To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Social and economic changes associated with new roads can bring about rapid nutritional transitions. To study this process, we: 1) describe trends in adult overweight and obesity (OW/OB) among rural Afro-Ecuadorians over time and across a gradient of community remoteness from the nearest commercial center; 2) examine the relationship between male and female adult OW/OB and factors associated with market integration such as changing livelihoods; and, 3) examine the co-occurrence of adult OW/OB and under-five stunting and anemia.
Adult anthropometry was collected through serial case-control studies repeated over a decade across twenty-eight communities. At the same time, anthropometry and hemoglobin were measured for all children under five in every community.
Northern coastal Ecuador.
Adults (N=1665) and children under five (N=2618).
From 2003 and 2013, OW/OB increased from 25.1% to 44.8% among men and 59.9% to 70.2% among women. The inverse relationship between remoteness and OW/OB in men was attenuated when adjusting for urban employment, suggesting that livelihoods mediated the remoteness-OW/OB relationship. No such relationship was observed among women. Communities with a higher prevalence of male OW/OB also had a greater prevalence of stunting, but not anemia, in children under five.
The association between male OW/OB and child stunting at the community level, but not the household level, suggests that changing food environments, rather than household- or individual-level factors, drove these trends. A closer examination of changing socioeconomic structures and food environments in communities undergoing rapid development could help mitigate future public health burdens.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Antibiotic prescribing practices across the Veterans’ Health Administration (VA) experienced significant shifts during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. From 2015 to 2019, antibiotic use between January and May decreased from 638 to 602 days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 days present (DP), while the corresponding months in 2020 saw antibiotic utilization rise to 628 DOT per 1,000 DP.
The James Bond films starring Daniel Craig are amongst the most globally successful films of the twenty-first century. The transnational appeal of these films can only be partly explained by their textual attractions, such as the way they play out ideas of British identity. Much of their success depends on the business of Bond, from rights ownership to distribution. Focus group interviews with audiences in continental Europe also reveal an ambivalence about whether the Bond character and the Bond films are perceived as British or American. This ambivalence extends the appeal of the films to different audiences. This chapter therefore provides new insights into Bond's enduring transnational appeal.
Keywords: James Bond, audience research, British national identity, film distribution, film industry
James Bond may be a British agent, but the Bond film franchise is by any definition a global phenomenon. It is one of the longest running movie franchises, with 24 films dating back to the first release in 1962, and the second most lucrative franchise, amassing some $7 billion at box-offices around the world (The Numbers 2016a). According to the American Statistical Association, “20% of the world's population has seen at least one Bond film” (Young 2014).
The four most recent Bond films starring Daniel Craig as Agent 007—Casino Royale (UK/Czech Republic/USA/Germany/Bahamas: Martin Campbell 2006), Quantum of Solace (UK/USA: Marc Foster 2008), Skyfall (UK/USA: Sam Mendes 2012) and Spectre (UK/USA/Austria/Mexico/Italy/Morocco: Sam Mendes 2015)—continue the pattern of global success. Skyfall grossed $1.1 billion worldwide, making it the fifteenth most successful film of all time in terms of worldwide box office revenue (Box Office Mojo 2016a), and the most successful Bond film ever (The Numbers 2016b). Between them, the four Craig Bonds have taken over $3 billion at the worldwide box office, with all of them in the 125 highest-grossing films of all time (Box Office Mojo 2016a).
The Craig Bond films were conceived as a “reboot” of the Bond film franchise. Casino Royale is set at the beginning of Bond's career as Agent 007, and the story arc continues across Quantum of Solace, Skyfall and Spectre.
Agricultural intensification within forage systems has reduced grassland floral diversity by promoting ryegrass (Lolium spp.), damaging soil functionality which underpins critical ecosystem services. Diverse forage mixtures may enhance environmental benefits of pastures by decreasing nutrient leaching, increasing soil carbon storage, and with legume inclusion, reduce nitrogen fertilizer input. This UK study reports on how species-rich forage mixtures affect soil carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen at dry, medium and wet soil moisture sites, compared to ryegrass monoculture. Increasing forage mixture diversity (from 1 to 17 species) affected soil carbon at the dry site. No effect of forage mixture on soil phosphorus was found, while forage mixture and site did interact to affect soil nitrate/nitrite availability. Results suggest that forage mixtures could be used to improve soil function, but longer-term studies are needed to conclusively demonstrate environmental and production benefits of high-diversity forages.
There are sparse data on the outcomes of endoscopic stapling of pharyngeal pouches. The Mersey ENT Trainee Collaborative compared regional practice against published benchmarks.
A 10-year retrospective analysis of endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery was conducted and practice was assessed against eight standards. Comparisons were made between results from the tertiary centre and other sites.
A total of 225 procedures were performed (range of 1.2–9.2 cases per centre per year). All centres achieved 90 per cent resumption of oral intake within 2 days. All centres achieved less than 2-day hospital stays. Primary success (84 per cent (i.e. abandonment of endoscopic stapling in 16 per cent)), symptom resolution (83 per cent) and recurrence rates (13 per cent) failed to meet the standard across the non-tertiary centres.
Endoscopic pharyngeal pouch stapling is a procedure with a low mortality and brief in-patient stay. There was significant variance in outcomes across the region. This raises the question of whether this service should become centralised and the preserve of either tertiary centres or sub-specialist practitioners.
The EAT–Lancet Commission promulgated a universal reference diet. Subsequently, researchers constructed an EAT–Lancet diet score (0–14 points), with minimum intake values for various dietary components set at 0 g/d, and reported inverse associations with risks of major health outcomes in a high-income population. We assessed associations between EAT–Lancet diet scores, without or with lower bound values, and the mean probability of micronutrient adequacy (MPA) among nutrition-insecure women of reproductive age (WRA) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We analysed single 24-h diet recall data (n 1950) from studies in rural DRC, Ecuador, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Associations between EAT–Lancet diet scores and MPA were assessed by fitting linear mixed-effects models. Mean EAT–Lancet diet scores were 8·8 (SD 1·3) and 1·9 (SD 1·1) without or with minimum intake values, respectively. Pooled MPA was 0·58 (SD 0·22) and energy intake was 10·5 (SD 4·6) MJ/d. A one-point increase in the EAT–Lancet diet score, without minimum intake values, was associated with a 2·6 (SD 0·7) percentage points decrease in MPA (P < 0·001). In contrast, the EAT–Lancet diet score, with minimum intake values, was associated with a 2·4 (SD 1·3) percentage points increase in MPA (P = 0·07). Further analysis indicated positive associations between EAT–Lancet diet scores and MPA adjusted for energy intake (P < 0·05). Our findings indicate that the EAT–Lancet diet score requires minimum intake values for nutrient-dense dietary components to avoid positively scoring non-consumption of food groups and subsequently predicting lower MPA of diets, when applied to rural WRA in LMIC.
A survey of Veterans’ Affairs Medical Centers on control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenem-producing CRE (CP-CRE) demonstrated that most facilities use VA guidelines but few screen for CRE/CP-CRE colonization regularly or regularly communicate CRE/CP-CRE status at patient transfer. Most respondents were knowledgeable about CRE guidelines but cited lack of adequate resources.
Most oviposition by Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) occurs near the top of the canopy in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr, and larval abundance is influenced by the growth habit of plants. However, the vertical distribution of larvae within the canopy is not as well known. We evaluated the vertical distribution of H. zea larvae in determinate and indeterminate varieties, hypothesizing that larval distribution in the canopy would vary between these two growth habits and over time. We tested this hypothesis in a naturally infested replicated field experiment and two experimentally manipulated cage experiments. In the field experiment, flowering time was synchronized between the varieties by manipulating planting date, while infestation timing was manipulated in the cage experiments. Larvae were recovered using destructive sampling of individual soybean plants, and their vertical distribution by instar was recorded from three sampling points over time in each experiment. While larval population growth and development varied between the determinate and indeterminate varieties within and among experiments, we found little evidence that larvae have preference for different vertical locations in the canopy. This study lends support to the hypothesis that larval movement and location within soybean canopies do not result entirely from oviposition location and nutritional requirements.
This paper discusses the evidence for periodic human activity in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland from the late 9th millennium to the early 4th millennium cal bc. While contemporary paradigms for Mesolithic Europe acknowledge the significance of upland environments, the archaeological record for these areas is not yet as robust as that for the lowland zone. Results of excavation at Chest of Dee, along the headwaters of the River Dee, are set into a wider context with previously published excavations in the area. A variety of site types evidences a sophisticated relationship between people and a dynamic landscape through a period of changing climate. Archaeological benefits of the project include the ability to examine novel aspects of the archaeology leading to a more comprehensive understanding of Mesolithic lifeways. It also offers important lessons in site survival, archaeological investigation, and the management of the upland zone.
To determine the association between livestock ownership and Hb concentration of women of child-bearing age (WCBA) and preschool-aged children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
A prospective analysis of publicly available cross-sectional data, using linear and logistic regressions controlling for potential confounders.
Twenty-eight countries in SSA.
162 305 WCBA and 118 607 children aged 6–59 months.
More than half of WCBA (62·5 %) and children (58 %) belonged to households that owned livestock. The average altitude-adjusted blood Hb concentration for WCBA and children was 12.23 and 10·24 g/dL, respectively. In adjusted models, higher number of livestock owned was associated with lower Hb concentration for children but not for WCBA. The magnitude of the association for children was small, with one additional unit of livestock owned reducing Hb concentration by 0·001 g/dL. Higher numbers of cattle, cows and bulls, sheep, and goats were associated with lower Hb concentration for both groups. The number of certain categories of livestock owned was associated with the consumption of relevant foods by children. There was no association between the consumption of animal-source foods and Hb concentration or between livestock ownership and diarrhoeal diseases or fever among children.
Livestock ownership in SSA had a net negative association with the Hb concentration of children and no association with that of WCBA. The results highlight the need for research aimed at clarifying the mechanisms linking livestock ownership and nutritional status, and identifying entry points for leveraging livestock ownership to improve the health of women and children in SSA.
A new high time resolution observing mode for the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is described, enabling full polarimetric observations with up to
MHz of bandwidth and a time resolution of
s. This mode makes use of a polyphase synthesis filter to ‘undo’ the polyphase analysis filter stage of the standard MWA’s Voltage Capture System observing mode. Sources of potential error in the reconstruction of the high time resolution data are identified and quantified, with the
loss induced by the back-to-back system not exceeding
dB for typical noise-dominated samples. The system is further verified by observing three pulsars with known structure on microsecond timescales.
On coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid was frequently detected on high-touch surfaces, floors, and socks inside patient rooms. Contamination of floors and shoes was common outside patient rooms on the COVID-19 wards but decreased after improvements in floor cleaning and disinfection were implemented.
The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasite that infected the population of Brussels during the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and determine if there was notable variation between different households within the city. We compared multiple sediment layers from cesspits beneath three different latrines dating from the 14th–17th centuries. Helminths and protozoa were detected using microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified Ascaris sp., Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia duodenalis, Taenia sp. and Trichuris sp. in Medieval samples, and continuing presence of Ascaris sp., D. dendriticum, F. hepatica, G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. into the Renaissance. While some variation existed between households, there was a broadly consistent pattern with the domination of species spread by fecal contamination of food and drink (whipworm, roundworm and protozoa that cause dysentery). These data allow us to explore diet and hygiene, together with routes for the spread of fecal–oral parasites. Key factors explaining our findings are manuring practices with human excrement in market gardens, and flooding of the polluted River Senne during the 14th–17th centuries.
The effectiveness of Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) is strongly related to their time of arrival, and usually only few teams arrive within 24-48 h postdisaster. The decision to deploy and the scale of deployment rely heavily on context and nature of the event and consequently a rapid assessment of needs/gaps is critical to an appropriate and customized response.
In this study, we describe a desk-based study that provides: (1) knowledge about the medical needs that can be anticipated according to the phases of the disaster that is not rich in literature; and (2) a decision support framework for the deployment of EMTs to earthquakes that combines the results of a literature research and a Delphi study involving the opinion of 12 experts in the field.
The resulting framework is a tool that will help better mapping the configuration to the needs on the ground at the time the team becomes operational in the field and will assist those responsible for deploying and/or accepting EMTs in making informed decisions on deployment after an earthquake.
With additional research the framework approach may be adapted to other types of international relief such as to deploy a Search And Rescue (SAR) team.
During engineering design, designers employ three types of model: physical, virtual and cognitive. The role and contribution of each is documented in literature albeit fragmented in nature. Consequentially, a gap in understanding exists in terms of how these models and the transitions between them impact the designer and design process. This paper begins to address this through a characterisation of each model class and an appraisal of the transitional pathways including their alignment to seminal design frameworks.
The capacity of building services in many hospitals exceeds the requirements by significant amounts. Oversizing of building services has a direct impact on building efficiency and operational costs, ultimately impacting upon patient care, by diverting much needed funding. A key factor leading to the oversizing is the excessive and uncoordinated application of design margins across various project stages. Based on a hospital case study, this paper analyses the reasons for the overdesign of a replacement cooling system and raises the importance of managing margins activity to avoid overdesign.
An increasing number of patients are being prescribed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), while the patients who remain on warfarin are becoming more complex. There is currently a lack of a standardised anticoagulation review for patients in primary care, resulting in potentially preventable harm events. Our aim was to implement a new service, where a standardised review is carried out by a specialist multidisciplinary secondary care anticoagulation team. Overall, the implementation of a standardised review resulted in better optimisation of anticoagulation management for patients taking either a DOAC or a warfarin. Of the 172 eligible patients prescribed warfarin, 47 (27%) chose to switch a DOAC. The average time in therapeutic range for patients on warfarin before and after the pilot increased from 73.5% to 75%. Of 482 patients taking a DOAC, 35 (7%) were found to be on incorrect dose. In 32 (91%) of 35 patients, the dose was amended after notifying the patient’s general practitioner. We also found a significant number of patients inappropriately prescribed concomitant medication such as antiplatelet or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, potentially putting the patients at an elevated risk of bleeding. While further research is needed; we believe the results of this pilot can be used to help build a case to influence the commissioning of anticoagulation services. Secondary care anticoagulation teams, like our own, may be well-placed to provide or support such services, by working across the primary care and secondary care interface to support our primary care colleagues.
Mood disorders, i.e. major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorders, are leading sources of disability worldwide. Currently available treatments do not yield remission in approximately a third of patients with a mood disorder. This is in part because these treatments do not target a specific core pathology underlying these heterogeneous disorders. In recent years, abnormal inflammatory processes have been identified as putative pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment targets in mood disorders, particularly among individuals with treatment-resistant conditions.
In this selective review, we aimed to summarise recent advances in the field of immunopsychiatry, including emerging pathophysiological models and findings from treatment ttrials of immunomodulatory agents for both MDD and bipolar disorders.
We performed a literature review by searching Medline for clinical trials of immunomodulating agents as monotherapy or adjunctive treatments in MDD and bipolar disorders. Included studies are randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or cross-over trials of immunomodulating agents that had an active comparator or a placebo-arm.
Current evidence shows an association between inflammation and mood symptoms. However, there is conflicting evidence on whether this link is causal.
Future studies should focus on identifying specific neurobiological underpinnings for the putative causal association between an activated inflammatory response and mood disorders. Results of these studies are needed before further treatment trials of immunomodulatory agents can be justified.