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A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Objectives: People living with HIV (PLWH) are more likely to report sleep difficulties and cognitive deficits. While cognitive impairment associated with sleep problems have been found in healthy and medical populations, less is known about the effects of poor sleep health (SH) on cognition among PLWH. This study examined differences in cognitive performance among participants classified based upon their HIV status and reported SH. Methods: One hundred sixteen (N=116) adults recruited from the Greater Los Angeles community were administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery and completed a questionnaire about SH. Participants were classified into the following HIV/SH groups: [HIV+/good sleep health (SH+; n=34); HIV−/SH+ (n=32); HIV−/poor sleep health (SH−; n=18) and HIV+/SH− (n=32)]. Results: For both HIV+ and HIV− individuals, poor SH was associated with lower cognitive performance, with the domains of learning and memory driving the overall relationship. The HIV+/SH− group had poorer scores in domains of learning and memory compared to the SH+ groups. Additionally, the HIV−/SH− group demonstrated poorer learning compared to the HIV−/SH+ group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that sleep problems within medical populations are relevant to cognitive functioning, highlighting the clinical and scientific importance of monitoring sleep health and cognition to help identify individuals at greatest risk of poor health outcomes. Longitudinal investigations using both objective and subjective measures of sleep are needed to determine the robustness of the current findings and the enduring effects of poor SH in the context of chronic disease. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1038–1046)
A programme to measure precise radial velocities of late-type stars is being carried out at the 1.22-m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO). Wavelength-calibration fiducials are imposed directly on the stellar spectra by passing the starlight through a controlled hydrogen fluoride (HF) absorption cell placed in front of the coude spectrograph. Presently, the primary targets of the programme are bright G, K, and M giants. Preliminary results confirm the low-amplitude, radial-velocity (RV) variability of the yellow giants discovered at the Canada-Prance-Hawaii telescope using the HF technique. These yellow giants and additional bright candidates are now being continually monitored at DAO. Preliminary results also indicate that the “yellow giant” variability extends to the early-M giants. In addition to the RV variations, the data also yield information on the simultaneous variability of the Ca II λ8662 line, Teff, as well as the R - I index of the stars.
Lameness is a major economic and welfare issue for the sheep industry in the UK and Ireland. It has been estimated that footrot costs the UK sheep industry £24 million per year (Nieuwhof and Bishop, 2005). Although a feet lesion scoring system in sheep has been devised to monitor lameness, it is a time-consuming process. Locomotion scoring is well established in dairy cattle to record the incidence of lameness, but needs validation within sheep. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the association between locomotion score and the level and pattern of feet lesion scores in sheep. There is some evidence that there are differences in susceptibility to lameness between breeds. Therefore, a secondary aim of the study was to investigate feet lesions and locomotion in four crossbred genotype ewes.
Improvements in the level and quality of lamb output are required to help sustain the financial viability of hill sheep farming. In the lowland sector breed substitution has been shown to be an effective means of increasing ewe productivity and lamb carcass lean content. However, there is a lack of adequate contemporary breed comparisons for the hill sector to base breeding decisions on. Consequently, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of ewe and ram breed on lamb output under a range of hill environments.
The obsessive-compulsive core dimensions model posits that compulsions are driven by harm avoidance, or to counteract a sense of incompleteness, known as ‘not just right experiences’ (NJREs). Evidence suggests NJREs are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism. However, manipulations of NJREs have focused on the visual system, and have not been examined in the context of arousal fears associated with anxiety sensitivity (AS). This study examined the relationship between OC symptoms, perfectionism, and AS using in vivo manipulations of NJREs across visual, auditory, and tactile sensory modalities. Using a 2 (NJRE vs. JRE) × 2 (AS vs. no AS) between-subjects design, participants (N = 132) completed behavioural tasks designed to elicit NJREs and assess task discomfort and urge to counteract sensory-specific stimuli. Strong relationships were observed between task ratings and self-report measures of NJREs, incompleteness, OCD symptoms, maladaptive perfectionism, and AS. Those in the NJRE conditions gave significantly higher task ratings compared to JRE conditions; however, there was no main effect for AS. While maladaptive perfectionism and AS were significant predictors of task performance, there was no interaction between the two. The results confirm and extend research suggesting a strong association between NJREs and incompleteness motivations, as well as sensory-affective disturbance in OCD.
From measurements of Tautenburg Schmidt plates with the APM facility in Cambridge we obtained absolute proper motions of the Galactic globular clusters M 3 and M 92 directly with respect to large numbers of background galaxies (Scholz et al. 1993, 1994). We have extended our work to the dSphs in Draco and Ursa Minor (Scholz & Irwin 1994) and to other Galactic globular clusters using Tautenburg, Palomar and UK Schmidt plates. Combining our absolute proper motion of a cluster with its known radial velocity and distance (using common parameters of the solar motion) we derive the cluster orbit in the Galaxy (cf. Odenkirchen & Brosche 1992).
Using automated scans of Tautenburg Schmidt plates with the APM facility in Cambridge (UK) the mean tangential motion of two globular clusters, M3 and M92, is determined directly with respect to a well defined extragalactic reference frame. In both fields five pairs of plates centred on the cluster with epoch differences from 20 to 27 years were measured. In the independent proper motion determination with 1200 to 2300 reference galaxies for each pair of plates we used 3rd order polynomials and a stepwise regression method. The mean absolute cluster p.m. corrected for systematic effects dependent on the coordinates was obtained with an accuracy of ±0.03 arcsec/century for M3 and ±0.06 arcsec/century for M92.
We present spectroscopic observations of ~200 giant stars in two fields toward the Galactic bulge. The positions of fields 588 and 589 are at l,b = (8,7) and (12,3), respectively, which corresponds to a Galactocentric distance of ~1.6 kpc for the stars in the bulge. The K giants were selected from color-magnitude and color-color diagrams produced by scans of B, R and I plates from the APM machine. The spectra were obtained with the MX multi-object spectrograph at the Steward 90″ telescope, and with the Red Channel spectrograph at the MMT. Radial velocities good to ≪ 10 km/s were obtained from cross-correlation techniques. A grid of ~100 standard stars was built to calibrate spectrophotometric indices that provide abundances and luminosities.
Wapusk National Park is part of the Hudson Bay Lowlands in Manitoba and covers 11 475 km2. Lichen surveys were initiated in 2002 but none have reported all species incorporating broad habitat types or a baseline on which to make management decisions. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine species diversity, including species richness and evenness of the lichens present; 2) to explore species distributions; and 3) to compare lichen growth form and substratum relationships among physiographic regions. Fifty-six locations in four habitat types (physiographic regions: open coastal beach ridge, forested coastal beach ridge, boreal transition forest, and peat plateau bog) and three burned locations were visited over nine years and specimens were collected at each location. A total of 276 species and subspecies were collected. One species is new to Canada (Buellia uberior Anzi) and ten species are new to Manitoba. Species diversity, evenness, and richness were highest in the coastal beach ridge. The open coastal beach ridge, boreal transition forest, and peat plateau bogs formed separate clusters in the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) but the forested coastal beach ridge overlapped with the open coastal beach ridge. Unique species in each region may serve as indicators to monitor long-term changes. While the coastal beach ridge facilitates travel along the coast, it also represents the region with the highest need for intervention to conserve species diversity.
We present results from orbit integrations for the globular clusters M 3 and M 92. Absolute proper motions recently measured from Tautenburg Schmidt plates and a three-component mass model for the Galaxy have been used to derive the galactic orbits of these clusters. Orbital parameters and the influence of observational uncertainties on the determination of the orbits are discussed.
Palomar and Tautenburg Schmidt plates with a base line of about 35 years have been measured with the Automated Photographic Measuring (APM) system in Cambridge (UK) in order to obtain the proper motions of the Galactic dwarf spheroidal satellites (dSph) in Draco and Ursa Minor with respect to a well defined extragalactic reference frame. The investigations were encouraged by the accuracy level achieved for the mean absolute proper motions of galactic globular clusters (0.05 arcsec/century from 25 years base line Tautenburg plate pairs) which is comparable to the expected proper motion of the Draco and Ursa Minor dSph assuming tangential motions of about 100 km/s. Different methods for the removal of systematic errors in the absolute proper motion introduced by the measuring and reduction process are discussed. The more accurate relative proper motions of individual stars in both dSphs obtained by Stetson (1980) and by Cudworth, Olszewski & Schommer (1986) provide an external comparison and are also used to obtain the mean absolute proper motion of the dSphs.
This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping efficacy of spousally bereaved parents 6 years later. Mediation pathways for program effects differed across outcomes at the 6-year follow-up.
A developmental cascade model from functioning in adolescence to emerging adulthood was tested using data from a 15-year longitudinal follow-up of 240 emerging adults whose families participated in a randomized, experimental trial of a preventive program for divorced families. Families participated in the program or literature control condition when the offspring were ages 9–12. Short-term follow-ups were conducted 3 months and 6 months following completion of the program when the offspring were in late childhood/early adolescence. Long-term follow-ups were conducted 6 years and 15 years after program completion when the offspring were in middle to late adolescence and emerging adulthood, respectively. It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on mental health and substance use outcomes in emerging adulthood would be explained by developmental cascade effects of program effects in adolescence. The results provided support for a cascade effects model. Specifically, academic competence in adolescence had cross-domain effects on internalizing problems and externalizing problems in emerging adulthood. In addition, adaptive coping in adolescence was significantly, negatively related to binge drinking. It was unexpected that internalizing symptoms in adolescence were significantly negatively related to marijuana use and alcohol use. Gender differences occurred in the links between mental health problems and substance use in adolescence and mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.
Background: Post concussion syndrome (PCS) can affect up to 30% of patients with concussion. Biomarkers of this condition would be beneficial for diagnosis and management. We hypothesized that eye tracking parameters would correlate with microstructural changes of white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in patients with PCS. Methods: Sixty patients with PCS and at least 2 concussions participated in our prospective study. Attention and executive function were tested using Visual Attention Scanning Technology (VAST). In a matching task, the normalized number of visits to master image before making the first selection is used as a surrogate of working memory. We related performance on VAST to white matter integrity using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics of diffusion tensor imaging data. Results: 60 participants (mean age 34.3 years, SD 13.8) had a mean of 4 concussions. There were negative correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum and normalized number of visits to master image before first selection (r=-0.432, p=0.001; r=-0.504, p<0.001; and r=-0.388, p=0.002; respectively). A negative correlation was also seen between right cingulum FA and the global processing index (r=-0.349, p=0.006). Conclusions: Impaired performance on eye tracking measures of attention and executive function may reflect alterations in white matter tracts.
We have developed a catalog of local low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) which is selected by objective criteria. We present here a luminosity function (LF) for LSBGs based on that catalog. This LF includes the effects of the completeness corrections to the LSBG catalog, and includes only galaxies with surface brightnesses (22.25 ≤ μB(0) ≤ 24.5) fainter than those included in the CfA Redshift Survey (see Marzke et al. 1994, AJ 108, 437). The best-fitting Schechter function has parameters α = –1.42, M∗B = −18.34, and Φ∗ = 0.0036 h3 Mpc–3 mag–1. Thus, surveys which do not take account of the observational selection bias imposed by surface brightness are missing a substantial fraction of the local galaxies, but, this missed fraction is not large enough to explain the counts of faint blue galaxies observed at moderate redshift.
The multi-object spectroscopic facility FOCAP at the Anglo-Australian Telescope has been used to obtain spectra centred at the Ca II IR triplet of 14 stars in the field of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. This satellite of our own Galaxy was recently discovered by Irwin et al. (1990) from APM measures of UK Schmidt Telescope photographic plates.