that μ Cen is another example of the growing list of Be stars in which the periodicity is due to co-rotating photospheric clouds.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes lead to dramatically increased risks of atherosclerosis and CHD. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote atherosclerosis by increasing endothelial oxidative stress and up-regulating expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. Microvesicles (MV) are small ( < 1 μm) circulating particles that transport proteins and genetic material, through which they are able to mediate cell–cell communication and influence gene expression. Since MV are increased in plasma of obese, insulin-resistant and diabetic individuals, who often exhibit chronic vascular inflammation, and long-term feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) to rats is a well-described model of obesity and insulin resistance, we hypothesised that this may be a useful model to study the impact of MV on endothelial inflammation. The number and cellular origin of MV from HFD-fed obese rats were characterised by flow cytometry. Total MV were significantly increased after feeding HFD compared to feeding chow (P< 0·001), with significantly elevated numbers of MV derived from leucocyte, endothelial and platelet compartments (P< 0·01 for each cell type). MV were isolated from plasma and their ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression was measured in primary rat cardiac endothelial cells in vitro. MV from HFD-fed rats induced significant ROS (P< 0·001) and VCAM-1 expression (P= 0·0275), indicative of a pro-inflammatory MV phenotype in this model of obesity. These findings confirm that this is a useful model to further study the mechanisms by which diet can influence MV release and subsequent effects on cardio-metabolic health.
This article investigates Chinese warlord authority in the east of the Kham Tibetan region between 1911 and 1949. The colonial government established by the Qing Empire in Kham during the five years before the end of dynastic rule relied on central government funding. With the fragmentation of the Chinese state in the Republican period, Chinese regimes in Kham were forced to raise more revenue locally and reduce expenditure. Responding to these challenges shaped the nature of Chinese authority in Kham. The late Qing colonial government had paid Tibetans who provided livestock and labor for transport as part of the 'u-lag corvée. Republican-era governors lacked the resources to do the same. They struggled to develop other ways of controlling the corvée, and attempted to create alternative state transport organizations. Changes in the sources of county government revenue also had important effects on Chinese officials' approach to what they considered to be “wasteland.”
A radio continuum survey of X-ray-identified weak-lined T Tauri stars (WTTs) in the newly-discovered η Chamaeleontis cluster has been completed using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The 10 known WTTs in the cluster form a unique sample of codistant late-type pre-main-sequence stars with ages of ~8 Myr and masses ranging from 0·1–1·0 M⊙. Our survey detected none of the 10 X-ray-emitting WTTs with 3σ sensitivity limits at 4·8 and 8·6 GHz (6·2 and 3·5 cm) of typically 0·4 mJy, corresponding to a radio luminosity of 4·5 ×1015 erg Hz−1 s−1. Rotation periods for these stars indicate that they are not, as a group, fast-rotating stars. The non-detection in the radio bands supports the findings of other radio surveys of inhomogeneous samples of young stars, where radio emission is fairly common (10–30%) among very young T Tauri stars across all late spectral types, but confined to rapidly-rotating F-G-K stars amongst older zero-age main sequence stars. Rotation, more than youth, appears to be the key to radio emission in young stars.
To determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii, an important healthcare-associated pathogen, among mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland.
The Maryland MDRO Prevention Collaborative performed a statewide cross-sectional active surveillance survey of mechanically ventilated patients residing in acute care and long-term care (LTC) facilities. Surveillance cultures (sputum and perianal) were obtained from all mechanically ventilated inpatients at participating facilities during a 2-week period.
All healthcare facilities in Maryland that provide care for mechanically ventilated patients were invited to participate.
Mechanically ventilated patients, known to be at high risk for colonization and infection with A. baumannii, were included.
Seventy percent (40/57) of all eligible healthcare facilities participated in the survey, representing both acute care (n = 30) and LTC (n = 10) facilities in all geographic regions of Maryland. Surveillance cultures were obtained from 92% (358/390) of eligible Patients. A. baumannii was identified in 34% of all mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland; multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was found in 27% of all Patients. A. baumannii was detected in at least 1 patient in 49% of participating facilities; 100% of LTC facilities had at least 1 patient with A. baumannii, compared with 31% of acute care facilities. A. baumannii was identified from all facilities in which 10 or more patients were sampled.
A. baumannii is common among mechanically ventilated patients in both acute care and LTC facilities throughout Maryland, with a high proportion of isolates demonstrating multidrug resistance.
We sought to explain seasonality and other aspects of Campylobacter jejuni epidemiology by integrating population genetic and epidemiological analysis in a large 3-year longitudinal, two-centre, population-based study. Epidemiological information was collected for 1505 isolates, which were multilocus sequence-typed. Analyses compared pathogen population structure between areas, over time, and between clinical presentations. Pooled analysis was performed with published international datasets. Subtype association with virulence was not observed. UK sites had nearly identical C. jejuni populations. A clade formed by ST45 and ST283 clonal complexes showed a summer peak. This clade was common in a Finnish dataset but not in New Zealand and Australian collections, countries with less marked seasonality. The UK, New Zealand and Australian collections were otherwise similar. These findings map to known in-vitro differences of this clade. This identifies a target for studies to elucidate the drivers of the summer peak in human C. jejuni infection.