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Impulsivity is a central symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and its neural basis may be instantiated in a frontoparietal network involved in response inhibition. However, research has yet to determine whether neural activation differences in BPD associated with response inhibition are attributed to attentional saliency, which is subserved by a partially overlapping network of brain regions.
Patients with BPD (n = 45) and 29 healthy controls (HCs; n = 29) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a novel go/no-go task with infrequent odd-ball trials to control for attentional saliency. Contrasts reflecting a combination of response inhibition and attentional saliency (no-go > go), saliency processing alone (oddball > go), and response inhibition controlling for attentional saliency (no-go > oddball) were compared between BPD and HC.
Compared to HC, BPD showed less activation in the combined no-go > go contrast in the right posterior inferior and middle-frontal gyri, and less activation for oddball > go in left-hemispheric inferior frontal junction, frontal pole, superior parietal lobe, and supramarginal gyri. Crucially, BPD and HC showed no activation differences for the no-go > oddball contrast. In BPD, higher vlPFC activation for no-go > go was correlated with greater self-rated BPD symptoms, whereas lower vlPFC activation for oddball > go was associated with greater self-rated attentional impulsivity.
Patients with BPD show frontoparietal disruptions related to the combination of response inhibition and attentional saliency or saliency alone, but no specific response inhibition neural activation difference when attentional saliency is controlled. The findings suggest a neural dysfunction in BPD underlying attention to salient or infrequent stimuli, which is supported by a negative correlation with self-rated impulsiveness.
Concerns have emerged regarding infection transmission during flexible nasoendoscopy.
Information was gathered prospectively on flexible nasoendoscopy procedures performed between March and June 2020. Patients and healthcare workers were followed up to assess for coronavirus disease 2019 development. One-sided 97.5 per cent Poisson confidence intervals were calculated for upper limits of risk where zero events were observed.
A total of 286 patients were recruited. The most common indication for flexible nasoendoscopy was investigation of ‘red flag’ symptoms (67 per cent). Forty-seven patients (16 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval = 13–21 per cent) had suspicious findings on flexible nasoendoscopy requiring further investigation. Twenty patients (7.1 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval = 4.4–11 per cent) had new cancer diagnoses. Zero coronavirus disease 2019 infections were recorded in the 273 patients. No. 27 endoscopists (the doctors and nurses who carried out the procedures) were followed up.The risk of developing coronavirus disease 2019 after flexible nasoendoscopy was determined to be 0–1.3 per cent.
The risk of coronavirus disease 2019 transmission associated with performing flexible nasoendoscopy in asymptomatic patients, while using appropriate personal protective equipment, is very low. Additional data are required to confirm these findings in the setting of further disease surges.
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an important and effective treatment strategy for many malignancies, marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies in children, adolescents, and young adults. Despite advances in supportive care, patients undergoing transplant are at increased risk to develop cardiovascular co-morbidities.
This study was performed as a feasibility study of a rapid cardiac MRI protocol to substitute for echocardiography in the assessment of left ventricular size and function, pericardial effusion, and right ventricular hypertension.
A total of 13 patients were enrolled for the study (age 17.5 ± 7.7 years, 77% male, 77% white). Mean study time was 13.2 ± 5.6 minutes for MRI and 18.8 ± 5.7 minutes for echocardiogram (p = 0.064). Correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction by MRI and echocardiogram was good (ICC 0.76; 95% CI 0.47, 0.92). None of the patients had documented right ventricular hypertension. Patients were given a survey regarding their experiences, with the majority both perceiving that the echocardiogram took longer (7/13) and indicating they would prefer the MRI if given a choice (10/13).
A rapid cardiac MRI protocol was shown feasible to substitute for echocardiogram in the assessment of key factors prior to or in follow-up after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
The radiocarbon (14C) calibration curve so far contains annually resolved data only for a short period of time. With accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) matching the precision of decay counting, it is now possible to efficiently produce large datasets of annual resolution for calibration purposes using small amounts of wood. The radiocarbon intercomparison on single-year tree-ring samples presented here is the first to investigate specifically possible offsets between AMS laboratories at high precision. The results show that AMS laboratories are capable of measuring samples of Holocene age with an accuracy and precision that is comparable or even goes beyond what is possible with decay counting, even though they require a thousand times less wood. It also shows that not all AMS laboratories always produce results that are consistent with their stated uncertainties. The long-term benefits of studies of this kind are more accurate radiocarbon measurements with, in the future, better quantified uncertainties.
The nature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an onset in middle or late adulthood remains controversial. The aim of our study was to determine in patients aged 60 and older if clinically relevant subtypes based on age at onset can be distinguished, using admixture analysis, a data-driven technique. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 94 patients aged 60 and older with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Admixture analysis was used to determine if the distribution of age at onset in this cohort was consistent with one or more populations of origin and to determine cut-offs for age at onset groups, if more than one population could be identified. Results showed that admixture analysis based on age at onset demonstrated only one normally distributed population. Our results suggest that in older schizophrenia patients, early- and late-onset ages form a continuum.
Introduction: There is ongoing concern about the burden placed on healthcare systems by lab tests. Although these concerns are widespread, it is difficult to quantify the extent of the problem. One approach involves use of a metric known as the Mean Abnormal Response Rate (MARR), which is the proportion of tests ordered that return an abnormal result; a higher MARR value indicates higher yield. The primary objective of this study was to calculate MARRs for tests ordered between April 2014 and March 2019 at the four adult emergency departments (EDs) covering a metropolitan population of 1.3 million. Secondary objectives included identifying tests with highest and lowest MARRs; comparison of MARRs for nurse- and physician-initiated orders; correlation of the number of tests per order requisition to MARR; and correlation of physician experience to MARR. Methods: In total, 40 laboratory tests met inclusion criteria for this study. Administrative data on these tests as ordered at the four EDs were obtained and analyzed. Multi-component test results, such as from CBC, were consolidated such that an abnormal result for any component was coded as an abnormal result for the entire test. Repeat tests ordered within a single patient visit were excluded. Physician experience was quantified for 209 ED physicians as number of years since licensure. Analyses were descriptive where appropriate for whole-population data. Risk of bias was attenuated by the focus on administrative data. Results: The population dataset comprised 33,757,004 test results on 415,665 unique patients. Of these results, 30.3% were the outcomes of nurse-initiated orders. The 5-year MARRs for the four hospitals were 38.3%, 40.0%, 40.7% and 40.9%. The highest per-test MARRs were for BNP (80.5%) and CBC (62.6%), while the lowest were for glucose (7.9%) and sodium (11.6%). MARRs were higher for nurse-initiated orders than for physician-initiated orders (44.7% vs. 38.1%), likely due to the greater order frequency of high-yield CBC in nurse-initiated orders (38.6% vs. 18.1%). The number of tests per order requisition was inversely associated with MARR (r = -0.90, p < 0.001). Finally, the number of years since licensure was modestly but significantly associated with MARR (r = 0.28, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This is the first and largest study to apply the MARR in an ED setting. As a metric, MARR effectively identifies differences in test ordering practices on per-test and per-hospital bases, which could be useful for data-informed practice optimization.
Introduction: Physician metrics extracted from an electronic medical records (EMR) system can be utilized for practice improvement. One key metric analyzed at many emergency departments (EDs) is ‘patients per hour’ (pts/hr), a proxy for physician productivity. It is often believed that early-career physicians experience rapid growth in efficiency as they acclimatize to a hospital system and develop clinical confidence. This is the first study to evaluate the following question: Do early-career ED physicians increase their productivity when beginning practice? Methods: We performed a retrospective review of EMR data of early-career ED physicians working at one or more urban, academic centers. Early-career physicians must have started practice within three months of residency completion, and were identified by privileging records and provincial medical college registration. Physicians were excluded if they did not have at least 36 months of continuous data. Monthly productivity data (pts/hr) was extracted for each physician for their first 36-months of practice. A ‘performance curve’ or graph with a trendline of productivity as a moving average was created for each physician. Each performance curve was visually evaluated by two independent reviewers to qualitatively identify the general trend as upward, downward, or stable, with disagreements resolved by conference. Each physician's first and third year average productivity was compared quantitatively as well, with a significant upward or downward trend defined as a difference of at least 0.2 pts/hr. Results: A total of 41 physicians met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall monthly pts/hr averages ranged from 1.08 to 7.65. Upon visual inspection, six (14.6%) physicians had upward trends, five (12.2%) had downward trends, and 30 (73.2%) had no discernable pattern. The quantitative analysis comparing first year to third year productivity matched the qualitative inspection exactly, with the same six physicians showing increased productivity, five with decreased, and 30 without significant change. Notably, the majority (30/41) of physicians demonstrated radical productivity variations over short periods with no discernable long-term trends. Conclusion: The majority of early career physicians do not demonstrate sustained early-career productivity changes. Of those that do, an approximately equal number will become faster and slower.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) flow is a strong predictor of patient safety, quality of care and provider satisfaction. Throughput interventions have been shown to improve flow metrics, yet few studies have considered MD leadership roles and evaluated provider experience. Our objective was to evaluate the emergency physician lead (EPL) role, a novel MD staffing initiative. Methods: This mixed-method observational time series analysis evaluated ED metrics at two tertiary EDs including ED length of stay (LOS), EMS Park LOS and physician initial assessment (PIA) time as well as 72-hour readmit and left without being seen (LWBS) rates. Data was collected from the ED information system database for control (Dec 6, 2017-Feb 28, 2018 SITE1 and Mar 1–May 31, 2018 SITE2), pre (Sept 3-Nov 30, 2018 SITE 1 and Dec 3, 2018-Feb 28, 2019 SITE2) and post (Dec 3, 2018 –Feb 28, 2019 SITE1, Mar 1- May 31, 2019 SITE2) periods for adult patients presenting to each site. Site data was analyzed independently using descriptive and inferential statistics to calculate differences in means, and means were compared using t-tests. A survey elicited provider feedback from ED physicians, nurses, and EMS professionals on the effect of the EPL on throughput, timeliness of admissions and discharges, provider workload, and the EPL as a resource to other professionals. Results: The number of ED visits at SITE1 were 13136 (Ctrl), 13236 (Pre) and 13137 (Post), and at SITE2 were 14371(Ctrl), 13866 (Pre) and 14962 (Post). Mean ED LOS was decreased by 17 min in post vs control and 20 min vs pre at SITE1 (p < 0.01). SITE2 saw an increase in ED LOS by 7 min vs control and 8 min vs pre (p < 0.01). EMS LOS at SITE1 was decreased by 21 min vs control and 22 min vs pre (p < 0.01), but was increased at SITE2 by 2 min vs control (p = 0.09) and 14 min vs pre (p < 0.01). PIA time at SITE1 was decreased by 15 min vs control (p < 0.01) and 13 min vs pre and increased by 5 min vs control and 12 min vs pre at SITE2 (p < 0.01). 72 hour readmit and LWBS rates were unchanged at both sites. Qualitative feedback from ED providers highlighted the early provision of treatments and investigations by the EPL, and many felt the EPL was an important resource. Conclusion: The inclusion of both quantitative and qualitative data in this study provided a robust analysis of the impact of the EPL role and demonstrated modest but important improvements. A site-dependent, carefully considered implementation of the EPL role may improve ED metrics and provider experiences.
Introduction: The Emergency Departments (ED) is a gateway to the health care system for many psychiatric patients. As a consequence of hospital administrative factors and overcrowding, admitted psychiatric patients are often boarded in the ED while waiting for an inpatient bed. There is currently a lack of evidence to quantify the effect that ED boarding has on psychiatric patients. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether a patient's length of stay is related to longer ED boarding time. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort using data from an administrative source, which was obtained from patient records captured in the Sunrise Clinical Manager EMR used across Calgary, Alberta EDs from 2014-2018. A hierarchical Bayesian regression analysis was used to model the several patient-level and hospital-level factors. The mean and variance was defined by the exposure of interest, namely hours in the Emergency Department after admission to psychiatry unit expressed as a continuous variable. An interaction between this exposure and patient-level confounders was used to model the changing effect of a patient's severity in the ED on their boarding time. Results: The median boarding time for patients in our study was 6.6 hours (standard deviation 17.3), while the average was 13.6 hours. Patients who were boarded for greater than 6 hours more frequently required an antipsychotic (37% vs 11%; SMD 0.651), sedative (52% vs 29%; SMD 0.483) or restraints (18% vs. 14%; SMD 0.102). In crude analysis there was no difference in median length of stay for patients that were boarding more than 6 hours compared to those boarded for less than 6 hours (8 days vs 9 days; SMD 0.012).The rate ratio for length of stay is 1.05 with 95% posterior interval 1.04 - 1.06 for each 24 hour increase in boarding time. This means that for each 1 day worth of boarding time, the length of stay (in days) increases 1.05 times (or 0.05 days/day boarding time). Conclusion: Boarding time is associated with a small but absolute increase in length of stay for psychiatric patients. Decreasing boarding time could have ripple effects for ED efficiency and overall patient outcomes.
Introduction: Calgary's introduction of rentable electronic scooters (e-scooters) in July of 2019 was met with wild popularity, representing the third most popular launch after Tel-Aviv and Paris. The present study aims to characterize the injury burden seen in all Calgary Emergency Departments (EDs) and Urgent Care Centres (UCCs) attributable to e-scooters since their 2019 introduction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all electronic medical records of patients presenting to Calgary EDs or UCCs with the term “scooter” in the triage note, where exclusion criteria are considered for non e-scooter injuries (e.g: non-motorized scooters). Trends in scooter injuries will be compared between April - October 2018 (control arm preceding e-scooter introduction) and April - October 2019. Injury incidence, types, patient demographics, and relative risk compared to bicycle-related injuries will be determined. Descriptive statistics will be calculated. Moreover, 33 ED visits were brought in by EMS and provide information about injury types and locations of injuries involving EMS transport. Results: Preliminary data reveals 540 scooter-related visits (3.10% admitted/transferred) between July 8th and September 30th 2019 (mean age of 28, 56.30% male). Conversely, the number of bicycle-related visits and motor vehicle related injuries were 1482 and 586 (9.90% and 9.70% admitted/transferred) respectively over the same time period suggesting a greater burden but likely a lower per-ride incidence of injury requiring ED or UCC care. Moreover, between July 8th to October 1st 2019, 33 e-scooter presentations involved EMS (21.21% admitted to hospital), where 12.12% involved upper extremity injury, 21.21% were lower extremity injuries, and 6.06% were head injuries (mean age of 34, 48.48% male). Conversely, estimated EMS transfers to EDs or UCCs for bicycle injuries and motor vehicle injuries were 197 and 463 respectively over the same time period. ICU admissions or fatality were not recorded. Conclusion: Representing the most comprehensive study of e-scooter injury patterns in Canada to date, we here demonstrate a significant injury burden attributable to e-scooters following their introduction in Calgary in 2019. Bicycle-related and motor vehicle injuries were both more prevalent in this time period, and required more EMS visits. Further characterization of injury types, injuries and comparison with injury patterns prior to e-scooter introduction is yet to be determined.
Background: Traditionally, radiologists have routinely recommended oral contrast agents (such as Telebrix®) for patients undergoing a computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis (CTAP), but recent evidence has shown limited diagnostic benefits for most emergency department (ED) patients. Additionally, the use of oral contrast has numerous drawbacks, including patient nausea/vomiting, risk of aspiration and delays to CTAP completion and increased ED length of stay (LOS). Aim Statement: The aim was to safely reduce the number of ED patients receiving oral contrast prior to undergoing CTAP and thereby reduce ED length of stay. Measures & Design: An evidence-based ED protocol was developed in collaboration with radiology. PDSA cycle #1 was implementation at a pilot site to identify potential barriers. Challenges identified included the need to change the electronic order sets to reflect the new protocol, improved communication with frontline providers and addition of an online BMI calculator. PDSA cycle #2 was widespread implementation across all 4 ED's in the Calgary zone. The protocol was incorporated into all relevant electronic ED order sets to act as a physician prompt. Using administrative data, we extracted and analyzed data using descriptive and inferential statistics for the outcomes and balancing measures from a period of 12 months pre- and 12 months post-intervention. Evaluation/Results: A total of 14,868 and 17,995 CTAP exams were included in the pre and post periods, respectively. There was a reduction in usage of oral contrast from 71% to 30% (P < 0.0001) in the pre- and post-study period, respectively. This corresponded to a reduction in average time of CT requisition to CT report completed from 3.30 hours to 2.31 hours (-0.99 hrs, P = 0.001) and a reduction in average ED LOS from 11.01 hours to 9.92 hours (-1.08 hrs, P < 0.0001). The protocol resulted in a reduction of 19,434.6 patient hrs in the ED. Run charts demonstrate change was sustained over time. Our protocol did not demonstrate an increase in rates of repeat CTAP (P = 0.563) at 30 days, nor an increase in patient re-admission within 7 days (P = 0.295). Discussion/Impact: Successful implementation of an ED and radiology developed protocol significantly reduced the use of oral contrast in patients requiring enhanced CTAP as part of their diagnostic work up and, thereby, reduced overall ED LOS without increasing the need for repeat examinations within 30 days or re-admission within 7 days.
Introduction: Very low high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-cTnT) concentrations on presentation can rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but the ability to identify patients at low risk of 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) is less clear. This study examines the sensitivity of low concentrations of hs-cTnT on presentation to rule out 30-day MACE. Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled emergency department chest pain patients with non-ischemic ECGs who underwent AMI rule-out with an hs-cTnT assay. The primary outcome was 30-day MACE; secondary outcomes were individual MACE components. Because guidelines recommend using a single hs-cTnT strategy only for patients with more than 3-hours since symptom onset, a subgroup analysis was performed for this population. Outcomes were adjudicated based on review of medical records and telephone follow-up. Results: Of 1,167 patients enrolled, 125 (10.7%) experienced 30-day MACE and 97 (8.3%) suffered AMI on the index visit. More than one-third (35.6%) had presenting hs-cTnT concentrations below the limit of detection (5ng/L), which was 94.4% (95%CI 88.8-97.7%) sensitive for 30-day MACE and 99.0% (95%CI 94.5-100%) sensitive for index AMI. Of 292 (25.0%) patients with hs-cTnT < 5ng/L and at least 3-hours since symptom onset, only 3 experienced 30-day MACE (sensitivity 97.6%, 95%CI 93.2-100%) and none suffered AMI within 30-days (sensitivity 100%, 95%CI 96.3-100%). Conclusion: Among patients with non-ischemic ECGs and >3-hours since symptom onset, low hs-cTnT concentrations on presentation confer a very low risk of 30-day MACE. In the absence of a high risk clinical presentation, further risk stratification is likely to be low yield.
Opioid peripheral abnormalities were described in anorexia nervosa (AN). Until now no data have been published on cerebral activity of opioid system in these subjects. Diprenorphine is a ligand with non-specific binding to opiates receptors μ, κ and δ.
To evaluate in vivo brain opioid receptors binding potential (BP) in patients with lean and recovered from restrictive-type AN by comparison with controls and the relationship with eating-related psychochological and hormonal traits.
In 17 lean restrictive-type AN patients, 15 recovered AN subjects and 15 age-matched controls we assessed in vivo [11C]Diprenorphine binding by brain positron emission tomography and eating-related psychopathological traits. Inter-groups differences in [11C]Diprenorphine binding were evaluated by voxel-based analyses.
Lean restrictive AN and recovered AN patients presented with similar decreased [11C]Diprenorphine binding in bilateral medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal cortex. We noted a lower BP in hypothalamo-pituitary structures and also in anterior cingulate gyrus in lean AN patients. Additionally, only recovered AN patients presented with a decreased [11C]Diprenorphine binding in caudate nuclei and putamen. Direct correlations were found between the anterior cingulate gyrus BP and mean cortisol and between the left amygdala [11C]Diprenorphine binding and eating concern score.
The opioid system is widely affected in AN even after recovery in regions known to be involved in the neurocircuitry of addiction and support the hypothesis of an organic dysfunction in AN.
Psychological stress is associated with accelerated cellular aging and increased risk for aging-related diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear.
We examined the effect of stress on a DNA methylation age predictor that was shown to correlate strongly with chronological age across human tissues (Horvath 2013). Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured in peripheral blood using the 450K Illumina array in three independent cohorts: the Grady Trauma Project/GTP (N=366); a panic disorder case/control sample recruited at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry/MPI-P (N=318); and the Conte Center for the Psychobiology of Early-Life Trauma/Conte (N=42). Age acceleration was calculated by subtracting chronological age from age predicted by DNA methylation. Psychiatric symptomatology and stressors were assessed using standard questionnaires.
DNA methylation age strongly correlated with chronological age in all samples (r=0.9, p=2.5x10<sup>-133</sup>). Cumulative lifetime stress but not childhood or current stress predicted age acceleration in GTP (p=0.012) and MPI-P (p=0.021). Moreover, epigenetic age acceleration predicted depression (GTP: p=0.002; Conte: p=0.014) and panic disorder (p=0.007). In secondary analyses, we examined the effect of lifetime stress on individual CpGs of the DNA methylation age predictor. After correcting for multiple comparisons, we identified in both GTP and MPI-P a stress-regulated CpG near MCAM, a gene implicated in aging-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancers.
Cumulative lifetime stress, but not childhood or current stress, and psychiatric phenotypes are associated with accelerated epigenetic aging. Our findings may explain the accelerated cellular aging and increased disease risk associated with chronic stress and psychiatric disorders.
Persons using the Internet generate large amounts of health-related data, which are increasingly used in modern health sciences.
We analysed the relation between annual prescription volumes (APV) of several antidepressants with marketing approval in Germany and corresponding web search query data generated in Google to test, if web search query volume may be a proxy for medical prescription practice.
We obtained APVs of several antidepressants related to corresponding prescriptions at the expense of the statutory health insurance in Germany from 2004–2013. Web search query data generated in Germany and related to defined search-terms (active substance or brand name) were obtained with Google Trends. We calculated correlations (Pearson's r) between the APVs of each substance and the respective annual “search share” values; coefficients of determination (R2) were computed to determine the amount of variability shared by the two variables.
Significant and strong correlations between substance-specific APVs and corresponding annual query volume were found for each substance during the observational interval: agomelatine (r = 0.968; R2 = 0.932; P = 0.01), bupropion (r = 0.962; R2 = 0.925; P = 0.01), citalopram (r = 0.970; R2 = 0.941; P = 0.01), escitalopram (r = 0.824; R2 = 0.682; P = 0.01), fluoxetine (r = 0.885; R2 = 0.783; P = 0.01), paroxetine (r = 0.801; R2 = 0.641; P = 0.01), and sertraline (r = 0.880; R2 = 0.689; P = 0.01).
Although the used data did not allow to perform an analysis with a higher temporal resolution our results suggest that web search query volume may be a proxy for corresponding prescription behaviour. However, further studies analysing other pharmacologic agents and prescription data that facilitates an increased temporal resolution are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Pathological gambling is a behavioural addiction with negative economic, social, and psychological consequences. Identification of contributing genes and pathways may improve understanding of aetiology and facilitate therapy and prevention. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of pathological gambling. Our aims were to identify pathways involved in pathological gambling, and examine whether there is a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence.
Four hundred and forty-five individuals with a diagnosis of pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were recruited in Germany, and 986 controls were drawn from a German general population sample. A genome-wide association study of pathological gambling comprising single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses, was performed. Polygenic risk scores were generated using data from a German genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence.
No genome-wide significant association with pathological gambling was found for single markers or genes. Pathways for Huntington's disease (P-value = 6.63 × 10−3); 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling (P-value = 9.57 × 10−3); and apoptosis (P-value = 1.75 × 10−2) were significant. Polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset yielded a one-sided nominal significant P-value in subjects with pathological gambling, irrespective of comorbid alcohol dependence status.
The present results accord with previous quantitative formal genetic studies which showed genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggests shared pathology between Huntington's disease and pathological gambling. This finding is consistent with previous imaging studies.