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Online learning has become an increasingly expected and popular component for education of the modern-day adult learner, including the medical provider. In light of the recent coronavirus pandemic, there has never been more urgency to establish opportunities for supplemental online learning. Heart University aims to be “the go-to online resource” for e-learning in CHD and paediatric-acquired heart disease. It is a carefully curated open access library of paedagogical material for all providers of care to children and adults with CHD or children with acquired heart disease, whether a trainee or a practising provider. In this manuscript, we review the aims, development, current offerings and standing, and future goals of Heart University.
To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.
The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families.
OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed.
EFA yielded a 2-factor model for ADHD and an 8-factor model for OCD. Both ADHD factors (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) were genetically related to TS, ADHD, and OCD. The doubts, contamination, need for sameness, and superstitions factors were genetically related to OCD, but not ADHD or TS; symmetry/exactness and fear-of-harm were associated with TS and OCD while hoarding was associated with ADHD and OCD. In contrast, aggressive urges were genetically associated with TS, OCD, and ADHD. LCA revealed a three-class solution: few OCD/ADHD symptoms (LC1), OCD & ADHD symptoms (LC2), and symmetry/exactness, hoarding, and ADHD symptoms (LC3). LC2 had the highest psychiatric comorbidity rates (⩾50% for all disorders).
Symmetry/exactness, aggressive urges, fear-of-harm, and hoarding show complex genetic relationships with TS, OCD, and ADHD, and, rather than being specific subtypes of OCD, transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries, perhaps representing an underlying vulnerability (e.g. failure of top-down cognitive control) common to all three disorders.
The multi-object spectroscopic facility FOCAP at the Anglo-Australian Telescope has been used to obtain spectra centred at the Ca II IR triplet of 14 stars in the field of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. This satellite of our own Galaxy was recently discovered by Irwin et al. (1990) from APM measures of UK Schmidt Telescope photographic plates.
We describe the cases of two children who both presented in infancy with recurrent severe pulmonary hypertensive crises. Exhaustive clinical work-up failed to identify an underlying aetiology. The patients had no clinical response to steroids, immunoglobulins, or pulmonary vasodilators. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive invasive pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis. There was no evidence of pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Given the lethal nature of this condition, early consideration of referral to a lung transplant centre should be considered in selected patients.
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer and is also associated with chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Guidelines have been developed in the United States and Europe (areas with low prevalence) for the diagnosis and management of this infection, including the recommendation to ‘test and treat’ those with dyspepsia. A group of international experts performed a targeted literature review and formulated an expert opinion for evidenced-based benefits and harms for screening and treatment of H. pylori in high-prevalence countries. They concluded that in Arctic countries where H. pylori prevalence exceeds 60%, treatment of persons with H. pylori infection should be limited only to instances where there is strong evidence of direct benefit in reduction of morbidity and mortality, associated peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma and that the test-and-treat strategy may not be beneficial for those with dyspepsia.
We performed a study to determine rates of reinfection in three groups followed for 2 years after successful treatment: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons living in urban (group 1) and rural (group 2) communities, and urban Alaska non-Native persons (group 3). We enrolled adults diagnosed with H. pylori infection based on a positive urea breath test (13C-UBT). After successful treatment was documented at 2 months, we tested each patient by 13C-UBT at 4, 6, 12 and 24 months. At each visit, participants were asked about medication use, illnesses and risk factors for reinfection. We followed 229 persons for 2 years or until they became reinfected. H. pylori reinfection occurred in 36 persons; cumulative reinfection rates were 14·5%, 22·1%, and 12·0% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Study participants who became reinfected were more likely to have peptic ulcer disease (P = 0·02), low education level (P = 0·04), or have a higher proportion of household members infected with H. pylori compared to participants who did not become reinfected (P = 0·03). Among all three groups, reinfection occurred at rates higher than those reported for other US populations (<5% at 2 years); rural AI/AN individuals appear to be at highest risk for reinfection.
The Hague, Netherlands, 1690. Christiaan Huygens and Sir Isaac Newton, at odds with their competing wave/particle theories of light, today reached a compromise with their unveiling of a new multibeam SEM/FIB instrument featuring an SEM column designed by Huygens that uses electromagnetic lenses to focus the beam of electrons and a FIB column employing electrostatic lenses to focus the beam of ions devised by Newton. Onlookers were dazzled by its extensive capabilities and range of applications.
Sheep, after infection with louping ill virus and after re-infection with the same strain of virus 19–21 months later, were bled at intervals and their sera examined for neutralizing and haemagglutinin-inhibiting antibodies. Each antibody type was measured by the constant serum/variable virus and constant virus/variable serum methods. The persistence of each type of antibody and its significance in epidemiological studies is discussed. The relationship of antibody levels in ewes and their lambs was also examined.
In 1990, Fontan, Kirklin, and colleagues published equations for survival after the so-called “Perfect Fontan” operation. After 1988, we evolved a protocol using an internal or external polytetraflouroethylene tube of 16 to 19 millimetres diameter placed from the inferior caval vein to either the right or left pulmonary artery along with a bidirectional cava-pulmonary connection. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a “perfect” outcome is routinely achievable in the current era when using a standardized surgical procedure.
Between 1 January, 1988, and 12 December, 2005, 112 patients underwent the Fontan procedure using an internal or external polytetraflouroethylene tube plus a bidirectional cava-pulmonary connection, the latter usually having been constructed as a previous procedure. This constituted 45% of our overall experience in constructing the Fontan circulation between 1988 and 1996, and 96% of the experience between 1996 and 2005. Among all surviving patients, the median follow-up was 7.3 years. We calculated the expected survival for an optimal candidate, given from the initial equations, and compared this to our entire experience in constructing the Fontan circulation.
An internal tube was utilized in 61 patients, 97% of whom were operated prior to 1998, and an external tube in 51 patients, the latter accounting for 95% of all operations since 1999. At 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, survival of the entire cohort receiving polytetraflouroethylene tubes is superimposable on the curve calculated for a “perfect” outcome. Freedom from replacement or revision of the tube was 97% at 10 years.
Using a standardized operative procedure, combining a bidirectional cavopulmonary connection with a polytetraflouroethylene tube placed from the inferior caval vein to the pulmonary arteries for nearly all patients with functionally univentricular hearts, early and late survival within the “perfect” outcome as predicted by the initial equations of Fontan and Kirklin is routinely achievable in the current era. The need for late revision or replacement of the tube is rare.
The aim was to determine whether administration of melatonin would alter the yield and composition of milk from grazing dairy cows in summer. Twelve sets of spring-calving identical twin Friesian cows were used in the experiment. In late-November (late spring), one twin from each set was given slow-release melatonin implants behind the ears (108 mg melatonin/cow). Two further implantations occurred at 4-weekly intervals to maintain increased circulating concentrations of melatonin for 12 weeks. The other twin served as a control. Milk yield and composition were measured twice prior to treatment and then four times over the following 12 weeks. Concentrations of melatonin, prolactin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured in blood plasma twice before treatment and then either seven (melatonin and prolactin) or three (IGF-1) further times during the experiment. Management procedures for all cows were similar and cows grazed a daily pasture allowance of approximately 30 kg DM/cow as their sole feed source. In melatonin-treated cows there was a decrease in mean concentrations of prolactin in plasma, but concentrations of IGF-1 did not change. Melatonin reduced milk yield by 6 weeks after treatment and by the end of the 12-week experimental period milk yield in melatonin-treated cows had fallen by 23%. Melatonin also reduced concentrations of lactose in milk, but increased concentrations of fat, protein and casein, changes that were broadly similar to those that occur in late lactation in seasonally calving dairy cows. Thus, the results suggest that some of the variation in the volume and quality of milk throughout the season in New Zealand dairy systems may be due to changes in photoperiod mediated by increased concentrations of plasma melatonin in association with decreased concentrations of plasma prolactin.
In May 2000, public health authorities in Dublin, Ireland, identified a cluster of unexplained severe illness among injecting drug users (IDUs). Similar clusters were also reported in Scotland and England. Concurrent investigations were undertaken to identify the aetiology and source of the illnesses. In Dublin, 22 IDUs were identified with injection-site inflammation resulting in hospitalization or death; eight (36%) died. Common clinical findings among patients with severe systemic symptoms included leukaemoid reaction and cardiogenic shock. Seventeen (77%) patients reported injecting heroin intramuscularly in the 2 weeks before illness. Of 11 patients with adequate specimens available for testing, two (18%) were positive by 16S rDNA PCR for Clostridium novyi. Clinical and laboratory findings suggested that histotoxic Clostridia caused a subset of infections in these related clusters. Empiric treatment for infections among IDUs was optimized for anaerobic organisms, and outreach led to increased enrolment in methadone treatment in Dublin. Many unique legal, medical, and public health challenges were encountered during the investigation of this outbreak.
The dilute nitrogen alloy GaPNAs can be lattice matched to silicon with band gaps ranging from 2.3 eV to less than 1.7eV making it of special interest for photovoltaic applications. We have studied the growth and structural quality of the alloy grown on vicinal Si(001) and GaP(001) substrates by MOCVD. Using a particular nucleation scheme, we have deposited 1-μm thick layers that are crack-free and exhibit narrow x-ray line widths. The FWHM of the (004) x-ray reflection from a GaP1−xNx epilayer decreases dramatically from ∼300 arcsec for x=0 to 18 arcsec for x = 0.021. The band gap of this alloy is 1.96 eV. With the addition of As (and more N), the x-ray line widths tend to increase slightly to 27 arcsec.