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The DOHaD Society has passed its 10th birthday, so it seems an appropriate time to reflect on what has been achieved and the Society’s aspirations. At the 10th International Congress in Rotterdam in November 2017, Peter Gluckman (the Society’s first President) delivered a plenary lecture entitled ‘DOHaD – addressing the science-policy nexus: a reality check’; in opening the Congress, Mark Hanson (second, and outgoing President) not only highlighted the success of the Society but also the challenges it now faces in achieving impact for its work in the global health arena, that is beyond the research agenda; and in assuming the role of third President, Lucilla Poston highlighted the need for the Society to grasp opportunities to change healthcare policy, while persevering with basic research and well-planned intervention studies. In this review we summarize the points made in these three presentations and issue a call to action to the membership to take up the challenge of taking the Society’s work to the next level of translating science to policy.
Adolescence is a critical time point in the lifecourse. LifeLab is an educational intervention engaging adolescents in understanding Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concepts and the impact of the early life environment on future health, benefitting both their long-term health and that of the next generation. We aimed to assess whether engaging adolescents with DOHaD concepts improves scientific literacy and whether engagement alone improves health behaviours.
Six schools were randomized, three to intervention and three to control. Outcome measures were changed in knowledge, and intended and actual behaviour in relation to diet and lifestyle. A total of 333 students completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires. At 12 months, intervention students showed greater understanding of DOHaD concepts. No sustained changes in behaviours were identified.
Adolescents’ engagement with DOHaD concepts can be improved and maintained over 12 months. Such engagement does not itself translate into behaviour change. The intervention has consequently been revised to include additional components beyond engagement alone.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
The study objective was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in the nares and oropharynx of healthy persons and identify any risk factors associated with such S. aureus colonisation. In total 263 participants (177 adults and 86 minors) comprising 95 families were enrolled in a year-long prospective cohort study from one urban and one rural county in eastern Iowa, USA, through local newspaper advertisements and email lists and through the Keokuk Rural Health Study. Potential risk factors including demographic factors, medical history, farming and healthcare exposure were assessed. Among the participants, 25.4% of adults and 36.1% minors carried S. aureus in their nares and 37.9% of adults carried it in their oropharynx. The overall prevalence was 44.1% among adults and 36.1% for minors. Having at least one positive environmental site for S. aureus in the family home was associated with colonisation (prevalence ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.66). The sensitivity of the oropharyngeal cultures was greater than that of the nares cultures (86.1% compared with 58.2%, respectively). In conclusion, the nares and oropharynx are both important colonisation sites for healthy community members and the presence of S. aureus in the home environment is associated with an increased probability of colonisation.
Much of the agricultural area in California’s southwestern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) is prone to moisture stress and high soil-salinity conditions. Increased prevalence of glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] in these environments and their ecological implications need to be further explored. Studies were conducted on GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes of E. colona to compare the effects of moisture and salinity stress on seed germination and salinity stress alone on growth and seed production. Intraspecific competition between the GR and GS plants was also assessed in a replacement series design experiment. With respect to germination, both biotypes were tolerant to moisture and salinity stress at germination; however, the GR biotype was more tolerant than the GS biotype. Water potential and electrical conductivity (EC) levels that reduced germination by 50% were estimated as −1.5 and −2.3 MPa and 8.5 and 12 dS m−1 for the GS and GR biotypes, respectively. The EC levels that reduced aboveground biomass by 50% were estimated as 9 and 11.5 dS m−1 for the GS and GR biotypes, respectively. Seed production was generally greater in the GR than the GS plants below 10 dS m−1. All plants produced up to 140 seeds plant−1, even at 20 dS m−1. The GR plants were more competitive and produced more aboveground dry biomass and seeds than the GS plants when grown together or alone. In conclusion, differences between these particular GR and GS biotypes to environmental stresses and intraspecific competition were noted that could have ecological implications for their prevalence in the southwestern SJV. The results also suggested that there could be high genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity in E. colona populations in the SJV and further population shifts could occur due to selection pressure from glyphosate.
The experience of childhood maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of depression. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for this relation, little is known about biological correlates of these stress interactions. Identifying such correlates may provide biomarkers of risk for later depression.
Here, we leverage behavioral, experiential, and neuroimaging data from the Duke Neurogenetics Study to identify potential biomarkers of stress exposure. Based on the past research, we were specifically interested in reward-related connectivity and the interaction of early and more recent stress. We examined psychophysiological interactions between the ventral striatum and other brain regions in relation to these stress variables, as well as measures of internalizing symptomatology (n = 926, participant age range = 18–22 years of age).
We found relatively increased reward-related functional connectivity between the left ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal cortex in individuals exposed to greater levels of childhood maltreatment who also experienced greater levels of recent life stress (β = 0.199, p < 0.005). This pattern of functional connectivity was further associated with elevated symptoms of depression (β = 0.089, p = 0.006). Furthermore, using a moderated mediation framework, we demonstrate that this functional connectivity provides a biological link between cumulative stress exposure and internalizing symptomatology.
These findings suggest a novel biomarker linking cumulative stress exposure with the later experience of depressive symptoms. Our results are discussed in the context of past research examining stress exposure in relation to depression.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
Placental transport of vitamin D and other nutrients (e.g. amino acids, fats and glucose) to the fetus is sensitive to maternal and fetal nutritional cues. We studied the effect of maternal calorific restriction on fetal vitamin D status and the placental expression of genes for nutrient transport [aromatic T-type amino acid transporter-1 (TAT-1); triglyceride hydrolase/lipoprotein uptake facilitator lipoprotein lipase (LPL)] and vitamin D homeostasis [CYP27B1; vitamin D receptor (VDR)], and their association with markers of fetal cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle growth. Pregnant sheep received 100% total metabolizable energy (ME) requirements (control), 40% total ME requirements peri-implantation [PI40, 1–31 days of gestation (dGA)] or 50% total ME requirements in late gestation (L, 104–127 dGA). Fetal, but not maternal, plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) concentration was lower in PI40 and L maternal undernutrition groups (P<0.01) compared with the control group at 0.86 gestation. PI40 group placental CYP27B1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were increased (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Across all groups, higher fetal plasma 25OHD concentration was associated with higher skeletal muscle myofibre and capillary density (P<0.05). In the placenta, higher VDR mRNA levels were associated with higher TAT-1 (P<0.05) and LPL (P<0.01) mRNA levels. In the PI40 maternal undernutrition group only, reduced fetal plasma 25OHD concentration may be mediated in part by altered placental CYP27B1. The association between placental mRNA levels of VDR and nutrient transport genes suggests a way in which the placenta may integrate nutritional cues in the face of maternal dietary challenges and alter fetal physiology.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
An explanation is provided for the disruptive instability in diverted tokamaks when the safety factor
at the 95 % poloidal flux surface,
, is driven below 2.0. The instability is a resistive kink counterpart to the current-driven ideal mode that traditionally explained the corresponding disruption in limited cross-sections (Shafranov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys., vol. 15, 1970, p. 175) when
, the safety factor at the outermost closed flux surface, lies just below a rational value
. Experimentally, external kink modes are observed in limiter configurations as the current in a tokamak is ramped up and
decreases through successive rational surfaces. For
, the instability is always encountered and is highly disruptive. However, diverted plasmas, in which
is formally infinite in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, have presented a longstanding difficulty since the theory would predict stability, yet, the disruptive limit occurs in practice when
, reaches 2. It is shown from numerical calculations that a resistive kink mode is linearly destabilized by the rapidly increasing resistivity at the plasma edge when
. The resistive kink behaves much like the ideal kink with predominantly kink or interchange parity and no real sign of a tearing component. However, the growth rates scale with a fractional power of the resistivity near the
surface. The results have a direct bearing on the conventional edge cutoff procedures used in most ideal MHD codes, as well as implications for ITER and for future reactor options.
Resistance to glyphosate in hairy fleabane and horseweed is a problem in
orchards and vineyards in California. Population genetic analyses suggest
that glyphosate resistance evolved multiple times in both species, but it is
unknown if resistance to other herbicides is also present. Two approaches of
research were undertaken to further evaluate herbicide resistance in
Conyza sp. in the perennial crop systems of California.
In the initial study, the distribution of Conyza sp. in the
Central Valley, using a semistructured field survey, was coupled with
evaluation of the presence and level of glyphosate resistance in plants
grown from field-collected seed. In a subsequent study, single-seed
descendants representing distinct genetic groups were self-pollinated in the
greenhouse and these accessions were evaluated for response to glyphosate
and paraquat. Conyza sp. were commonly found throughout the
Central Valley and glyphosate-resistant individuals were confirmed in all
field collections of both species. The level of glyphosate resistance among
field collections varied from 5- to 21-fold compared with 50% glyphosate
resistance (GR50) of the susceptible, with exception of one
region with a GR50 similar to the susceptible. When
self-pollinated accessions from different genetic groups were screened, the
level of glyphosate resistance, on the basis of GR50 values,
ranged from 1.7- to 42.5-fold in hairy fleabane, and 5.9- to 40.3-fold in
horseweed. Three accessions of hairy fleabane from different genetic groups
were also resistant to paraquat (40.1- to 352.5-fold). One
glyphosate-resistant horseweed accession was resistant to paraquat
(322.8-fold), which is the first confirmed case in California. All
paraquat-resistant accessions of Conyza sp. identified so
far have also been resistant to glyphosate, probably because glyphosate
resistance is already widespread in the state. Because glyphosate and
paraquat resistances are found across a wide geographical range and in
accessions from distinct genetic groups, multiple resistant
Conyza sp. likely developed independently several times
The purpose of this study was to apply a novel statistical method for variable selection and a model-based approach for filling data gaps in mortality rates associated with foodborne diseases using the WHO Vital Registration mortality dataset. Correlation analysis and elastic net regularization methods were applied to drop redundant variables and to select the most meaningful subset of predictors. Whenever predictor data were missing, multiple imputation was used to fill in plausible values. Cluster analysis was applied to identify similar groups of countries based on the values of the predictors. Finally, a Bayesian hierarchical regression model was fit to the final dataset for predicting mortality rates. From 113 potential predictors, 32 were retained after correlation analysis. Out of these 32 predictors, eight with non-zero coefficients were selected using the elastic net regularization method. Based on the values of these variables, four clusters of countries were identified. The uncertainty of predictions was large for countries within clusters lacking mortality rates, and it was low for a cluster that had mortality rate information. Our results demonstrated that, using Bayesian hierarchical regression models, a data-driven clustering of countries and a meaningful subset of predictors can be used to fill data gaps in foodborne disease mortality.
The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such “stress sensitization,” little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life stress, gender, and age is associated with reduced structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, a major white matter pathway between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, in young adults. We further demonstrate that individuals with lower uncinate fasciculus integrity at baseline who subsequently experience stressful life events report higher levels of internalizing symptomatology at follow-up. Our findings suggest a novel neurobiological mechanism linking child maltreatment with later internalizing symptoms, specifically altered structural connectivity within the brain's threat-detection and emotion-regulation circuitry.
We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal–oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge – or at least add to – existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds.
Hairy fleabane is an important weed in orchards and vineyards of California. Populations of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-paraquat-resistant (GPR) hairy fleabane have been documented in California but very little information is available on the efficacy of other POST herbicides on these populations. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of several POST herbicides registered in almond orchards on GPR, GR, and glyphosate/paraquat-susceptible (GPS) hairy fleabane plants. Plants were treated at the 8- to 12-leaf stage in greenhouse experiments, and at the bolting to flowering stage in field experiments. A sequential application of glyphosate (1,100 g ae ha−1) followed by paraquat (500 g ai ha−1) 14 d later did not control the GPR plants in any of the studies, but was effective in controlling the GR and GPS plants. Glufosinate at 1,050 g ai ha−1 or saflufenacil at 48.8 g ai ha−1 resulted in 90% or greater control of all populations in all studies, whereas glyphosate (1,100 g ae ha−1) + 2,4-D (1,090 g ae ha−1) resulted in inconsistent control (58 to 100%). The GPR population was not resistant to other common POST herbicide modes of action used in California tree nut orchards, and glufosinate and saflufenacil can provide growers effective management options for hairy fleabane in these crops.
Reduced control of some glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane populations with paraquat has raised concerns about evolved multiple resistance to both glyphosate and paraquat. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of multiple-resistant (glyphosate and paraquat) hairy fleabane populations in California. A series of dose-response experiments was conducted to evaluate the effect of glyphosate and paraquat in a known susceptible (S) and putative multiple-resistant (R) population of hairy fleabane. The greenhouse experiments were conducted during summer, fall, and winter under controlled temperature and natural light conditions. Multiple-resistant hairy fleabane was identified; however, the level of resistance to glyphosate varied substantially among seasons. During the summer, the glyphosate rate required to reduce growth by 50% (GR50) for the R population was 0.94 kg ae ha−1, 5.2-fold more than for the S population. In the fall and winter experiments, however, the R population response to glyphosate was similar to the S population with a GR50 of 0.22 kg ae ha−1 or less. Multiple-resistant plants were controlled in the fall and winter at rates that did not control the same population during summer. GR50 of paraquat varied among seasons (0.94, 0.24, and 0.07 kg ai ha−1 during summer, fall, and winter, respectively); however, plant mortality was more consistent. This is the first reported case of glyphosate–paraquat resistance in hairy fleabane and the multiple-resistant population could pose a significant challenge to annual no-till and perennial cropping systems in California. Further research on the mechanisms of resistance and the physiological factors underlying the seasonally variable response to glyphosate is needed.
Noise and electrical conductivity measurements were made at temperatures ranging from approximately 270°K to 320°K on devices fabricated on as grown Boron doped p-type a-Si:H films. The room temperature 1/f noise was found to be proportional to the bias voltage and inversely proportional to the square root of the device area. As a result, the 1/f noise can be described by Hooge’s empirical expression . The 1/f noise was found to be independent of temperature in the range investigated even though the device conductivity changed by a factor of approximately 4 over this range. Conductivity temperature measurements exhibit a T-0.25 dependence, indicative of conduction via localized states in the valence band tail [2,3]. In addition, multiple authors have analyzed hole mobility in a-Si:H and find that the hole mobility depends on the scattering of mobile holes by localized states in the valence band tail [4-7]. We conclude that the a-Si:H carrier concentration does not change appreciably with temperature, and thus, the resistance change in this temperature range is due to the temperature dependence of the hole mobility. Our results are applicable to a basic understanding of noise and conductivity requirements for a-Si:H materials used for microbolometer ambient temperature infrared detection.
Simazine is an important management tool for weed control in vineyards because of its relatively low price, reliable control of several problem weeds, and long residual activity. After repeated and extensive use of simazine, several growers in the Central Valley of California expressed concerns about reduced, residual weed control with this herbicide. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate of simazine dissipation in soils with differing simazine-use histories and to determine whether residual weed control differed among sites. Two raisin vineyards were used in all studies, one with extensive simazine-use history (adapted) and one with no recent simazine-use history (nonadapted). Results indicated that simazine dissipation from biotic processes was fourfold greater in soil with a long simazine-use history relative to soil with no recent simazine applications. In the field, simazine persisted longer at the nonadapted site, and weed-control duration was affected by dissipation rate. Central Valley vineyard soils that have had repeated simazine applications can develop enhanced, microbial degradation, and reduced, residual weed control is possible; however, weed control is also affected by environmental conditions and other crop management practices.
Unbalanced nutrition during critical windows of development is implicated in determining the susceptibility to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life, but the underlying mechanisms during fetal life have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of moderate nutritional restriction during critical windows in gestation on late gestation fetal sheep growth, cardiovascular and renal renin-angiotensin system function. Ewes were fed 100% nutrient requirements (control), or 40–50% nutrient requirements during the peri-implantation period (1–31 days gestation (dGA), PI40 and PI50), or 50% nutrient requirements in late gestation (104–127 dGA). At 125 ± 2 dGA, fetal cardiovascular and renal function were measured at baseline, and during frusemide, angiotensin II (Ang II), phenylephrine and hypoxia challenges. Maternal undernutrition had no effect on fetal biometry, kidney weight, nephron number, basal cardiovascular function or cardiovascular and renal responses to frusemide. Fetal blood pressure response to Ang II was blunted in PI50 (P < 0.05), but not in PI40 groups. There was no difference between groups in the cardiovascular or endocrine response to hypoxia. The lack of effect of moderate undernutrition within key developmental windows of fetal kidney development on fetal renal structure and function suggests that renal mechanisms do not underlie our previous observations of cardiovascular dysfunction in adulthood following early-life undernutrition.