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We implemented a cleaning process for mobile patient equipment (MPE) and determined its success using adenosine trisphosphate (ATP) monitoring and data feedback. Following education for staff and ATP data feedback, the data suggest that the MPE cleaning program we implemented was successful.
We present the first time-resolved spectroscopic observations, made with the SALT HRS instrument, of a rapidly oscillating Ap star. We used the instrument in the High Stability mode, with the fastest readout settings – a setup never previously used. Over a 2.5-hr track length, we obtained 280 spectra at 8-second integration times and a cadence of 30 seconds. The target, α Circini, is the brightest of the roAp stars, and thus provides an excellent opportunity to test the instrument. Previous time-resolved spectroscopic studies of this star have been conducted by Kurtz, Elkin & Mathys† with the VLT/UVES instrument, and by Mkrtichian & Hatzes‡ with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6-m telescope. Those two studies provide us with benchmarks to compare the performance of SALT/HRS for this type of project. With the upcoming TESS mission, the ability to perform high-precision, time-resolved spectroscopy of pulsating stars will be key for the scientific output of SALT.
We present observations of massive star-forming regions selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog. The observations were made with the Very Large Array and the Large Millimeter Telescope to search for Class I methanol masers. We made interferometric observations of 125 massive star-forming regions in the 44 GHz methanol maser transition; 53 of the 125 fields showed emission. The data allow us to demonstrate associations, at arcsecond precision, of the Class I maser emission with outflows, HII regions and shocks traced by 4.5 μm emission. We made single-dish observations toward 38 of the 53 regions with 44 GHz masers detected to search for the methanol transitions at 84.5, 95.1, 96.7, 107.0, and 108.8 GHz. We find detection rates of 74, 55, 100, 3, and 45%, respectively. We used a wide-band receiver which revealed many other spectral lines that are common in star-forming regions.
The final stages of low-mass stellar evolution are characterized by significant mass loss due to stellar pulsations during the AGB phase, which lead to the development of planetary nebulae. Molecular masers of H2O, SiO, and ground state OH transitions are commonly detected in oxygen-rich late-type stars (OH/IR objects). In contrast, excited OH maser transitions are rare. We discuss our study of the carbon-rich pre-planetary nebula CRL618 (a prototypical post-AGB star). Observations conducted in May 2008 with the 305m Arecibo Telescope resulted in the first detection of a 4765MHz OH maser line in a late-type stellar object; the detection was confirmed a few months later also with Arecibo. Subsequent observations in 2015 and 2017 resulted in non-detection of the 4765MHz OH line. Our observations indicate that the 4765MHz OH maser in CRL 618 is highly variable, possibly tracing a short-lived phenomenon during the development of a pre-planetary nebula.
Study of the solar interior through analysis of solar oscillations, a field now referred to as helioseismology, has generated interest in the development of asteroseismology, the study of the interior of pulsating stars through the analysis of their oscillations. Some progress has been made in the study of the Rapidly Oscillating Ap stars, cool magnetic Ap stars which pulsate in high overtone, low degree non-radial p-modes with periods between 4 and 15 minutes. Since all of these stars found so far are bright (V<10), their light variations can be studied with small telescopes; most of the work done has been with a 0.5-m telescope. Their light variations are extremely complex, however, which means that they must be intensively observed, something which can only be done with small telescopes. Due to aliasing problems, multisite observing programs of the Rapidly Oscillating Ap stars are often necessary in order to decipher their frequency patterns. A collaborative observing program is suggested.
Using in situ data from 2011 and 2013, we evaluate the ability of CryoSat-2 (CS-2) to retrieve sea-ice freeboard over fast ice in McMurdo Sound. This provides the first systematic validation of CS-2 in the coastal Antarctic and offers insight into the assumptions currently used to process CS-2 data. European Space Agency Level 2 (ESAL2) data are compared with results of a Waveform Fitting (WfF) procedure and a Threshold-First-Maximum-Retracker-Algorithm employed at 40% (TFMRA40). A supervised freeboard retrieval procedure is used to reduce errors associated with sea surface height identification and radar velocity in snow. We find ESAL2 freeboards located between the ice and snow freeboard rather than the frequently assumed snow/ice interface. WfF is within 0.04 m of the ice freeboard but is influenced by variable snow conditions causing increased radar backscatter from the air/snow interface. Given such snow conditions and additional uncertainties in sea surface height identification, a positive bias of 0.14 m away from the ice freeboard is observed. TFMRA40 freeboards are within 0.03 m of the snow freeboard. The separation of freeboard estimates is primarily driven by the different assumptions of each retracker, although waveform alteration by variations in snow properties and surface roughness is evident. Techniques are amended where necessary, and automatic freeboard retrieval procedures for ESAL2, WfF and TFMRA40 are presented. CS-2 detects annual fast-ice freeboard trends using all three automatic procedures that are in line with known sea-ice growth rates in the region.
The day before the start of IAU Symposium 185 Wojtek Dziembowski and I were sitting in the beautiful 300-year-old garden of Shisendo in Kyoto discussing asteroseismology. Wojtek put his fingertips together to make a little temple of his hands in front of him. Then, slowly moving this temple up and down in front of him, while staring off at the green Japanese mosses in the dappled sun and shade of Shisendo‘s garden forest he said to me in his studied way, “Don, I am not sure that there is any asteroseismology yet”. I thought, “Uh-oh. If others believe that is true, then they may not think I have much to say in my review of new developments in asteroseismology at S185.” Yet I do have much to say, so I think I had better define what I mean by asteroseismology.
Sediment-laden icebergs are rarely sighted in Antarctic waters. However, during the recent Deep Freeze 79-USCGC Glacier expedition to the George V Coast and the south-western Ross Sea, nine sediment-laden icebergs and several pieces of pack ice with surficial sediment layers were observed. These observations include basal debris zones, debris slumped on to glaciers and floating ice, and englacial debris believed to have been incorporated along shear zones.
Sediment samples collected from icebergs were texturally and mineralogically variable. Some were unsorted mixtures consisting of a wide variety of angular minerals and rock fragments; others consisted primarily of slate clasts, quartz sand, and rock flour.
It has largely been accepted that pre-participation screening for student athletes is necessary, but there is still no consensus on the most effective and efficient ways to accomplish this. Most clinical strategies are based on retrospective case series. By applying the European Society of Cardiology and Seattle criteria, electrocardiography appears to afford the lowest false-positive rate for identifying potentially dangerous cardiac abnormalities in athletes. Prospective, randomised trials may help determine the most effective primary prevention. Normative data for age, gender, and ethnicity for screening tools need to be formulated to further reduce false-positive results. Targeted advanced screening aimed at the highest risk groups may be the most beneficial and cost-effective application of primary prevention.
Lithium in cool magnetic CP stars in still poorly studied and estimations of the Li abundance in these stars are scarce. There is some evidence of variability of the LiI 6708 Â line, but this variability has not been studied systematicaly. Even the identification of the 6708 Â line with the LiI resonance doublet is still in doubt. This problem is important in the broader context of the Li abundance in various types of stars, as well as for deeper undersfanding of the magnetic star phonomenon itself. The reason for fhis is that the Li abundance in very sensitive to evolutionary status of the stars and their properties, such as the character and intensity of mixing processes.
The work of Commission 25 covers a wide range of topics concerning the measurement of magnitude, colour and polarisation of astronomical objects. As such, the area of interest covers virtually every field of astrophysical research in the visual and infrared spectral domain. Our reports cover some aspects of photometry and polarimetry as a technique rather than being an account of research highlights over the last three years.
For Commission 27 these triennial reports have traditionally been very compact literature reviews of all the fields relevant to our commission. For several triennia we have been discussing the relevance of them, and asking just who their readership is. It seems that only a few people read them, and fewer use them as introductions to the subject – supposedly one of their prime purposes. The major beneficiaries have been the writers, who have been forced to do three-year reviews of their subjects. The IAU EC gave us the option this triennium of a shorter, four-page report to which the majority of the SOC agreed.
For several of the rapidly oscillating Ap stars the best luminosity estimates available come from the asteroseismological interpretation of their pulsational frequency spectra. We give a list of the 23 currently known roAp stars along with their Strömgren photometric indices, Teff estimated from the Hβ index, and luminosity estimated asteroseismologically. In one case, ϒ Equ, we have an asteroseismological luminosity and a parallax luminosity which are in good agreement. Some of the roAp stars pulsate with frequencies greater than the critical frequency calculated for standard A-star models. This plus multi-colour high-speed photometry of HR 3831 indicate that the temperature gradients in the atmospheres of these stars are substantially steeper than in standard A-star models. We advocate a fine analysis of HR 3831 to see if there is consistency with the pulsational conclusions about T-τ in this star. Further fine analyses and multi-colour pulsational analyses on other roAp stars are then called for. The pulsation mode in HR 3831 can be decomposed into primarily an axisymmetric dipole mode with small radial, quadrupole and octupole perturbations. If the magnetic field is governing the distortion of this mode from a purely dipole mode, then the pulsation can be used to infer the magnetic field geometry. Comments on our current knowledge of all 23 roAp stars are made.
We present the first results from multi-site observations of the δ Scuti star XX Pyx (CD–24°7599). The observations were carried out as the 17th run of the Delta Scuti Network. We collected 583 hr of B, V time-series photometry, resulting in a detection level (4σ) in the amplitude spectrum of 0.5 mmag. We detect 6 new pulsation frequencies, bringing the total number of frequencies known in this star up 19.
We present the first results of the analysis of 22 Blazhko stars. We find: 1) Blazhko RRab stars that are nearly pure amplitude modulators; 2) Blazhko RRab stars that have both amplitude and phase modulation; 3) A Blazhko RRab star that has an abrupt period change; 4) Proof of the Blazhko effect in RRc stars. Our data show the character of the amplitude and phase modulations of the light curves over the Blazhko cycles far better than has been previously possible.
Pulsation is ubiquitous among chemically normal A-type stars, but comparatively rare among chemically peculiar Am and Ap stars of the same temperature range. The conventional explanation for this is that diffusion produces the surface abundance anomalies in the Am and Ap stars, and also drains He from the He-II ionisation zone, thus quenching the κ-mechanism that drives δ Scuti pulsation. The pulsating Am and Ap stars exhibit dichotomous pulsation characteristics. The Am stars (and related stars) exhibit low-overtone δ Scuti pulsation, with amplitudes ranging from a few mmag to 0.1 mag. The pulsating Ap stars exhibit high-overtone pulsation with periods in the range 6-16 min and Johnson B semi-amplitudes typically ≤ 5 mmag. These stars are referred to as rapidly oscillating Ap stars, or ‘roAp’ stars (the see review by Martinez & Kurtz 1995).
We present the first massive frequency analysis of the 1200 first overtone RR Lyrae stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud observed in the first 4.3 yr of the MACHO project. Besides the many new double-mode variables, we also discovered stars with closely spaced frequencies. These variables are most probably nonradial pulsators.