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Recently, several incidents of glyphosate failure on junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] have been reported in the midsouthern United States, specifically in Mississippi and Tennessee. Research was conducted to measure the magnitude of glyphosate resistance and to determine the mechanism(s) of resistance to glyphosate in E. colona populations from Mississippi and Tennessee. ED50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values for a resistant MSGR4 biotype, a resistant TNGR population, and a known susceptible MSGS population were 0.8, 1.62, and 0.23 kg ae ha−1 of glyphosate, respectively. The resistance index calculated from the these ED50 values indicated that the MSGR4 biotype and TNGR population were 4- and 7-fold, respectively, resistant to glyphosate relative to the MSGS population. The absorption patterns of [14C]glyphosate in the TNGR and MSGS populations were similar. However, the MSGS population translocated 13% more [14C]glyphosate out of the treated leaf compared with the TNGR population at 48 h after treatment. EPSPS gene sequence analyses of TNGR E. colona indicated no evidence of any point mutations, but several resistant biotypes, including MSGR4, possessed a single-nucleotide substitution of T for C at codon 106 position, resulting in a proline-to-serine substitution (CCA to TCA). Results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that there was no amplification of the EPSPS gene in the resistant populations and biotypes. Thus, the mechanism of resistance in the MSGR population (and associated biotypes) is, in part, due to a target-site mutation at the 106 loci of the EPSPS gene, while reduced translocation of glyphosate was found to confer glyphosate resistance in the TNGR population.
There is growing interest in glutamatergic agents in depression, particularly ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We aimed to assess the efficacy of ketamine in major depressive episodes.
We searched EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and Medline from 1962 to January 2014 to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials with allocation concealment evaluating ketamine in major depressive episodes. Clinical remission, response and depressive symptoms were extracted by two independent raters. The primary outcome measure was clinical remission at 24 h, 3 days and 7 days post-treatment. Analyses employed a random-effects model.
Data were synthesized from seven RCTs employing an intravenous infusion and one RCT employing intranasal ketamine, representing 73 subjects in parallel arms and 110 subjects in cross-over designs [n = 34 with bipolar disorder (BD), n = 149 with major depressive disorder (MDD)]. Ketamine was associated with higher rates of clinical remission relative to comparator (saline or midazolam) at 24 h [OR 7.06, number needed to treat (NNT) = 5], 3 days (OR 3.86, NNT = 6), and 7 days (OR 4.00, NNT = 6), as well as higher rates of clinical response at 24 h (OR 9.10, NNT = 3), 3 days (OR 6.77, NNT = 3), and 7 days (OR 4.87, NNT = 4). A standardized mean difference of 0.90 in favor of ketamine was observed at 24 h based on depression rating scale scores, with group comparisons revealing greater efficacy in unipolar depression compared to bipolar depression (1.07 v. 0.68). Ketamine was associated with transient psychotomimetic effects, but no persistent psychosis or affective switches.
Our meta-analysis suggests that single administrations ketamine are efficacious in the rapid treatment of unipolar and bipolar depression. Additional research is required to determine optimal dosing schedules, route, treatment schedules, and the potential efficacy of other glutamatergic agents.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2 m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip–tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40 μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200 μm.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
During the past 20 years, the idea that non-spherical planetary nebulae might need a binary or planetary interaction to be shaped was discussed by various authors. It is now generally agreed that the varied morphologies of planetary nebulae cannot be fully explained solely by single star evolution. Observationally, more binary central stars of planetary nebulae have been discovered, opening new possibilities to understand the connections between binarity and morphology. So far, ≃45 binary central stars of planetary nebulae have been detected, most being close systems detected via flux variability. In order to determine the PN binary fraction, one needs a method that can detect wider binaries. We present here recent results concentrating on binary infrared excess observations aimed at detecting binaries of any separation.
Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder have been associated with diminished functional outcome, this relationship has been studied primarily through cross-sectional designs, and has not been studied in patients early in the course of illness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of cognitive functioning on longitudinal 6-month functional and clinical outcome in recently diagnosed clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder.
A total of 53 recently diagnosed patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder type I were assessed within 3 months of their first manic episode using a neuropsychological battery measuring verbal/pre-morbid intellectual functioning, learning/memory, spatial/non-verbal reasoning, attention/processing speed and executive function. Functional outcome was assessed at baseline and 6 months using the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning (MSIF) and DSM-IV Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). Clinical outcome was assessed with symptom ratings and by monitoring onset of new mood episodes.
Memory, particularly verbal learning/memory, was robustly associated with 6-month functional outcome on the MSIF, even after partialling out the influence of mood symptoms and substance abuse co-morbidity. Depression ratings at 6 months, but not cognitive variables, were associated with 6-month GAF scores. Cognitive functioning was not associated with 6-month clinical outcome.
Memory was associated with 6-month longitudinal functional but not clinical outcome in recently diagnosed patients with bipolar disorder. These data further support the distinction between clinical and functional outcome, and emphasize the need for identification of, and development of treatments for, cognitive impairments early in the course of bipolar disorder.
Corrugated structures offer a potential solution for morphing wing skin applications due to their anisotropic behaviour that allows chordwise camber and length changes. Aerofoils with corrugated skins in the aft 1/3 of the chordwise section have been studied experimentally and computationally using various corrugation shapes and forms (sinusoidal, trapezoidal and triangular) at different Reynolds numbers. The study showed that the aerodynamic performance is highly dependent on corrugation amplitude, wavelength, gradient (combination of amplitude and wavelength) and Reynolds number. Evidence is given highlighting that penalties for having a non-smooth surface in the aft 1/3 of the chordwise section of an aerofoil can be eliminated for the lift curve slope and minimised for the zero lift drag coefficient.
The behaviour of an initially planar shock wave propagating into a linearly convergent wedge is investigated experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, a 25° internal wedge is mounted asymmetrically in a pressure-driven shock tube. Shock waves with incident Mach numbers in the ranges of 1.4–1.6 and 2.4–2.6 are generated in nitrogen and carbon dioxide. During each run, the full pressure history is recorded at fourteen locations along the wedge faces and schlieren images are produced. Numerical simulations performed based on the compressible Euler equations are validated against the experiment. The simulations are then used as an additional tool in the investigation.
The linearly convergent geometry strengthens the incoming shock repeatedly, as waves reflected from the wedge faces cross the interior of the wedge. This investigation shows that aspects of this structure persist through multiple reflections and influence the nature of the shock-wave focusing. The shock focusing resulting from the distributed reflected waves of the Mach 1.5 case is distinctly different from the stepwise focusing at the higher incoming shock Mach number. Further experiments using CO2 instead of N2 elucidate some relevant real-gas effects and suggest that the presence or absence of a weak leading shock on the distributed reflections is not a controlling factor for focusing.
Mutations have been detected which affect the production of protoperithecia in Sordaria brevicollis. These mutations have been called perithecial-1 and perithecial-2. Ascus analysis revealed that the former was a centromere unlinked gene, whilst the latter was very close to the mating-type locus. The per 1−per 2− genotype was female sterile. Recovery of fertility by a sterile culture occurred and perithecial analysis revealed that this recovery was due to the accumulation of revertant per 1+ nuclei in the mycelium. Per l−per 2+ colonies were fertile and gave a cross of characteristic appearance.
The flanking markers of wild-type recombinant spores originating from crosses of spore colour mutants in Sordaria brevicollis were analysed. Recombinant asci were of two main types – either with one or with two wild-type spores. In most crosses the behaviour of flanking markers was significantly different for these two types of recombinant asci. The main differences were in the polarity of gene conversion (as inferred from parental outside marker combinations) and in the frequency of recombinant outside markers. These differences were interpreted in terms of hybrid DNA models of recombination and correction of heteroduplex DNA.
An inverted segment in one of the chromosomes of Sordaria brevicollis has been found to have a marked effect on recombination within a gene in another chromosome. There are two effects on the intragenic recombination pattern, namely, a change in the polarity of recombination and a change in the frequency of parental and recombinant outside markers. The results support the idea that a mechanism exists for cancelling crossovers shortly after they have been formed as a means of controlling their number.
Two spontaneously arising chromosome rearrangements were isolated in Sordaria brevicollis from one perithecium. These were detected through increased production of black spores in intercrosses of complementing buff spore colour mutants. One was a reciprocal translocation between linkage groups I and II; the other a reciprocal translocation between linkage groups II and VI. In the former case the translocation resulted in frequent non-disjunction generating black spores which were either tertiary or interchange disomics. The frequency of premature centromere division was also increased. In the case of the translocation involving linkage groups II and VI the black spores were formed as a result of adjacent-1 segregation and were probably duplication/deficiency products.
In both rearrangements the breakpoint in linkage group II was, as far as could be judged, in an identical place. This and the fact that they were isolated from a single fruiting body, suggests that the chromosome breakage event arose as a potential lesion, which replicated before the potential break was either restituted, to restore a normal chromosome, or opened, to form the rearrangements.
Aneuploidy can result from a variety of defects at meiosis. Results are presented of crosses of Sordaria brevicollis in which aneuploid spores are detected through complementation of spore colour mutants at the buff or grey-6 loci on linkage groups II and IV respectively. By using ascus analysis, the underlying cause of the aneuploidy can be deduced in many cases. Thus non-conjuction (pairing failure) and non-disjunction at the first meiotic division, premature centromere division, non-disjunction at the second division, and pre-meiotic errors such as extra replication of the chromosomes can be distinguished. Both linkage groups were found to give a similar proportion of the different errors. Non-conjunction and first-division non-disjunction formed 60–70% of detectable cases, whilst premature centromere division and second-division non-disjunction comprised 10% and 5% of aneuploids respectively. However, only a small proportion of second-division errors are detected.
It is proposed that the systems described in this paper can form the basis of a valuable screening method for detecting agents which increase aneuploid frequency. The advantages and disadvantages of using lower eukaryotes in this way are discussed.