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The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
We present first results from a coordinated multiwavelength study of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748 676. Fast UV, X-ray, and optical data were obtained including both spectral and timing information. We discuss how this study allows us to probe the temperature distribution within the binary and hence the geometry and efficiency of X-ray irradiation.
We present soft x-ray observations made with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) of IC443, W44 and W49B (for details of the observatory and instruments see Giacconi et al. 1979). The x-ray emission from IC443 and W44 is clearly concentrated within the interior of the remnant with little or no evidence for a limb-brightened shell. Significant spectral differences are found across the x-ray images in both remnants which are interpreted as being due to a combination of differential absorption by molecular clouds and intrinsic spatial temperature variations. The distant remnant W49B is only just resolved in the IPC observations, but additional observations with the High Resolution Imager (HRI) indicate a similar “infilled” morphology to IC443 and W44.
In this study, we examine the effect of surface density of disks on chemical evolution of galaxies. We find that, higher surface brightness galaxies on average possess higher gas-phase metallicity compared to lower surface brightness galaxies with the same stellar and gas mass. The surface brightness effect is more significant for low-mass galaxies. Using an analytical model of chemical evolution involving gas outflow and accretion, we find that the surface brightness dependence can be attributed to the strength of inflowing pristine gas. Galaxies with lower surface brightness experience stronger inflow than galaxies with a higher surface brightness of a similar mass.
This study presents stratigraphic, geomorphic, and paleoenvironmental (δ13C) data that provide insight into the late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Cimarron River valley in the High Plains of southwestern Kansas. Two distinct valley fills (T-1 and T-2) were investigated. Three soils occur in the T-2 fill and five in the T-1 fill, all indicating periods of landscape stability or slow sedimentation. Of particular interest are two cumulic soils dating to ca. 48–28 and 13–12.5 ka. δ13C values are consistent with regional paleoenvironmental proxy data that indicate the prevalence of warm, dry conditions at these times. The Cimarron River is interpreted to have responded to these climatic changes and to local base level control. Specifically, aggradation occurred during cool, wet periods and slow sedimentation with cumulic soil formation occurred under warmer, drier climates. Significant valley incision (~ 25 m) by ca. 28 ka likely resulted from a lowering of local base level caused by deep-seated dissolution of Permian evaporite deposits.
Theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) postulate that high-risk transactions between caregiver and child are important for the development and maintenance of the disorder. Little empirical evidence exists regarding the reciprocal effects of parenting on the development of BPD symptoms in adolescence. The impact of child and caregiver characteristics on this reciprocal relationship is also unknown. Thus, the current study examines bidirectional effects of parenting, specifically harsh punishment practices and caregiver low warmth, and BPD symptoms in girls aged 14–17 years based on annual, longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2,451) in the context of child and caregiver characteristics. We examined these associations through the use of autoregressive latent trajectory models to differentiate time-specific variations in BPD symptoms and parenting from the stable processes that steadily influence repeated measures within an individual. The developmental trajectories of BPD symptoms and parenting were moderately associated, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. There was some support for time-specific elevations in BPD symptoms predicting subsequent increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth. There was little support for increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth predicting subsequent elevations in BPD symptoms. Child impulsivity and negative affectivity, and caregiver psychopathology were related to parenting trajectories, while only child characteristics predicted BPD trajectories. The results highlight the stability of the reciprocal associations between parenting and BPD trajectories in adolescent girls and add to our understanding of the longitudinal course of BPD in youth.
A brief history of research into the unusual laminated and spherulitic East Kirkton Limestone (Brigantian, Viséan) is given. It documents the paucity of fossil finds until 1984, when S. P. Wood discovered a previously unsuspected terrestrial biota. Some early finds, such as stromatolites, have since been overlooked, while others were misinterpreted, e.g. a ‘fish-bone’ collected before 1870 proves to be amphibian. A formal lithostratigraphic description is given of the three beds that comprise the c. 15 m sequence in East Kirkton Quarry: the East Kirkton Limestone, overlain by Little Cliff Shale and Geikie Tuff, the latter two being here formally named. Lithological descriptions and a unit-by-unit distribution of major elements of the biota are provided for a measured section comprising 88 units. This is based on bed-by-bed excavations carried out 1985-92, supplemented by nine boreholes. Two 3 m-thick massive limestones lenses are recorded from the quarry and a probable third was proved in a borehole. Brief reports are given on the ‘stromatolites’ (by M. R. Walter), bivalve molluscs (R. M. C. Eagar and R. B. Wilson), ostracods (J. Pollard) and gypsum pseudomorphs.
In this work, we present the results of an analytical method developed for detailed pigment identification, stratigraphy, and degradation of the paint layers of mural paintings applied in the study of the 17th century frescoes from the Misericordia Church of Odemira (Southwest Portugal). In situ X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analyses were performed on three panels of the mural paintings and complemented by colorimetric measurements. The different color areas were also sampled as microfragments (approx. 1 mm2) that were studied as taken or mounted in epoxy resin to expose the different paint layers. The microfragments of paint layers and their cross sections were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Furthermore, elemental analysis was obtained with spatially resolved confocal synchrotron radiation μ-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry performed at ANKA synchrotron FLUO beamline. Occasionally, phase analysis by μ-X-ray diffraction was also performed. Results from the different techniques allowed pigment identification and, in some cases, the evaluation of color changes due to degradation processes and, considering the Southern Portugal geology, the identification of their possible provenance. The pigments used were essentially yellow, brown and red ochres, smalt blue, copper green, and black earths, probably from local sources.
For the performance of certain analytical and diagnostic tasks in modern Life Science applications high throughput screening (HTS) methods are essential. Miniaturization, parallelization and automation allow to decrease consumption of expensive materials and lead to faster analyzing times. The miniaturization of total assay volumes by the use of microtiter plates as well as the microarray technology have revolutionized the field of biotechnology and Life Sciences. Neither printing of microarrays with droplet volumes of several picoliters, nor handling of precious enzymes in the upper nanoliter range can be accomplished with traditional liquid handling devices like air displacement pipettes. The development of novel low volume liquid handling devices, which are subject to current research, addresses the diverse requirements shifting steadily to lower volumes. Various novel non-contact dispensing methods in the nanoliter and picoliter range are presented and classified according to their working principles like air displacement and direct displacement methods (TopSpot®, NanoJetTM, Dispensing Well PlateTM). Properties of the various methods are compared in terms of flexibility, integration density, speed of operation, precision, addressable volume range and amenability to multi-parallel operation.
Bulk silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys and two SiGe thick films (4 and 5 μm) on Si wafers were tested with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) using wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS) for heterogeneity and composition for use as reference materials needed by the microelectronics industry. One alloy with a nominal composition of Si0.86Ge0.14 and the two thick films with nominal compositions of Si0.90Ge0.10 and Si0.75Ge0.25 on Si, evaluated for micro- and macroheterogeneity, will make good microanalysis reference materials with an overall expanded heterogeneity uncertainty of 1.1% relative or less for Ge. The bulk Ge composition in the Si0.86Ge0.14 alloy was determined to be 30.228% mass fraction Ge with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.195% mass fraction. The thick films were quantified with WDS-EPMA using both the Si0.86Ge0.14 alloy and element wafers as reference materials. The Ge concentration was determined to be 22.80% mass fraction with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.12% mass fraction for the Si0.90Ge0.10 wafer and 43.66% mass fraction for the Si0.75Ge0.25 wafer with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.25% mass fraction. The two thick SiGe films will be issued as National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Materials (RM 8905).
Mutations in the rex gene of phage λ affect lysogeny. λrex− phages have an increased probability of forming abortive lysogens instead of stable lysogens. In addition, established lysogens produce elevated levels of cured cells during anaerobic but not aerobic growth. It is suggested that the function of the rex gene is related to excision or repressor function.
Middle Archaic earthen mound complexes in the lower Mississippi valley are remote antecedents of the famous but much younger Poverty Point earthworks. Watson Brake is the largest and most complex of these early mound sites. Very extensive coring and stratigraphic studies, aided by 25 radiocarbon dates and six luminescence dates, show that minor earthworks were begun here at ca. 3500 B.C. in association with an oval arrangement of burned rock middens at the edge of a stream terrace. The full extent of the first earthworks is not yet known. Substantial moundraising began ca. 3350 B.C. and continued in stages until some time after 3000 B.C. when the site was abandoned. All 11 mounds and their connecting ridges were occupied between building bursts. Soils formed on some of these temporary surfaces, while lithics, fire-cracked rock, and fired clay/loam objects became scattered throughout the mound fills. Faunal and floral remains from a basal midden indicate all-season occupation, supported by broad-spectrum foraging centered on nuts, fish, and deer. All the overlying fills are so acidic that organics have not survived. The area enclosed by the mounds was kept clean of debris, suggesting its use as ritual space. The reasons why such elaborate activities first occurred here remain elusive. However, some building bursts covary with very well-documented increases in El Niño/Southern Oscillation events. During such rapid increases in ENSO frequencies, rainfall becomes extremely erratic and unpredictable. It may be that early moundraising was a communal response to new stresses of droughts and flooding that created a suddenly more unpredictable food base.
In late 2001, investigators excavated a solitary Middle Archaic burial from the Plains-Prairie border in east-central Kansas. The burial was contained in a dissected colluvial apron at the foot of the valley wall, in a soil horizon that began accumulating around 9000 B.P. Burial goods include deer bone, a drill, and a side-notched projectile point/knife, the morphology of which is consistent with side-notched Middle Archaic points of the North American Central Plains and Midwest. Use-wear analysis shows that the stone tools were used before being placed with the burial and were not manufactured specifically as burial goods. A radiocarbon assay of the deer bone in direct association with the burial yielded a radiocarbon age of 6160 ± 35 B.P. This is one of only a few burials older than 5,000 years in the region. Comparison of this burial to other coeval regional burials shows similarities in burial practices.
A set of aspergillus strains from culture collections and wild-type black aspergilli isolated on non-selective media were used to validate the use of media with 20% tannic acid for exclusive and complete selection of the black aspergilli. The 20% tannic acid medium proved useful for both quantitative and qualitative selection of all different black aspergilli, including all recognized species: A. carbonarius, A. japonicus, A. aculeatus, A foetidus, A. heteromorphus, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. brasiliensis haplotypes. Even higher concentrations of tannic acid can be utilized by the black aspergilli suggesting a very efficient tannic acid-degrading system. Colour mutants show that the characteristic ability to grow on high tannic acid concentrations is not causally linked to the other typical feature of these aspergilli, i.e. the formation of brown-black pigments. Sequence analysis of the A. niger genome using the A. oryzae tannase gene yielded eleven tannase-like genes, far more than in related species. Therefore, a unique ecological niche in the degradation of tannic acid and connected nitrogen release seems to be reserved for these black-spored cosmopolitans.
We present orbital trailed spectrograms of XTE J1118+480 taken at the rise to outburst maximum in 2000. These show an evolving S-wave feature arising from the stream impact on the edge of the eccentric precessing disc. By comparing the observed S-waves with those generated in an SPH simulation, we deduce the disc precession phases corresponding to our observations. Hence we infer changes in the disc precession period around the outburst maximum: taken at face value our spectroscopy suggests a precession period temporarily as short as 20 days.
Ovarian cancer is the commonest cause of death from gynaecological malignancy in the Western world. About 5000 new cases of this cancer are diagnosed each year in England and Wales (5% of all cancers), and it is the fourth commonest cancer in all women up to 85 years (after cancers of the breast, lung and large bowel). The life-time risk of developing ovarian cancer, in England and Wales, is 1 in 56, or 1.8% by the age of 85. Ovarian cancer incidence in England and Wales has increased gradually in the last two decades. Mortality rates are only slightly lower than the incidence rates – a reflection of its poor prognosis. In England and Wales, only 29% of women with the malignancy survive as long as five years after diagnosis although younger women do survive longer: 69% of those who are under 40 years old at diagnosis survive for five years compared to less than 20% for those aged 70 or more. Because of its high incidence and poor prognosis, ovarian cancer also represents the fourth most common cause of death from cancer among women in England and Wales, accounting for about 3600 deaths per year (7% of all cancer deaths).
Crinoids are reported from the New Zealand Paleocene for the first time and include rare articulated columnals and brachia with pinnules. These specimens of Metacrinus sp. (Isocrinidae) are present in basal, fossiliferous, coarse-grained, quartzose sediments of the Kauru Formation, a few centimeters above schist basement, in the Kakanui Valley, North Otago. The crinoid-bearing facies probably represents earliest onlap or a storm surge onto a wave cut platform; sedimentological and paleontological evidence indicates a moderate- to high-energy environment. The crinoids were most probably buried rapidly while alive or shortly after death. The presence of isocrinids in the Kauru Formation and younger Paleogene strata reveals that the supposed shift of some isocrinids from a shallower to a deeper environment actually occurred much later in the Paleogene, and not the Late Cretaceous as previously supposed. Associated molluscs indicate a mid to upper “Wangaloan” Stage (local), equivalent to mid Paleocene. A summary of the New Zealand crinoid fossil record is presented.