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Agriculture in the Central Himalayan Region depends on the availability of suitable germplasm as well as natural conditions. Due to extreme weather conditions, food and nutrition security is a major issue for communities inhabiting these remote and inaccessible areas. Millets are common crops grown in these areas. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important crop and forms a considerable part of the diet in this region. The aim of the present study was to explore, collect, conserve and evaluate the untapped genetic diversity of foxtail millet at the molecular level and discover variability in their nutritional traits. A total of 30 accessions having unique traits of agronomic importance were collected and molecular profiling was performed. A total of 63 alleles were generated with an average of 2.52 alleles per locus and average expected heterozygosity of 0.37 ± 0.231. Significant genetic variability was revealed through the genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) values. Structure-based analysis divided whole germplasm into three sub-groups. Rich variability was found in nutritional traits such as dietary fibre in husked grains, carbohydrate, protein, lysine and thiamine content. The collected germplasm may be useful for developing nutritionally rich and agronomically beneficial varieties of foxtail millet and also designing strategies for utilization of unexploited genetic diversity for food and nutrition security in this and other similar agro-ecological regions.
Soybean is a leading oilseed crop in India, which contains about 40% of protein and 20% of oil. Core collection will accelerate the management and utilization of soybean genetic resources in breeding programmes. In the present study, eight agromorphological traits of 3443 soybean germplasm were analysed for the development of core collection using the principal component score (PCS) strategy and the power core method. The PCS strategy yielded core collection (CC1) of 576 accessions, which accounted for 16.72% of the entire collection (EC). The analysis based on the power core programme resulted in CC2 of 402 accessions, which accounted for 11.67% of the EC. Statistical analysis showed similar trends for the mean and range estimated in both core collections and EC. In addition, the variance, standard deviation and coefficient of variance were in general higher in core collections than in the EC. The correlations observed in the EC in general were preserved in core collections. A total of 311 and 137 unique accessions were found in CC1 and CC2 in addition to 265 accessions that were found to be common in both core collections. These 265 common accessions were the most diverse core sets, which accounted for 7.64% of the EC. We proposed to constitute an integrated core collection (ICC) by integrating both common and unique accessions. The ICC comprised 713 accessions, which accounted for about 20.62% of the EC. Statistical analysis indicated that the ICC captured maximum variation than CC1 and CC2. Therefore, the ICC can be extensively evaluated for a large number of economically important traits for the identification of desirable genotypes and for the development of mini core collection in soybean.
Some of the significant steps in technological development for large-scale commercialization of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based multijunction photovoltaic modules are presented. These developments are establishing a high quality baseline process for manufacturing large-area ( ˜ 8 ft2) a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem junction modules with improved stabilized conversion efficiency, throughput, yield, and reduced materials usage.
Some of the significant steps in technological development for large-scale commercialization of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based multijunction photovoltaic modules are presented. These developments are establishing a high quality baseline process for manufacturing large-area ( ∼ 8 ft2) a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem junction modules with improved stabilized conversion efficiency, throughput, yield, and reduced materials usage.
Pulsed laser deposited cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoporous thin film on platinum (Pt) coated glass has been used for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) by electrostatic interaction. Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO2 thin film. Differential pulse voltammetric and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO2/Pt bioelectrode is sensitive to the detection of glucose over the concentration upto 300 mg/dl. A low value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant∼1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose.
To report cases of long-term surgical complications, implant failure and revision surgery, within a large bone-anchored hearing aid programme.
Retrospective, case–cohort study.
Tertiary referral centre.
One hundred and sixty-five adults and children who had undergone a total of 177 bone-anchored hearing aid implantations.
Diagnosis and explanation of adverse events and device failure.
Main outcome measures:
Operative complications and survival analysis, surgical challenges related to revisions, and causes of failure.
Twenty-one per cent of patients (3.4 per cent of those observed) suffered from skin reactions; this rate did not increase over time. Seventeen per cent had loss of osseointegration at a median interval of 6.3 months. Loss of osseointegration was observed more frequently in patients with a 3 mm compared with a 4 mm fixture (p < 0.001). Intra-operatively, the only complication was bleeding, occurring in 3 per cent of patients. Post-operative complications included: primary bleeding (2 per cent); severe skin reactions requiring intravenous antibiotics, cautery or grafting (8 per cent); thickening or overgrowth of skin requiring excision (8 per cent); failure of osseointegration requiring a new fixture (18 per cent); and graft necrosis requiring revision (1 per cent). In two patients, it was necessary to explore the area to remove overgrowth of bone. In 16 patients (10 per cent), the bone-anchored hearing aid had to be abandoned due to failure of osseointegration (n = 4), dissatisfaction with the aid (n = 6), intolerable pain (n = 4), hair growth around the abutment (n = 1) or recurrent infections (n = 1). In 12 of these patients, the bone-anchored hearing aid was removed surgically. Overall, 57 patients (34 per cent) underwent revision surgery.
Awareness of complications is becoming increasingly important in bone-anchored hearing aid programme. A substantial workload of device maintenance should be anticipated, and patients should be appropriately counselled beforehand. Ninety per cent of our patients chose to persevere with this form of hearing rehabilitation.
Dizziness is a common and often complex complaint. Between nine and 13 per cent of patients seen in general practice are referred to a variety of specialist clinics. The diagnoses and outcomes of these referrals are seldom reported.
To determine the proportion of patients referred to an otology led vertigo clinic in whom an otological cause for vertigo could be identified.
Design of study:
Prospective cohort study of consecutive new clinic attendees over one year.
Setting and methods:
Otology led vertigo clinic in an urban teaching hospital in England. Patients' details including age, sex, referring clinician, investigations, diagnoses, treatment and final outcome were recorded in an anonymised database.
91 new patients, 31 men and 60 women with a mean age of 52.6 years (range 16–81) were seen. General practitioners referred 87 per cent of the patients. Twenty-seven patients underwent further investigations including imaging, electronystagmography and other audiological tests. A labyrinthine disorder accounted for 50 per cent of the diagnoses. Ménière's disease or a variant was diagnosed in 20 patients (21 per cent). Fifty-six patients (61 per cent) reported resolution of or improvement in their symptoms. Thirty-one patients (34 per cent) were asymptomatic and free of abnormal findings on initial attendance and were discharged from hospital care.
Forty-six patients (50.6 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval, 40.4–60.6 per cent) had vertigo due to an otological disorder. The selection of an otolaryngology based vertigo clinic by the general practitioner for initial referral seems appropriate.
To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel® and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme).
Materials and methods:
A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. Inclusion criteria: in vivo human studies. Exclusion criteria: animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports. We also excluded other forms of ‘alternative medicine’ such as reflexology, acupuncture and other homeopathic remedies.
Lack of common outcome measures prevented a formal meta-analysis. Three studies on the effects of spirulina in allergy, rhinitis and immunomodulation were found. One was a double-blind, placebo, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of patients with allergic rhinitis, demonstrating positive effects in patients fed spirulina for 12 weeks. The other two studies, although non-randomised, also reported a positive role for spirulina in mucosal immunity. Regarding the use of Ginkgo biloba in tinnitus, a Cochrane review published in 2004 showed no evidence for this. The one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that followed confirmed this finding. Regarding the use of Vertigoheel in vertigo, two double-blind RCTs and a meta-analysis were identified. The first RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was equally effective in reducing the severity, duration and frequency of vertigo compared with betahistine. The second RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was a suitable alternative to G biloba in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related vertigo. A meta-analysis of only four clinical trials confirms that Vertigoheel was equally effective compared with betahistine, G biloba and dimenhydrinate. Regarding multivitamins and sinusitis, two small paediatric pilot studies reported a positive response for chronic sinusitis and otitis media following a course of multivitamins and cod liver oil. Regarding bromelain (pineapple enzyme) and sinusitis, one randomised, multicentre trial including 116 children compared bromelain monotherapy to bromelain with standard therapy and standard therapy alone, for the treatment of acute sinusitis. The bromelain monotherapy group showed a faster recovery compared with the other groups.
The positive effects of spirulina in allergic rhinitis and of Vertigoheel in vertigo are based on good levels of evidence, but larger trials are required. There is overwhelming evidence that G biloba may play no role in tinnitus. There is limited evidence for the use of multivitamins in sinus symptoms, and larger randomised trials are required.
With the advent of new multijunction thin film solar cells, amorphous silicon photovoltaic technology is undergoing a commercial revival with about 30 megawatts of annual capacity coming on-line in the next year. These new a−Si multijunction modules should exhibit stabilized conversion efficiencies on the order of 8%, and efficiencies over 10% may be obtained in the next several years. The improved performance results from the development of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon alloy films with improved optoelectronic properties and from the development of more efficient device structures. Moreover, the manufacturing costs for these multijunction modules using the new large-scale plants should be on the order of $1 per peak watt. These modules may find widespread use in solar farms, photovoltaic roofing, as well as in traditional remote applications.