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Fermented feeds are being considered as practical alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) supplemented in nursery pig diets. This study aimed to investigate health-promoting effects of fermented barley in weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88 +. A total of 37 piglets were weaned at 21 ± 1 day of age (6.41 ± 0.47 kg of BW) and assigned to either of the following five treatment groups: (1) unchallenged control (UCC; n = 7), (2) challenged control (CC; n = 7), (3) AGP (CC + 0.1% AGP; n = 7), (4) Ferm1 (challenged and fed homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum (Homo)-fermented barley; n = 8) and (5) Ferm2 (challenged and fed heterofermentative L. buchneri (Hetero)-fermented barley; n = 8). The control diet included unfermented barley. Barley was fermented with either Homo or Hetero for 90 days under anaerobic conditions. On day 10, all pigs except those in UCC group were orally inoculated with E. coli K88 + (6 × 109 colony forming units/ml). The pre-planned orthogonal test was performed to compare (1) UCC and CC, (2) CC and AGP, (3) CC and Ferm1 + Ferm2, as well as (4) Ferm1 and Ferm2. Challenged control pigs showed shorter (P < 0.05) villus height (VH) in the duodenum and deeper (P < 0.05) crypt depth (CD) in the jejunum than UCC pigs. The AGP group had higher (P < 0.05) VH and lower (P < 0.05) IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum compared with CC group. Compared to CC, Ferm1 and Ferm2 had decreased (P < 0.05) CD in the duodenum, IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum and rectal temperature at 24 h post-challenge. Pigs fed fermented barley diets showed greater (P < 0.05) faecal abundance of Clostridium Cluster IV and Lactobacilli than those fed UCC diet. Ferm2-fed pigs showed lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of band cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes at 6, 24 and 48 h after challenge, respectively, and lower (P < 0.05) faecal abundance of Enterobacteriaceae 24 h after challenge than the Ferm1-fed pigs. In conclusion, the substitution of unfermented barley with fermented barley in a nursery diet showed similar results as those shown by AGP supplementation in terms of enhancing the intestinal morphology and modulating faecal microbiota composition, as well as down-regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines; therefore, fermented barley can be a possible nutritional strategy for managing nursery pigs fed diets without in-feed AGP.
Essential tremor (ET) is associated with psychological difficulties, including anxiety and depression. Demoralization (feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, inability to cope), another manifestation of psychological distress, has yet to be investigated in ET. Our objectives are to (1) estimate the prevalence of demoralization in ET, (2) assess its clinical correlates, and (3) determine whether demoralization correlates with tremor severity.
We administered the Kissane Demoralization Scale (KDS-II) and several psychosocial evaluations (ie, scales assessing subjective incompetence, resilience, and depression [eg, Geriatric Depression Scale]) to 60 ET subjects. Tremor was assessed with a disability score and total tremor score. KDS-II >8 indicated demoralization.
Among 60 ET subjects (mean age = 70.2 ± 6.8 years), the prevalence of demoralization was 13.3%, 95% confidence interval = 6.9–24.2%. Although there was overlap between demoralization and depression (10% of the sample meeting criteria for both), 54% of depressed subjects were not demoralized, and 25% of demoralized subjects were not depressed. Demoralization correlated with psychological factors, but demoralized subjects did not have significantly higher total tremor scores, tremor disability scores, or years with tremor.
Demoralization has a prevalence of 13.3% in ET, similar to that in other chronic or terminal illnesses (eg, cancer 13–18%, Parkinson’s disease 18.1%, coronary heart disease 20%). Demoralization was not a function of increased tremor severity, suggesting that it is a separable construct, which could dictate how a patient copes with his/her disease. These data further our understanding of the psychological and psychosocial correlates of ET.
Rates of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms are surpassing those of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in nursing homes (NHs).
To characterize the incidence and duration of carriage of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (CipREc) in NHs and identify those in the O25b-ST131 lineage.
We collected 227 CipREc isolates obtained by routine and regular surveillance of high-risk NH residents with indwelling devices. Repetitive element palindromic (REP)–polymerase chain reaction assay and multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification for O25b-ST131 E. coli detection were performed using (GTG)5-primers and O25pabBspe and trpA2 primer pairs, respectively.
We found a high period prevalence of CipREc colonization (21.5%), high rates of recolonization with the same strain following clearing (0.46 recolonizations/ person/ year), and an acquisition incidence of 1.05 cases/1,000 person-days. Almost three-quarters of colonized residents carried strains in the O25b-ST131 E. coli lineage. Compared with isolates not in the lineage, O25b-ST131 isolates were carried significantly longer (10 vs 3 months). We identified 18 different REP-types; 2 occurred in 55% of the residents colonized with CipREc, and in more than 1 NH. Duration of CipREc carriage varied by REP-type and averaged 6 months.
CipREc occurred frequently in NH residents and is carried for long durations, and reacquisition following clearance is common
Panendoscopy is routinely used for the identification of occult second primary tumours in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, its role in low risk subgroups, particularly non-smoking, non-drinking patients and patients presenting with early stage oral cavity lesions, is debatable.
The records of 112 patients with T1 or T2 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, disease characteristics and survival data were collected.
Average follow-up duration was 71.7 months (range, 3.6–238.3 months). Thirty-five patients died within this period. Thirteen second primary events were identified in 11 patients, with all but 2 tumours in the oral cavity or oropharynx. There was a single synchronous primary – a lung adenocarcinoma; all other events were metachronous. No non-smoking, non-drinking patients re-presented with a second primary tumour; tobacco and alcohol use are clearly risk factors for development of a second primary tumour.
The role of panendoscopy for identifying synchronous primary tumours in patients with early stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma should be re-evaluated, particularly in non-smoking, non-drinking patients who are at low risk of second primary development. Close follow up with regular clinical examination including flexible fibre-optic endoscopy may be sufficient in this subgroup.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Predicting which chronic rhinosinusitis patients have nasal obstruction due to reversible mucosal inflammation could prevent unnecessary surgery.
To investigate whether the change in nasal peak inspiratory flow following maximal decongestion (i.e. mucosal reversibility) at first visit predicts the response to topical steroids in chronic rhinosinusitis patients, as measured by the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test.
Prospective study of 128 consecutive new adult patients presenting with nasal obstruction due to chronic rhinosinusitis (January 2008 to July 2010). The 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test questionnaire was administered and the nasal peak inspiratory flow assessed. Following maximal nasal decongestion, the nasal peak inspiratory flow was again tested and the difference calculated. Topical steroids were administered for at least six weeks. The 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test was then repeated and the difference calculated.
Data were analysed using means and correlation studies (Spearman's rank correlation). There was no correlation between the pre- versus post-decongestion nasal peak inspiratory flow difference and the pre- versus post-steroid 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test difference, in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with or without nasal polyps.
The difference between pre- and post-decongestion nasal peak inspiratory flow does not predict chronic rhinosinusitis patients' response to topical steroids.
We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ≃ 200 of the most massive (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS field. We find that, while such massive galaxies at low redshift are generally bulge-dominated, at redshifts 1<z<2 they are predominantly mixed bulge+disk systems, and by z > 2 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25–40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.
Nearby galaxies come in two flavors: red quiescent galaxies (QGs) with old stellar populations, and blue young star-forming galaxies (SFGs). This color bimodality seems to be already in place at z = 2 − 3, presenting also strong correlations with size and morphology. Surprisingly, massive QGs at higher redshifts are ~5 times smaller than local, equal mass analogs. In contrast, most of the massive SFGs at these redshifts are still relatively large disks. The strong bimodality in both SFR and sizes indicates that some SFGs must experience strong structural transformations accompanied by a rapid truncation of the star-formation to match the observed properties of QGs. Using high-resolution HST/WFC3 F160W imaging from the CANDELS survey in GOODS-S and UDS, along with multi-wavelength ancillary data, we analyze stellar masses, SFRs and sizes of a sample of massive (M* > 1010M⊙) galaxies at z = 1.4 − 3.0 to identify a population of compact SFGs with similar structural properties as compact QGs at z~2. We also find that the number density of QGs increases rapidly since z = 3. Among these, the number of compact QGs builds up first, and only at z < 1.8 we do start finding a sizable number of extended QGs. This suggests that the bulk of these galaxies are assembled at late times by both continuous migration (quenching) of non-compact SFGs and size growth of cQGs. As a result of this growth, the population of cQGs disappears by z~1. Simultaneously, we identify a population of compact SFGs (cSFGs) whose number density decreases steadily with time since z = 3.0, being almost completely absent at z < 1.4. The number of cSFGs makes up less than 20% of all massive SFGs, but they present similar number densities as cQGs down to z~2, suggesting an evolutionary link between the two populations.
In recent years infection caused by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4 has spread through Europe but has been uncommon in the USA. The first recognized outbreak of this strain in the USA occurred in a Chinese restaurant in El Paso, Texas, in April 1993; no source was identified. In September 1993, a second outbreak caused by SE phage type 4 was associated with the same restaurant. To determine the cause of the second outbreak, we compared food exposures of the 19 patients with that of two control groups. Egg rolls were the only item significantly associated with illness in both analyses (first control group: oddsratio [OR] 8·2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2·3–31·6; second control group: OR 13·1, 95% CI 2·1–97·0). Retrospective analysis of the April outbreak also implicated egg rolls (OR 32·4, 95% CI 9·1–126·6). Egg roll batter was made from pooled shell eggs and was left at room temperature throughout the day. These two outbreaks of SE phage type 4 likely could have been prevented by using pasteurized eggs and safe food preparation practices.
Epidemic cholera reached Guatemala in July 1991. By mid-1993, Guatemala ranked third in the hemisphere in reported cases of cholera. We conducted a case-control study with two age-, sex-, and neighbourhood-matched controls per patient in periurban Guatemala City. Twenty-six patients hospitalized for cholera and 52 controls were enrolled. Seven (47%) of 15 stool cultures obtained after admission yielded toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Ol. All seven were resistant to furazolidone, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin, and differed substantially by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from the Latin American epidemic strain dominant in the hemisphere since 1991. In univariate analysis, illness was associated with consumption of left-over rice (odds ratio [OR] = 7·0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1·4–36), flavored ices (‘helados’) (OR = 3·6, CI = 1·1–12), and street-vended non-carbonated beverages (OR = 3·8, CI = 1·2–12) and food items (OR = 11·0, CI = 2·3–54). Street-vended food items remained significantly associated with illness in multivariate analysis (OR = 6·5, CI = 1·4–31). Illness was not associated with drinking municipal tap water. Maintaining water safety is important, but slowing the epidemic in Guatemala City and elsewhere may also require improvement in street vendor food handling and hygiene.
In this paper, we have reported the fabrication and characterization of nanowire electromechanical switches consisting of chemical-vapor-deposition grown silicon nanowires suspended over metal electrodes. The devices operate as transistors with the suspended part of the nanowire bent to touch metal electrode via electromechanical force by applying voltage. The reversible switching, large on/off current ratio, small subthreshold slope and low switching energy compared to current CMOSFET make the switches very attractive for logic device application. In addition, we have developed a physical model to investigate the switching characteristics and extract the material properties.
2002–2005 has seen rapid progress in cosmology with the publication of the 1st year WMAP results and analyses of large scale red-shift surveys, ushering in an era of “precision cosmology”. There has been steady progress, too, in the discovery and study of quasars and galaxies in the early Universe.
A method providing estimation of the trap density at metal/ferroelectric interfaces of a depleted ferroelectric film located between back-to-back Schottky barriers has been developed. The method is based on the recharge of interface traps induced by external bias pulse applied to the metal/ferroelectric/metal structure. It is shown that the transient current under bias pulse can be controlled by the traps recharge on the reverse-biased interface. Using the method, the trap charge density on interfaces of MOCVD Pt/PZT/Ir(Ti/SiO2/Si) and Ir/PZT/Ir(Ti/SiO2/Si) capacitors were found from transient current measurements.
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were displaced on low-friction graphite surfaces in an easily
controlled fashion by moving a voltage-applied tip of an atomic
force microscope (AFM) across them. MWNTs on Si (5 5 12) surfaces
were not displaced using the same electrostatic parameters. The
friction at a Si (5 5 12) surface was measured to be 29 times
larger than that of a graphite surface. We found that the
electrostatic force applied to the MWNT was larger than the
frictional force between the MWNT and the graphite surface, but
much smaller than the frictional force on the Si (5 5 12) surface,
allowing us to conclude that the electrostatic force may be
responsible for the displacement of the MWNT on the graphite
Thin-film uniform metal-ferroelectric-metal (M/F/M) structure between back-to-back Schottky barriers (SBs) is considered. The ferroelectric is assumed to be a p-type semiconductor, and the film thickness is far less than the depletion layer induced by the S.B. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation is used to analyze the influence of double Shottky barriers on the distributions of the electric field, potential, and polarization across the film thickness as functions of external bias and the film electrical history. The range of structure parameters is determined, where the Poisson equation for M/F/M structure can be solved analytically providing an obvious and easy-to-interpret representation of the M/F/M behavior. Electric fields induced by back-to-back SBs under zero external bias compensate each other to a great extent. As a result, the potential across the ferroelectric film remains virtually unchanged providing the flat-band condition in the energy diagram of zero-biased M/F/M structure; in fact, the external bias applied to M/F/M structure exerts influence only on the reverse-biased barrier.