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GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
We present a preliminary report on the first deep near infrared photometry of 2MASS GC 01 and 2MASS GC 02 - new Galactic globular cluster candidates, discovered by the 2MASS. The red giant branch slopes yielded [Fe/H]=-0.42 ± 0.15 dex and [Fe/H]=-0.66 ± 0.17 dex, respectively for GC 01 and GC 02. We estimated the reddening towards GC 01 and GC 02: E(B - V) = 5.36 ± 0.20, and E(B - V) = 4.55 ± 0.17. The calculated distance moduli to the clusters are: (m - M)0 = 13.53 ± 0.27 and (m - M)0 = 14.53 ± 0.31 for GC 01 and GC 02. Our best fit for the radial surface brightness profile of GC 02 yields: lg(rc) = 1.40, lg(rh) = 1.54, lg(rt) = 1.31, and c=1.60. CC 01 is less concentrated: lg(rc) = 1.63, lg(rh) = 1.7, lg(rt) = 1.25, and c=1.41.
We carried out a pivot experiment to select distant luminous late-type stars on the basis on their 2MASS and GLIMPSE photometry. Low-resolution infrared spectra enabled us to measure the equivalent widths (EWs) of their CO band-heads at 2.293 μm, and to confirm an extraordinarily high detection rate of red supergiants (RSGs), i.e. 61% (Messineo et al. (2016)).
Die Gasentladung im Deuterium bei Stromstärken bis zu 700 tausend Ampere im magnetischen Längsfelde bis zu 12000 Oersted wurde untersucht. Die Einwirkung des Feldes auf den Verlauf der Entladung wurde festgestellt und eine Zunahme des Magnetfeldes im Innern der Entladungssäule entdeckt. Eine Bewertung der Plasmaleitfähigkeit und der Ionisierungszahl wird gegeben.
We briefly describe our on-going investigation of the near-IR luminosity-metallicity relationship for dwarf irregular galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies. The motivations of the project and the observational databases are introduced, and a preliminary result is presented. The 12 + log(O/H) vs. H plane must be populated with more low-luminosity galaxies before a definite conclusion can be drawn.
1. Recently Karachentsev’s group at SAO (6-meter Telescope Observatory) published a list of 84 triple systems of galaxies with their distances, radial (line of sight) velocities, and angular sizes (Karachentseva et al., 1988). This gives a new ground for studies of the dark matter problem which fills the gap between the large cosmic scales (White, 1987; Dekel and Rees, 1987, and Einasto et al., 1977) and the scale of individual galaxies (Erickson et al., 1987). The data on the typical velocity dispersions and linear dimension of the triplets indicate that they contain considerable amounts of dark matter (see also earlier work of Karachentseva et al. (1979). Numerical simulations show that the statistical characteristics of the Karachentsev triplets can be imitated by model ensembles of triple systems with dark matter masses Md = (1 – 3) x 1012 Mo, which is almost ten times greater than the typical mass of stellar galaxies estimated by the standard mass-to-luminosity ratio (Kiseleva and Chernin, 1988).
Two methods are proposed for describing the distributions of the triplet configuration parameters characterizing a tendency to alignment and hierarchy: (1) obtaining a representative sample of configurations and determining its statistical parameters (moments and percentages); and (2) dividing the region of possible configurations of triple systems (Agekian and Anosova, 1967) into a set of segments and finding the probabilities for the configurations to find themselves in each of them.
Geological disposal (GD) of radioactive waste is close to becoming a reality for Finland, Sweden and France. High-technology development and advanced knowledge has made it possible to defend the feasibility and the safety of such facilities, making the European Union a leader in the field. Other European countries are closely behind, developing high competence through advanced research programmes, research infrastructures and public engagement.
At the other extreme, there are countries whose GD programmes are at an early stage and no systematic research programmes exist. These include several new Member States but not the Czech Republic and Hungary, both of which have already initiated a siting process.
There are several common reasons for this delay in schedule: small and relatively younger nuclear energy programmes, return of the spent fuel (especially from research reactors) to the countries of origin, open fuel cycle concept (requiring at least 50 years of wet and dry storage). In this context, there has been little pressure on setting up an early GD programme. Currently their disposal concepts are only generic and in most of these countries need updating, taking into account the current socio-economic context.
However, some of these new Member States still aim to have a GD in operation within several decades, e.g. 2055 in Romania and 2067 in Slovenia. Strategic planning based on the experience of more advanced programmes shows the GD process should start immediately in order to be able to achieve these deadlines.
In this context, the implementation of the EC Directive 70/2011 gives the opportunity to progress the advancement of the GD process in these countries.
We conducted infrared spectroscopic observations of bright stars in the direction of the molecular clouds W33 and GMC G23.3 − 0.3. We compared stellar spectro-photometric distances with parallactic distances to these regions, and we were able to assess the association of the detected massive stars with these molecular complexes. The spatial and temporal distributions of the detected stars enabled us to locate sources of ionizing radiation and to gather precise information on the star formation history of these clouds. The studied clouds present different distributions of massive stars.
Gaia will see little of the Galactic mid-plane and nuclear bulge due to high extinction at optical wavelengths. To study the structure and kinematics of the inner Galaxy we must look to longer wavelengths. The Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV, Minniti et al. 2010) survey currently provides just over 4 years of observations covering approximately 560 square degrees of the Galactic bulge and plane. Typically each source is observed 50–150 times in the Ks band over this period. Using these data we provide relative proper motions for approximately 200 million unique sources down to Ks∼16 with uncertainties approaching 1 mas yr−1. In addition, we fit a solution of the parallactic motion of all sources with significant proper motion and discover a number of new nearby brown dwarfs. These results will allow us to identify faint common proper motion companions to stars with Gaia parallaxes, increasing the number of brown dwarf benchmark objects. Our absolute astrometric calibration precision is currently ∼ 2 mas yr−1, based on PPMXL. The Gaia absolute astrometric reference grid will allow us to precisely anchor our results and measure the streaming motions of stars in the bulge. Finally, we anticipate that the catalogue could provide kinematic distances to the numerous optically invisible high amplitude variable stars that VVV is discovering.
Today, three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus are the most abundant fish in the White Sea and are close to their historical maximum. Based on observations from 2011–2013, this study reports quantitative and qualitative characteristics of juvenile stickleback diet during periods of active feeding in coastal Zostera seagrass beds. The following planktonic taxa dominated stomach contents: copepods Temora longicornis and Microsetella norvegica, ciliophora Helicostomella subulata. Benthic organisms such as Oligochaetae and Orthocladiinae also played an important role, whereas the literature suggests they were once rare in marine stickleback diets. Consumption patterns depended on fish size, with the most pronounced diet shift taking place as juveniles reached a length of 15 mm, in late August. In larger juveniles the highest correlation between the abundance of food organisms in stomachs and in the sea was observed for Orthocladiinae, suggesting that they are the preferred food. Overall, changes in diet followed changes in the abundance of available food organisms, but food selectivity analysis of planktonic organisms showed that M. norvegica were actively selected by juveniles.
Our recent efforts using primarily nanodiamonds as lubricant additives are discussed. For traditional high performance engine oils, our results show a reduction in friction for steel surfaces for both laboratory experiments under controlled conditions and in a pilot study of passenger cars under typical driving conditions. Examination of the surfaces suggests that surface polishing at the sub-micron scale may be responsible for these results. A separate set of experiments using a quartz crystal microbalance to measure dissipation and drag due to friction has shown that when added to water the charge of the nanodiamond acquired from surface functionalization can have a large influence on uptake and friction at the water-metal interface. More importantly, these results suggest the possibility of creating nanodiamonds with controllable frictional drag at the solid-liquid interface through surface processing. Companion simulation results for nanodiamonds in water sliding between diamond surfaces are also presented. Future possibilities for further understanding and tuning the properties of nanodiamonds as lubricant additives through synergistic experiments and modeling are also discussed.
Synergistic compositions of detonation nanodiamond (ND) particles in the form of 100nm aggregates in combination with molybdenum dialkyldithiophosphate were used as additives to 10W40 oils. Ring-on-disk tribological tests were performed under high load conditions using friction pairs with different hardnesses, namely normalized-normalized (“soft/soft”) and normalized-quenched (“soft/hard”) steel samples. For the “soft/hard” steel friction pair NDs provide significant reduction in both the coefficient of friction and wear as well as demonstrate polishing. For the “soft/soft” steel friction pair, however, no difference in the coefficients of friction was observed when the base oil was used with or without ND. In the test with oil containing the ND additive, the wear scar in the disk was wider, but more shallow, than in the test with pure oil. Current tests indicate that the significance of the reduction of friction and wear of the sliding surfaces in the presence of the ND additive in oil strongly depends on the hardness of the friction surfaces and most probably is connected with ND polishing effect.
We prove the CR version of the Obata's result for the first eigenvalue of the sub-Laplacian in the setting of a compact strictly pseudoconvex pseudohermitian three-dimensional manifold with non-negative CR-Paneitz operator which satisfies a Lichnerowicz-type condition. We show that if the first positive eigenvalue of the sub-Laplacian takes the smallest possible value, then, up to a homothety of the pseudohermitian structure, the manifold is the standard Sasakian three-dimensional unit sphere.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
More than 20000 observations of Near Earth asteroids and comets are collected and reduced in Pulkovo Observatory during last 10 years. For observations of these objects two robotic telescopes are used – ZA-320M (Cassegrain system, D = 320 mm, F = 3200 mm) at Pulkovo and MTM-500M (Maksutov – Cassegrain system, D = 500 mm, F = 4100 mm) at Kislovodsk mountain station. These telescopes perform CCD observations of objects up to 18.0 and 20.5 magnitude, correspondingly. The results of observations are regularly submitted to Minor Planet Center.
In the current work tribological properties of different compositions of lubricant additives based on detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles are reported. As compared to the previous findings using polyalphaolefin oil as a base oil for the additives, it is demonstrated that polymer esters are also a valuable base oil for the additive preparation. It is also demonstrated that synergistic compositions of DND with organic molybdenum provide significant improvement of the polyalphaolephin and mineral oils lubricating properties. Treatment of of DND with fluorine containing gases is an additional possibility toward reduced friction and wear of the DND-based nanolubricants.