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Oceanic islands are hotspots of biodiversity due to their high levels of endemism, with the Canary Islands being a notable example. A previous molecular study on the biogeography and host associations of haemogregarines (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) infecting lizards from this archipelago detected seven parasite haplogroups. These haplogroups exhibited high host-specificity and geographical structure, suggesting that they might correspond to distinct biological identities. In this study, along with sequencing a longer fragment of the 18S rRNA, we further explore the distinctiveness of these parasites by analysing their morphology, effects on host erythrocytes and parasitaemia levels. These lines of evidence together with their genetics, host associations, frequency of occurrence and geographical distribution support them as different biological entities. As such, we describe seven new species: Karyolysus canariensis sp. nov., Karyolysus galloti sp. nov., Karyolysus stehlini sp. nov., Karyolysus gomerensis sp. nov., Karyolysus atlanticus sp. nov., Karyolysus tinerfensis sp. nov. and Karyolysus makariogeckonis sp. nov. These new taxa are further examples of endemic diversity in the Canarian archipelago. They also contribute to clarify the taxonomy within the Apicomplexa, a phylum estimated to have one of the lowest percentages of described species.
A robust biomedical informatics infrastructure is essential for academic health centers engaged in translational research. There are no templates for what such an infrastructure encompasses or how it is funded. An informatics workgroup within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards network conducted an analysis to identify the scope, governance, and funding of this infrastructure. After we identified the essential components of an informatics infrastructure, we surveyed informatics leaders at network institutions about the governance and sustainability of the different components. Results from 42 survey respondents showed significant variations in governance and sustainability; however, some trends also emerged. Core informatics components such as electronic data capture systems, electronic health records data repositories, and related tools had mixed models of funding including, fee-for-service, extramural grants, and institutional support. Several key components such as regulatory systems (e.g., electronic Institutional Review Board [IRB] systems, grants, and contracts), security systems, data warehouses, and clinical trials management systems were overwhelmingly supported as institutional infrastructure. The findings highlighted in this report are worth noting for academic health centers and funding agencies involved in planning current and future informatics infrastructure, which provides the foundation for a robust, data-driven clinical and translational research program.
We summarize B,V imagery results from the CTIO 4-m telescope and two electronic detectors: (1) The SIT vidicon at the R-C focus yielded pixels in the 0.82 or 1.1 arcmin2 frames (Harris, Hesser and Atwood 1983). (2) KPNO's P-F CCD (used by McClure and Hesser) gave 0.6 pixels in 3×5′ fields. (The latter data are being analyzed in cooperation with Stryker and Nemec, who observed some of the same objects.) Zero points for the CCD data are set by observations of E region standards and of giants in Galactic star clusters.
Understanding the processes that shape parasite diversification, their distribution and abundance provides valuable information on the dynamics and evolution of disease. In this study, we assessed the diversity, distribution, host-specificity and infection patterns of apicomplexan parasites in amphibians and reptiles from Oman, Arabia. Using a quantitative PCR approach we detected three apicomplexan parasites (haemogregarines, lankesterellids and sarcocystids). A total of 13 haemogregarine haplotypes were identified, which fell into four main clades in a phylogenetic framework. Phylogenetic analysis of six new lankesterellid haplotypes revealed that these parasites were distinct from, but phylogenetically related to, known Lankesterella species and might represent new taxa. The percentage of infected hosts (prevalence) and the number of haemogregarines in the blood (parasitaemia) varied significantly between gecko species. We also found significant differences in parasitaemia between haemogregarine parasite lineages (defined by phylogenetic clustering of haplotypes), suggesting differences in host–parasite compatibility between these lineages. For Pristurus rupestris, we found significant differences in haemogregarine prevalence between geographical areas. Our results suggest that host ecology and host relatedness may influence haemogregarine distributions and, more generally, highlight the importance of screening wild hosts from remote regions to provide new insights into parasite diversity.
We report new results from a program which is aimed at obtaining deep CCD photometry for a sample of relatively nearby globular clusters having a wide range of metallicities. The CCD cameras on the CFHT 3.6 m, CTIO 4 m and KPNO 4 m telescopes have been used over the past 4 years to obtain deep exposures in regions of a number of clusters. In order to avoid the severest crowding, all of our observations have been obtained at distances of greater than ~ 5 core radii from the cluster centers. The images have been analysed by using the DAOPHOT point-spread-function fitting routines.
Studies of globular clusters in spiral galaxies are still available for only a few galaxies with a limited range of galactic types. We have identified (or set upper limits on) the cluster systems in several edge-on spirals ranging from the early-type spiral NGC 7814 to the late type NGC 5907. We discuss the properties of the cluster systems and their relationship to the properties of the parent galaxies.
This report uses 6-year outcomes of the Oregon Divorce Study to examine the processes by which parenting practices affect deviant peer association during two developmental stages: early to middle childhood and late childhood to early adolescence. The participants were 238 newly divorced mothers and their 5- to 8-year-old sons who were randomly assigned to Parent Management Training—Oregon Model (PMTO®) or to a no-treatment control group. Parenting practices, child delinquent behavior, and deviant peer association were repeatedly assessed from baseline to 6 years after baseline using multiple methods and informants. PMTO had a beneficial effect on parenting practices relative to the control group. Two stage models linking changes in parenting generated by PMTO to children's growth in deviant peer association were supported. During the early to middle childhood stage, the relationship of improved parenting practices on deviant peer association was moderated by family socioeconomic status (SES); effective parenting was particularly important in mitigating deviant peer association for lower SES families whose children experience higher densities of deviant peers in schools and neighborhoods. During late childhood and early adolescence, the relationship of improved parenting to youths' growth in deviant peer association was mediated by reductions in the growth of delinquency during childhood; higher levels of early delinquency are likely to promote deviant peer association through processes of selective affiliation and reciprocal deviancy training. The results are discussed in terms of multilevel developmental progressions of diminished parenting, child involvement in deviancy producing processes in peer groups, and increased variety and severity of antisocial behavior, all exacerbated by ecological risks associated with low family SES.
The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) is designed to perform an all-sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. It will create a rigid astrometric catalog of 4 × 107 stars with 5 < mV < 15. For bright stars, 5 < mV < 9, FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to < 50 μas, with proper motion errors < 50 μas/yr. For fainter stars, 9 < mV < 15, FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to < 500 μas, with proper motion errors < 500 μas/yr. It will also collect photometric data on these 4 × 107 stars in four Sloan Digital Sky Survey colors. NASA selected FAME to be one of five MIDEX missions funded for a concept study. In October 1999, NASA selected FAME for launch in 2004 as the MIDEX-4 mission in its Explorer program.
To determine whether use of contact precautions on hospital ward patients is associated with patient adverse events
Individually matched prospective cohort study
The University of Maryland Medical Center, a tertiary care hospital in Baltimore, Maryland
A total of 296 medical or surgical inpatients admitted to non–intensive care unit hospital wards were enrolled at admission from January to November 2010. Patients on contact precautions were individually matched by hospital unit after an initial 3-day length of stay to patients not on contact precautions. Adverse events were detected by physician chart review and categorized as noninfectious, preventable and severe noninfectious, and infectious adverse events during the patient’s stay using the standardized Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Global Trigger Tool.
The cohort of 148 patients on contact precautions at admission was matched with a cohort of 148 patients not on contact precautions. Of the total 296 subjects, 104 (35.1%) experienced at least 1 adverse event during their hospital stay. Contact precautions were associated with fewer noninfectious adverse events (rate ratio [RtR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.95; P=.02) and although not statistically significant, with fewer severe adverse events (RtR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.46–1.03; P=.07). Preventable adverse events did not significantly differ between patients on contact precautions and patients not on contact precautions (RtR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.59–1.24; P=.41).
Hospital ward patients on contact precautions were less likely to experience noninfectious adverse events during their hospital stay than patients not on contact precautions.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1268–1274
Here, we report reproducible and accurate measurement of crystallographic parameters using scanning transmission electron microscopy. This is made possible by removing drift and residual scan distortion. We demonstrate real-space lattice parameter measurements with <0.1% error for complex-layered chalcogenides Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and a Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanostructured alloy. Pairing the technique with atomic resolution spectroscopy, we connect local structure with chemistry and bonding. Combining these results with density functional theory, we show that the incorporation of Se into Bi2Te3 causes charge redistribution that anomalously increases the van der Waals gap between building blocks of the layered structure. The results show that atomic resolution imaging with electrons can accurately and robustly quantify crystallography at the nanoscale.
Cape Verde has a higher number of reptile taxa and endemics than any of the five archipelagos in the Macaronesian region. Mapping the precise distributions and assessing the conservation status of reptiles is the first step towards effective conservation. Presence/absence and abundance data were gathered from extensive fieldwork and post-1980 literature. Evaluation of conservation status was considered at specific and subspecific levels, following IUCN Red List criteria and using RAMAS. Fieldwork confirmed the occurrence of 34 of 37 previously recorded taxa (31 native, three exotic). One taxon continues to be considered Extinct. Three broad distribution and rarity patterns were identified: widespread and abundant taxa occurring on ≥ 2 islands/islets, widespread or abundant taxa restricted to one island, and rare or limited range taxa occurring on small areas of islands or islets. More than a third of taxa have areas of occupancy < 20 km2 and extents of occurrence < 100 km2. Geckos are rarer than skinks because of their high habitat specialization, with 58% occurring on only one island/islet. About half of all taxa are potentially threatened, twice the proportion of those in the Canary Islands, a difference that could be explained by the smaller area and greater aridity of the Cape Verde islands. The criterion used for most threat categorizations is geographical range, and the most pervasive threats are natural disasters, intrinsic factors of the species and introduced species. The importance of applying conservation status at the subspecific level to island endemics is emphasized. Several conservation measures are proposed, including optimized design of protected areas.
Dilute nitrogen GaInNAs is a new promising material as an active region for use in 1.3 and 1.55 μm opto-electronic devices. It has been commonly observed that increasing the nitrogen content generally reduces the optical emission intensity and increases laser threshold. However, some non-radiative recombination defects are removed from the material during a post-growth anneal. One drawback to the anneal is that nitrogen out-diffuses from the quantum wells and blue-shifts optical emission. Using a modified active region structure, we have decreased nitrogen out-diffusion and reduced the luminescence blue-shift while still improving crystal quality. The growth consists of high nitrogen GaNAs barriers grown between lower nitrogen GaInNAs quantum wells. As an added benefit, the nitride barriers strain compensate for the compression in the high In content GaInNAs wells. Furthermore, in order to improve luminescence at long wavelengths, we have added Sb to GaInNAs and have observed high intensity photoluminescence (PL) out to 1.6 μm. We have grown and fabricated in-plane GaInNAs lasers that emit at 1.3 μm with a current threshold density of 1.2 kA/cm2 and GaInNAsSb lasers with emissions at 1.46 μm with a current threshold of 2.8 kA/cm2.
Implantation of 4OkeV P+ ions into high purity Ni was employed at room temperature to a dose of 3×10E17 ions/cm2 to produce an 1100 A thick amorphous surface alloy of Ni-14 wt% P. Commercially available melt spun metallic glass ribbons of nominal composition, Ni-il wt% P were used for comparison of crystallization behaviour studied with TEM and RBS techniques. The DTA analysis was employed to construct a TTT curve for the melt spun glass, which was then used as a guide for selecting time and temperature of crystallization of the implanted amorphous alloy. The melt implanted glass is found to be less stable and crystallizes more readily than melt spun glass of similar composition. A detailed study on nucleation and growth of crystallites, mode of crystallization and effect of surface proximity will be presented.