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Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) contribute to the perturbation of solar wind in the heliosphere. Thus, depending on the different phases of the solar cycle and the rate of CME occurrence, contribution of CMEs to solar wind parameters near the Earth changes. In the present study, we examine the long term occurrence rate of CMEs, their speeds, angular widths and masses. We attempt to find correlation between near sun parameters of the CMEs with near the Earth measurements. Importantly, we attempt to find what fraction of the averaged solar wind mass near the Earth is provided by the CMEs during different phases of the solar cycles.
We have studied three Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) having clear signatures of magnetic cloud (MC) arrival at 1 AU and their associated solar sources during 2011 to 2013. Comparing the axial magnetic field strength (B0) of the near-Sun coronal flux-ropes with that of the MC at 1 AU, we have found that the average inferred value of B0 at 1 AU assuming the self-similar expansion of the flux-rope is two times smaller than the value of B0 obtained from the results of MC fitting. Furthermore, by comparing the initial orientation of the flux-rope near the Sun and its final orientation at 1 AU we have found that the three CMEs exhibited more than 80° rotation during its propagation through the interplanetary medium. Our study suggests that although the near-Sun magnetic properties of coronal flux-ropes can be used to infer the field strength of the associated MC at 1 AU, it is difficult to estimate the final orientation of the MC axis in order to predict the geo-effectiveness of the ICMEs.
Generally Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun into interplanetary space. CMEs are most frequently associated with a variety of phenomena occurring in the lower corona before, during and after onset of eruption and generally are visible in coronagraph observation. Stealth CMEs do not obviously exhibit any of the low-coronal signatures (LCS) like solar flares, flows, jets, coronal dimmings or brightenings, filament eruptions or the formation of flare loop arcades. In this study, five stealth CMEs are selected using LASCO/SOHO CME catalogue and associated ICMEs (Interplanetaty CMEs) are identified using data from STEREO, ACE and WIND.
We have used the Coronagraphic and Heliospheric Imaging data from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) to observe a prominence which is erupted on June 7th 2011. This prominence is subjected to the morphological evolution of MRT instability from the lower solar corona upto the inter-planetary space. The unstable structures are converted into the bunch of localized plasma spikes due to the turbulent mixing, and propagate in the inter-planetary space upto 1 A.U.
Using HINODE/XRT, GOES, SDO/AIA observations, we study a compact C-1.4 class flare outside a major sunspot of AR 12178 on 4 October 2014. This flare is associated with a peculiar coronal jet, which is erupted in two stages in the overlying corona above the compact flaring region. At the time of flare maximum, the first stage of the jet eruption occurs above the flare energy release site, and thereafter in the second stage its magneto-plasma system interacts with the overlying distinct magnetic field domain in its vicinity to build further the typical jet plasma column.
It has been established that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) may have significant impact on terrestrial magnetic field and lead to space weather events. In the present study, we selected several CMEs which are associated with filament eruptions on the Sun. We attempt to identify the presence of filament material within ICME at 1AU. We discuss how different ICMEs associated with filaments lead to moderate or major geomagnetic activity on their arrival at the Earth. Our study also highlights the difficulties in identifying the filament material at 1AU within isolated and in interacting CMEs.
Starting as a crisis of sub-prime mortgages in the United States, the US financial crisis became intertwined with a global economic crisis during 2007–09. All major economies were adversely affected. While some countries went into deep recession, others escaped with limited erosion in their growth rates. But the crisis also accelerated the pace at which a new world economic order is emerging, the centerpiece of which is a group now referred to as the G20 group. Together the G20 economies comprise about 90 per cent of global gross national product, 80 per cent of world trade (including EU intratrade) and two-thirds of the world population. The epicentre of the world economic power, which had until recently been concentrated in the hands of the G-7 economies, is now more wide spread with considerable economic power slowly shifting to emerging economies like China and India.
In this paper, the author looks at the effects of the global crisis as it affected the G20 members with special reference to India. The global crisis also witnessed a weakening of the efforts regarding international burden sharing for a long-felt need for support for achieving both the MDG goals and international climate change related efforts. He also examines both conventional and innovative methods of financing the international effort for achieving the MDG objectives and the approach that India may develop in this context as part of the G20 group.
This chapter is divided into several sections. The following section looks at the position of the G20 economies as they emerge out of the global crisis. The next section examines the Indian economy as it faced and emerged out of the crisis. Next the author looks at the position of the G20 economies in the context of international burden sharing in the post-crisis world.
Effect of Gd substitution at Y-site on the structural and magnetic properties of Y1-xGdxMnO3 (x=0, 0.05) nanoparticles prepared by conventional solid state reaction method has been studied. The structural study using X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal structure with P63cm space group for all the samples. The average particle size for all the samples lies in the range of 30-40 nm as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The change in a and c lattice parameters confirm the substitution of Gd at Y-site. Magnetization versus temperature measurements show enhanced magnetic moment and an increase in Neel temperature with Gd-doping. Spin glass behavior is observed at low temperature in all the samples. Exchange bias effect has been observed at 5 K after field cooling the samples which is ascribed to the formation of antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. A significant improvement in the dielectric properties of Gd-doped samples has also been observed.
We report observations of a long filament that underwent recurrent partial eruptions on August 4, 6, and 8, 2012. The filament reappeared in the subsequent rotation of the Sun, and disappeared completely on August 31, 2012. We implemented an automated filament detection algorithm developed by us for estimating different attributes of these filaments few hours prior to its disappearance in Hα and studied their evolution. Based on these attributes, we determine the onset time of the disappearance of Hα filaments. We then compared these onset times with that of the associated CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO coronagraphs. This is also useful to understand temporal relationship of EUV and X-ray flux variation associated with filament disappearances in Hα. Our results show the importance of such studies in understanding the mechanism of CME initiation, particularly the role of eruptive filaments, in this process.
Botrytis grey mould (BGM), caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., is an important disease of chickpea causing economic losses across the world in chickpea-growing regions. There are no available resistance sources in cultivated chickpea against this disease. Cicer echinospermum and C. reticulatum, the only two compatible annual wild species, have been reported to have resistance to BGM. Hence, interspecific populations were developed with susceptible cultivars as female parents and C. echinospermum accession IG 73 074 and C. reticulatum accession IG 72 937 as the pollen donors to transfer and assess the nature of genetic control for BGM. Screening the progeny indicated that resistance to BGM was controlled by a single additive gene/allele (bgmr1cr and bgmr1ce), which can be introgressed through a backcross breeding programme.
Central to the idea of metamaterials is the concept of dynamic homogenization which seeks to define frequency dependent effective properties for Bloch wave propagation. Recent advances in the theory of dynamic homogenization have established the coupled form of the constitutive relation (Willis constitutive relation). This coupled form of the constitutive relation naturally emerges from ensemble averaging of the dynamic fields and automatically satisfies the dispersion relation in the case of periodic composites. Its importance is also notable due to its invariance under transformational acoustics. Here we discuss the explicit form of the effective dynamic constitutive equations. We elaborate upon the existence and emergence of coupling in the dynamic constitutive relation and further symmetries of the effective tensors.
In the present study, we report the enhancement in figure-of-merit (ZT) of nanostructured n-type Silicon-Germanium (Si80Ge20) thermoelectric alloy synthesized using high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). After 90 h of ball milling of elemental powders of Si, Ge and P (2 at.%), a complete dissolution of Ge in Si matrix has been observed forming the nanostructured n-type Si80Ge20 alloy powder. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the crystallite size of the host matrix (Si) to be ∼7 nm and also indicated the formation of an additional phase of SiP nano-precipitates after SPS. HR-TEM analysis revealed that the nano-grained network was retained post-sintering with a crystallite size of size of 9 nm and also confirmed the SiP precipitates formation with a size of 4 to 6 nm. As a result, a very low thermal conductivity of ∼2.3W/mK at 900°C has been observed for Si80Ge20 alloy primarily due to scattering of phonons by nanostructured grains and nano-scaled SiP precipitates which further contribute to this scattering mechanism. Electrical conductivity values of SiGe sintered alloy are slightly lower to that of reported values in literature. This was attributed to the formation of SiP which creates a compositional difference between the grain boundary region and the grain region, leading to a chemical potential difference at interface and the grain region. Figure-of-merit (ZT) of n-type Si80Ge20 nanostructured alloy was found to be ≈1.5 at 900°C, which is the highest reported so far at this temperature.
Nanoscale superlattice-like (SLL) dielectric was employed to reduce the power consumption of the Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this study, we have simulated and found that the cells with the SLL dielectric have a higher peak temperature compared to that of the cells with the SiO2 dielectric after constant pulse activation, due to the interface scattering mechanism. Scaling of the SLL dielectric has resulted in higher peak temperatures, which can be even higher after material/structural modifications. Furthermore, the SLL dielectric has good material properties that enable the cells to have high endurance. This shows the effectiveness of the SLL dielectric for advanced memory applications.
The characteristics of heterojunction diode pSe-nMoSe2
fabricated from thermally evaporated p-Se films on n-type Molybdenum
diselenide (MoSe2) grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique
have been examined by using current-voltage measurements. To investigate the
dark current transport mechanism in pSe-nMoSe2 heterojunctions the
current-voltage characteristics were measured in the temperature range
100–300 K. The prepared diode shows a rectification ratio of the order of
103 within the range –2 to 2 V. A multi-step tunnelling model was used
to analyze the I-V-T characteristics of the prepared device. The activation
energy determined from the saturation current was about 1.16 eV.
This paper reports structural, morphological, optical and humidity sensing characteristics of pulsed laser deposited ZnO film. The XRD pattern reveals amorphous structure of the film. Scanning electron micrograph indicates formation of ZnO rods in micron size. Transmission increases gradually in the UV-VIS region. For studying the humidity sensing characteristics of the film, base of a right angled isosceles glass prism has been coated. Chopped light from a polarized He-Ne laser incident on the entry face of the prism gets reflected from the base – film – humid air interfaces and then emergent light is collected by the detector placed in front of the exit face of the prism. The least change in relative humidity which could be measured using the present configuration is 1.06RH%. Further the film is annealed at 400°C for four hours and its humidity sensing behavior is investigated in the similar manner which now shows a reversed trend. The sensitivity to humidity has decreased and the least change which could be detected now is 1.16RH%.
There are two different views regarding the genesis of gibbsite in tropical acid soils: (1) direct weathering of primary Al-silicate minerals; and (2) transformation through clay mineral intermediates. We investigated the genesis of gibbsite in two representative Ultisols from northeastern India. Gibbsite in these Ultisols appears to be the remnant of earlier weathering products of aluminosilicate minerals formed in a neutral to alkaline pedochemical environment. The mere presence of gibbsite in these soils, therefore, does not indicate their advanced stage of weathering. The formation of typically rod-shaped and well-crystallized gibbsite in both the coarse and fine soil fractions in the presence of large amounts of 2:1 minerals indicates that the anti-gibbsite hypothesis may not be tenable in these tropical acid soils. A schematic model for the formation of gibbsite and kaolin in Ultisols is proposed.
Infection of groundnut by pathogens causing early and late leaf spot diseases is strongly affected by accumulated daily leaf wetness periods and, in the rainy season, temperature is unlikely to severely limit infection. Earlier work relating patterns of leaf wetness to infection, was used to define a daily Wetness Index (WI) which was compared with infection on inoculated plants exposed in the crop for periods of 7 d. Infection was only severe when the 7-d WI total exceeded a value of 2.3. The proportion of leaves with one or more lesions on the main stem was used to assess the amount of inoculum in the crop. When the proportion of diseased leaves exceeded 10% and the WI total exceeded the threshold, application of a fungicide was advised. Successive sprays were separated by at least 14 d and a maximum of three sprays were applied in the growing season. Field trials showed that three sprays gave limited benefit where the disease pressure was severe, but substantial increases in pod and haulm yield were possible with only one or two fungicide applications in locations with less disease pressure.
Circularly polarized x-ray radiation is attracting increasing interest as a tool for the characterization of the electronic, magnetic, and chiral properties of low-dimensional structures. Using circular light (with electric field vector parallel to the orbital plane), a dependence of the measured quantity by changing either the orientation of the light polarization or the magnetization is indicative of the existence of magnetic circular dichroism. It can be observed in x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), in which the photon energy is scanned through an absorption threshold exciting a core electron into an unoccupied valence state using circularly polarized light. Synchrotron radiation sources have made this technique possible. It can also be observed in photo-emission spectroscopy from core and valence levels. Here we focus on magnetic circular x-ray dichroism (MCXD) in XAS as an element-specific tool to investigate magnetic properties of ultrathin films in situ. The application of magneto-optical sum rules enables the determination of the orbital and spin magnetic moments per atom from XAS spectra, as well as the easy magnetization direction.
MCXD-based magnetometry in XAS is extensively used by measuring the L absorption edges of 3d-transition metals, where large intensity changes (up to 60%) of the L-edge white lines are observed upon reversal of either the sample magnetization or the light helicity. The high magnetic contrast obtained, combined with the elemental specificity of the technique, allows for the study of very dilute samples such as ultrathin films. We first concentrate on the selection rules governing MCXD in XAS.
High density plasma etching of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) and LaNiO3 (LNO) thin films was performed in two different plasma chemistries, Cl2/Ar and CH4/H2/Ar. While the latter chemistry produced extremely low etch rates (≤ 100 Å-min−1) under all conditions, the Cl2/Ar produced a smooth anisotropic pattern transfer. The etching was still strongly ion-assisted, but maximum removal rates of ∼900 Å min−1 for both materials were achieved with selectivities of ∼16 for BST and ∼7 for LNO over Si. A single layer of thick (∼7 μm) photoresist is an effective mask under these conditions.
In this paper we report the fabrication and characterization of Ag/(Ba,Sr)TiO3 /LaNiO3/LaAlO3 capacitors. All the films, including the top (silver) and bottom (LaNiO3) electrodes, were deposited using a pulsed laser deposition technique. The electrical and dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 capacitors were found to improve significantly by means of silver doping. For example, the leakage current density of a Ag/Ag-doped-(Ba,Sr)TiO3 /LaNiO3/ capacitor was about an order of magnitude lower and dielectric constant was ∼40 % higher than that of a Ag/(Ba,Sr)TiO3 /LaNiO3/capacitor over a range of biases. The improvement in the electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films is believed to be caused by a double role of silver. The first one is associated with the reduced oxygen vacancies due to improved oxygenation of BST films in presence of silver and the second one is associated unpinning effect of domain walls again in presence of silver.