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This paper reviews recent research into predicting the eating qualities of beef. A range of instrumental and grading approaches have been discussed, highlighting implications for the European beef industry. Studies incorporating a number of instrumental and spectroscopic techniques illustrate the potential for online systems to non-destructively measure muscle pH, colour, fat and moisture content of beef with R2 (coefficient of determination) values >0.90. Direct predictions of eating quality (tenderness, flavour, juiciness) and fatty acid content using these methods are also discussed though success is greatly variable. R2 values for instrumental measures of tenderness have been quoted as high as 0.85 though R2 values for sensory tenderness values can be as low as 0.01. Discriminant analysis models can improve prediction of variables such as pH and shear force, correctly classifying beef samples into categorical groups with >90% accuracy. Prediction of beef flavour continues to challenge researchers and the industry alike, with R2 values rarely quoted above 0.50, regardless of instrumental or statistical analysis used. Beef grading systems such as EUROP and United States Department of Agriculture systems provide carcase classification and some indication of yield. Other systems attempt to classify the whole carcase according to expected eating quality. These are being supplemented by schemes such as Meat Standards Australia (MSA), based on consumer satisfaction for individual cuts. In Australia, MSA has grown steadily since its inception generating a 10% premium for the beef industry in 2015-16 of $187 million. There is evidence that European consumers would respond to an eating quality guarantee provided it is simple and independently controlled. A European beef quality assurance system might encompass environmental and nutritional measures as well as eating quality and would need to be profitable, simple, effective and sufficiently flexible to allow companies to develop their own brands.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Foraminiferal analyses of 404 contiguous samples, supported by diatom, lithologic, geochronologic and seismic data, reveal both rapid and gradual Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in an 8.21-m vibracore taken from southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Data record initial flooding of a latest Pleistocene river drainage and the formation of an estuary 9000 yr ago. Estuarine conditions were punctuated by two intervals of marine influence from approximately 4100 to 3700 and 1150 to 500 cal yr BP. Foraminiferal assemblages in the muddy sand facies that accumulated during these intervals contain many well-preserved benthic foraminiferal species, which occur today in open marine settings as deep as the mid shelf, and significant numbers of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera, some typical of Gulf Stream waters. We postulate that these marine-influenced units resulted from temporary destruction of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands by hurricanes. The second increase in marine influence is coeval with increased rate of sea-level rise and a peak in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This high-resolution analysis demonstrates the range of environmental variability and the rapidity of coastal change that can result from the interplay of changing climate, sea level and geomorphology in an estuarine setting.
Magnetization and Mössbauer spectroscopy results on aerosol processed YBa2 (Cu1-xFex)307–δ samples are presented. Systematics of Tc(x), x(x) and Fe dopant site occupancies In/I(x) as a function of dopant concentration ‘x’ are deduced and compared to those established on analogous solid-state- reacted samples. The absence of twinning in the aerosol processed grains leads to a random replacement of Cu for Fe in chains and planes of the host structure.
We have grown ZnSe epitaxial layers on bulk GaAs substrates and on GaAs epitaxial layers, with both As-rich and Ga-rich surface terminations. We have also grown ZnSe on AlAs epitaxial surfaces with different As to Al ratios. In all cases, abrupt, layer-by-layer growth is observed on the As-rich surfaces, while 3-dimensional nucleation is observed on the group III-rich surfaces. GaAs was also grown on ZnSe layers. In this case, microtwins form at the interface whose density diminishes as the layer is made thicker. A growth model is proposed consistent with these results which requires over-all electronic balance at the interface.
The increasing desire to internet the soldier on the battlefield requires a new approach to outfit the soldier with communications systems capable of operating in multiple frequency domains as shown in Table 1. Outfitting the soldier with multiple unwieldy antennas often results in the equipment being left behind, used improperly or broken. The ultimate in unobtrusive antennas is one that conforms to the body and does not interfere with the normal degrees of freedom of the soldier's uniform. Conformal antennas mounted on the body must take into account the electrical properties of the body, particularly at frequencies above 30 MHz. In addition, integration into the textile structure requires that the antenna be isolated from effects of clothing usage including clothing movement, wet operation, washing, and mechanical abrasion.
A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE-grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature . Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.
Active nitrogen species produced by an Oxford Applied Research HD-25 plasma source have been monitored by optical emission spectroscopy and quadrapole mass spectroscopy. Both techniques confirmed that at higher RF powers and lower flow rates the efficiency of atomic nitrogen production increased; emission spectroscopy confirmed that this was at the expense of active molecular nitrogen (N2*). InN films grown on (0001) sapphire/GaN with higher relative molecular content were found to have lower carrier concentrations than the corresponding films grown with higher atomic content. However, electrical properties of films grown on (111) YSZ showed insensitivity to the active nitrogen content. Etching experiments revealed that films grown on sapphire/GaN were nitrogen-polar, while films grown on YSZ were In-polar, suggesting that film polarity can greatly influence the effect active species have on growth. Lattice relaxation, as measured by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, revealed that the N-polar films grown under high relative molecular flux relaxed fully after ∼60 nm of growth, while the corresponding In-polar film relaxed fully within the first several nm of growth.
In this work we report the displacement response of piezoelectric Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin film MESA in an electrical circuit consisting of a circular MESA in series with a resistance subjected to time varying electrical loads. ANSYS was utilized for the simulation of 3D piezoelectric structures; using coupled field analysis to understand the electro-mechanical behavior of AlN thin film mesas. ANSYS applies finite element analysis (FEM) method to simulate the transient piezoelectric trends. Ringing and overshoot effects were observed in the thin simulation results on applying pulse voltages of varying frequencies to the circuit. The fast rise time of the voltage pulse could be exciting these effects. The effect of fast rising pulse voltages on the RC time constant of the circuit is still unclear at this point and needs to be further investigated.
Recently, low-cost processing approaches that produce textured thin bodies have engendered interest as cost-effective approaches for fabrication of magnetostrictive Fe-Ga alloys. In particular, wire-forming methods that strictly control the solidification direction could lead to some measure of crystallographic texture control. This is critical for development of large magnetostriction in polycrystals and for use of the alloys in actuators, sensors, energy harvesters and other systems. Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga wires have been prepared using an innovative cost-effective approach – based on the Taylor wire method – that combines rapid solidification and deformation processes. The procedure for making magnetostrictive wires is discussed and the wires are evaluated in terms of microstructure, crystallographic texture and magnetostriction. Results show that the Taylor-based approach is an effective and versatile means to draw 1-3 mm diameter textured Fe-Ga wire. Experimentation on the influence of drawing technique and quench conditions on texture development resulted with production of a strong <100> fiber texture in the Fe-Ga wire. Magnetostriction measurements, in the absence of prestress, indicated a maximum magnetostriction of ˜165 ppm in a saturation field of less than 200 mTesla. This is considered a significant strain for bulk polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloys without a pre-stress or a stress-annealing treatment. The unique properties of wires made with the Taylor-based approach coupled with the low intrinsic cost make this an attractive approach for production of textured magnetostrictive wire for a variety of applications.
A point source outbreak of haemorrhagic colitis due to Escherichia coli O 157. H7 producing verocytotoxin (VT), took place following a christening party in Birmingham in June 1987. Twenty-six people were affected, six were admitted to hospital and one developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome: there were no deaths. VT + E. coli O 157. H7 was isolated from 13 (57%) of 23 faecal specimens from affected people and from 3 (9%) of 33 specimens from asymptomatic people. Free VT was detected in the faeces of one further asymptomatic person. Illness was associated with eating turkey-roll sandwiches (P < 0·001) suggesting that cold meats might be an important source of infection.
The colonization, survival and control of Legionella pneumophila in a hospital hot–water system was examined. The organism was consistently isolated from calorifier drain–water samples at temperatures of 50°C or below, despite previous chlorination of the system. When the temperature of one of two linked calorifiers was raised to 60°C, by closing off the cold–water feed, the legionella count decreased from c. 104 c.f.u./l to an undetectable level. However, 10 min after turning on the cold–water feed which produced a fall in calorifier temperature, the count in the calorifier drain water returned to its original level. Investigations revealed that the cold–water supply was continually feeding the calorifiers with L. pneumophila. Simple modifications in the design of the system were made so that the cold–water feed no longer exceeds 20°C; these measures have considerably reduced the number of L. pneumophila reaching the calorifiers.
A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease was associated with Stafford District General Hospital. A total of 68 confirmed cases was treated in hospital and 22 of these patients died. A further 35 patients, 14 of whom were treated at home, were suspected cases of Legionnaires’ disease. All these patients had visited the hospital during April 1985. Epidemiological investigations demonstrated that there had been a high risk of acquiring the disease in the out patient department (OPD), but no risk in other parts of the hospital. The epidemic strain of Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, subgroup Pontiac la was isolated from the cooling water system of one of the air conditioning plants. This plant served several departments of the hospital including the OPD. The water in the cooling tower and a chiller unit which cooled the air entering the OPD were contaminated with legionellae. Bacteriological and engineering investigations showed how the chiller unit could have been contaminated and how an aerosol containing legionellae could have been generated in the U–trap below the chiller unit. These results, together with the epidemiological evidence, suggest that the chiller unit was most likely to have been the major source of the outbreak.
Nearly one third of hospital staff had legionella antibodies. These staff were likely to have worked in areas of the hospital ventilated by the contaminated air conditioning plant, but not necessarily the OPD. There was evidence that a small proportion of these staff had a mild legionellosis and that these ‘influenza–like’ illnesses had been spread over a 5–month period. A possible explanation of this finding is that small amounts of aerosol from cooling tower sources could have entered the air–intake and been distributed throughout the areas of the hospital served by this ventilation system. Legionellae, subsequently found to be of the epidemic strain, had been found in the cooling tower pond in November 1984 and thus it is possible that staff were exposed to low doses of contaminated aerosol over several months.
Control measures are described, but it was later apparent that the outbreak had ended before these interventions were introduced. The investigations revealed faults in the design of the ventilation system.
The association between poor mental health and poverty is well known but its mechanism is not fully understood. This study tests the hypothesis that the association between low income and mental disorder is mediated by debt and its attendant financial hardship.
The study is a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of private households in England, Scotland and Wales, which assessed 8580 participants aged 16–74 years living in general households. Psychosis, neurosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse were identified by the Clinical Interview Schedule – Revised, the Schedule for Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and other measures. Detailed questions were asked about income, debt and financial hardship.
Those with low income were more likely to have mental disorder [odds ratio (OR) 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68–2.59] but this relationship was attenuated after adjustment for debt (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.25–1.97) and vanished when other sociodemographic variables were also controlled (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77–1.48). Of those with mental disorder, 23% were in debt (compared with 8% of those without disorder), and 10% had had a utility disconnected (compared with 3%). The more debts people had, the more likely they were to have some form of mental disorder, even after adjustment for income and other sociodemographic variables. People with six or more separate debts had a six-fold increase in mental disorder after adjustment for income (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.5–10.3).
Both low income and debt are associated with mental illness, but the effect of income appears to be mediated largely by debt.