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We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of seasonal suicide patterns among multiple geographically, demographically and socioeconomically diverse populations.
Weekly time-series data of suicide counts for 354 communities in 12 countries during 1986–2016 were analysed. Two-stage analysis was performed. In the first stage, a generalised linear model, including cyclic splines, was used to estimate seasonal patterns of suicide for each community. In the second stage, the community-specific seasonal patterns were combined for each country using meta-regression. In addition, the community-specific seasonal patterns were regressed onto community-level socioeconomic, demographic and environmental indicators using meta-regression.
We observed seasonal patterns in suicide, with the counts peaking in spring and declining to a trough in winter in most of the countries. However, the shape of seasonal patterns varied among countries from bimodal to unimodal seasonality. The amplitude of seasonal patterns (i.e. the peak/trough relative risk) also varied from 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33–1.62) to 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.1) among 12 countries. The subgroup difference in the seasonal pattern also varied over countries. In some countries, larger amplitude was shown for females and for the elderly population (≥65 years of age) than for males and for younger people, respectively. The subperiod difference also varied; some countries showed increasing seasonality while others showed a decrease or little change. Finally, the amplitude was larger for communities with colder climates, higher proportions of elderly people and lower unemployment rates (p-values < 0.05).
Despite the common features of a spring peak and a winter trough, seasonal suicide patterns were largely heterogeneous in shape, amplitude, subgroup differences and temporal changes among different populations, as influenced by climate, demographic and socioeconomic conditions. Our findings may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of seasonal suicide patterns and aid in improving the design of population-specific suicide prevention programmes based on these patterns.
Laser–solid interactions are highly suited as a potential source of high energy X-rays for nondestructive imaging. A bright, energetic X-ray pulse can be driven from a small source, making it ideal for high resolution X-ray radiography. By limiting the lateral dimensions of the target we are able to confine the region over which X-rays are produced, enabling imaging with enhanced resolution and contrast. Using constrained targets we demonstrate experimentally a
X-ray source, improving the image quality compared to unconstrained foil targets. Modelling demonstrates that a larger sheath field envelope around the perimeter of the constrained targets increases the proportion of electron current that recirculates through the target, driving a brighter source of X-rays.
A multichannel calorimeter system is designed and constructed which is capable of delivering single-shot and broad-band spectral measurement of terahertz (THz) radiation generated in intense laser–plasma interactions. The generation mechanism of backward THz radiation (BTR) is studied by using the multichannel calorimeter system in an intense picosecond laser–solid interaction experiment. The dependence of the BTR energy and spectrum on laser energy, target thickness and pre-plasma scale length is obtained. These results indicate that coherent transition radiation is responsible for the low-frequency component (
1 THz) of BTR. It is also observed that a large-scale pre-plasma primarily enhances the high-frequency component (
3 THz) of BTR.
Despite aspirations to be a world-class national curriculum, the Australian Curriculum (AC) has been criticised as ‘manifestly deficient’ (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2014 p. 5) as an inclusive curriculum, failing to meet the needs of all students with disabilities (SWD) and their teachers. There is a need for research into the daily attempts of educators to navigate the tension between a ‘top-down’ system-wide curriculum and a ‘bottom-up’ regard for individual student needs, with a view to informing both policy and practice. This article is the first of two research papers in which we report the findings from a national online Research in Special Education (RISE) Australian Curriculum Survey of special educators in special schools, classes, and units regarding their experience using the AC to plan for and teach SWD. Survey results indicated (a) inconsistent use of the AC as the primary basis for developing learning objectives and designing learning experiences, (b) infrequent use of the achievement standards to support assessment and reporting, and (c) considerable supplementation of the AC from other resources when educating SWD. Overall, participants expressed a lack of confidence in translating the AC framework into a meaningful curriculum for SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Introduction: Prehospital blood transfusion has been adopted by many civilian helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) agencies and early outcomes are positive. Shock Trauma Air Rescue Service (STARS) operates six bases in Western Canada and in 2013 implemented a prehospital transfusion program. We describe the processes and standard work ensuring safe storage, administration, and stewardship of this precious resource. Our aim was to produce a sustainable and safe blood storage system that could be carried on each mission flown. Methods: Close collaboration with transfusion services and adherence to Canadian Transfusion Standards was key at each step of development. An inexpensive, reusable, temperature controlled thermal packaging device was obtained along with an electronic temperature logger. Conditioning of the device and temperature maintenance (1 6C) was tested to ensure safe storage conditions. Online training programs were developed for air medical crew (AMC) as well as transport physicians (TPs) regarding administration indications, safety, and stewardship processes. Blood traceability and usage was monitored on an ongoing basis for quality assurance. Results: Two units of O negative packed red blood cells (pRBCs) are now carried on each flight. The blood box is conditioned and prepared by transfusion services for routine exchange every 72 hours. If pRBCs are administered the blood bank is immediately notified for preparation of another cooler. Unused blood is returned to blood bank circulation. Conclusion: The introduction of the STARS blood on board program supports the provision of emergent transfusion to selected patients in the pre-hospital environment. Our standard work and stewardship processes minimize wastage of blood products while keeping it readily available for critically ill and injured patients. Subsequent work will aim to describe characteristics and patient centred outcomes.
Giant electromagnetic pulses (EMP) generated during the interaction of high-power lasers with solid targets can seriously degrade electrical measurements and equipment. EMP emission is caused by the acceleration of hot electrons inside the target, which produce radiation across a wide band from DC to terahertz frequencies. Improved understanding and control of EMP is vital as we enter a new era of high repetition rate, high intensity lasers (e.g. the Extreme Light Infrastructure). We present recent data from the VULCAN laser facility that demonstrates how EMP can be readily and effectively reduced. Characterization of the EMP was achieved using B-dot and D-dot probes that took measurements for a range of different target and laser parameters. We demonstrate that target stalk geometry, material composition, geodesic path length and foil surface area can all play a significant role in the reduction of EMP. A combination of electromagnetic wave and 3D particle-in-cell simulations is used to inform our conclusions about the effects of stalk geometry on EMP, providing an opportunity for comparison with existing charge separation models.
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
Streams draining the Cypress Hills support unique and understudied macroinvertebrate communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Here, we report the discovery of a species of caddisfly new to the Cypress Hills and Saskatchewan, Neophylax splendens Denning (Trichoptera: Thremmatidae). Larvae were collected early in May 2012, and are found to enter pre-pupal diapause in mid-June until mid-September. Larvae were identified as N. splendens by morphological characters and verified with genetic analysis. Its occurrence strengthens the biogeographical link between the montane regions in British Columbia, Canada and Utah, United States of America with the southwest corner of Saskatchewan. This study highlights the importance of seasonal sampling, resolute species level identifications in biological surveys and the use of genetic analyses to obtain this level of identification.
Inflammation is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neonatal outcomes. Subchorionic thrombi, with or without inflammation, may also be a significant pathological finding in PPROM. Patterns of inflammation and thrombosis may give insight into mechanisms of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with PPROM. To characterize histologic findings of placentas from pregnancies complicated by PPROM at altitude, 44 placentas were evaluated for gross and histological indicators of inflammation and thrombosis. Student's t-test (or Mann–Whitney U-test), χ2 analysis (or Fisher's exact test), mean square contingency and logistic regression were used when appropriate. The prevalence of histologic acute chorioamnionitis (HCA) was 59%. Fetal-derived inflammation (funisitis and chorionic plate vasculitis) was seen at lower frequency (30% and 45%, respectively) and not always in association with HCA. There was a trend for Hispanic women to have higher odds of funisitis (OR = 5.9; P = 0.05). Subchorionic thrombi were seen in 34% of all placentas. The odds of subchorionic thrombi without HCA was 6.3 times greater that the odds of subchorionic thrombi with HCA (P = 0.02). There was no difference in gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval, with the presence or absence of inflammatory or thrombotic lesions. These findings suggest that PPROM is caused by or can result in fetal inflammation, placental malperfusion, or both, independent of gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval; maternal ethnicity and altitude may contribute to these findings. Future studies focused on this constellation of PPROM placental findings, genetic polymorphisms and neonatal outcomes are needed.
Model alloys have been made of pure W and 1% & 5% W-Ta and W-Re. Indentation hardness and modulus data were obtained by nanoindentation to assess the effect of composition on mechanical properties. Results showed that both the Ta and Re compositions hardened with increasing alloy content, greater in the W-5%Ta composition which showed an increase of 1.03GPa (17%), compared to a 0.43GPa (7%) increase in W-5%Re. The samples also showed very small increases in modulus of ∼ 25GPa (6%) in both W-5%Re and W-5%Ta. The samples were implanted with 3000appm concentration of helium. All samples show a substantial increase in hardness of up to 107% in the case of pure W. An appreciable difference in modulus is also seen in all samples. Initial TEM work has shown no visible He bubbles, suggesting that the mechanical properties changes are due to He-vacancy cluster formation below the resolvable limit.
The electrodeposition of hydrated ruthenium dioxide (hRuO2) on Ti interdigitated current collectors deposited onto silicon substrate has been investigated with the objective of preparing a high capacitance and high power micro-supercapacitor (µ-SC) device. Ti current collectors were synthesised by typical photolithography processes, and hRuO2 thin films were electrodeposited from ruthenium chloride precursors. Device specific capacitances exceeding 20 mF·cm−2 were obtained, and more than 80 % of that value is retained even at scan rate as high as 1 V∙s−1 in 0.5 M H2SO4. The mean specific power per active surface area of the device is 368 mW·cm−2. The device is stable and 90% of the initial capacity is retained after 105 cycles (1 V potential window). The characteristic response time of the hRuO2 µ-SC is 250 ms, with low ESR (0.61 Ω cm−2) and EDR (0.07 Ω cm−2) values. All these characteristics demonstrate the potential of such µ-SC devices to be part of the next generation of micro-supercapacitors.
Systems biology aims to integrate multiple biological data types such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics across different levels of structure and scale; it represents an emerging paradigm in the scientific process which challenges the reductionism that has dominated biomedical research for hundreds of years. Systems biology will nevertheless only be successful if the technologies on which it is based are able to deliver the required type and quality of data. In this review we discuss how well positioned is proteomics to deliver the data necessary to support meaningful systems modelling in parasite biology. We summarise the current state of identification proteomics in parasites, but argue that a new generation of quantitative proteomics data is now needed to underpin effective systems modelling. We discuss the challenges faced to acquire more complete knowledge of protein post-translational modifications, protein turnover and protein-protein interactions in parasites. Finally we highlight the central role of proteome-informatics in ensuring that proteomics data is readily accessible to the user-community and can be translated and integrated with other relevant data types.
Diversity within Shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and Shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in Egypt aged <5 years was investigated. Shigella-associated diarrhoea occurred mainly in summer months and in children aged <3 years, it commonly presented with vomiting and fever. Serotypes 7 (30%), 2 (28%), and 3 (23%) accounted for most of S. dysenteriae isolates; 50% of S. boydii isolates were serotype 2. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii isolates were often resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (42%, 17%, respectively), although resistance varied among serotypes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis separated the isolates into distinct clusters correlating with species and serotype. Genetic differences in trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam-encoding resistance genes were also evident. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii are genetically diverse pathogens in Egypt; the high level of multidrug resistance associated with both pathogens and resistance to the most available inexpensive antibiotics underlines the importance of continuing surveillance.