To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Control of fire was a hallmark of developing human cognition and an essential technology for the colonisation of cooler latitudes. In Europe, the earliest evidence comes from recent work at the site of Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar in south-eastern Spain. Charred and calcined bone and thermally altered chert were recovered from a deep, 0.8-million-year-old sedimentary deposit. A combination of analyses indicated that these had been heated to 400–600°C, compatible with burning. Inspection of the sediment and hydroxyapatite also suggests combustion and degradation of the bone. The results provide new insight into Early Palaeolithic use of fire and its significance for human evolution.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
Psychotic disorders continue to be among the most disabling and scientifically challenging of all mental illnesses. Accumulating research findings suggest that the etiologic processes underlying the development of these disorders are more complex than had previously been assumed. At the same time, this complexity has revealed a wider range of potential options for preventive intervention, both psychosocial and biological. In part, these opportunities result from our increased understanding of the dynamic and multifaceted nature of the neurodevelopmental mechanisms involved in the disease process, as well as the evidence that many of these entail processes that are malleable. In this article, we review the burgeoning research literature on the prodrome to psychosis, based on studies of individuals who meet clinical high risk criteria. This literature has examined a range of factors, including cognitive, genetic, psychosocial, and neurobiological. We then turn to a discussion of some contemporary models of the etiology of psychosis that emphasize the prodromal period. These models encompass the origins of vulnerability in fetal development, as well as postnatal stress, the immune response, and neuromaturational processes in adolescent brain development that appear to go awry during the prodrome to psychosis. Then, informed by these neurodevelopmental models of etiology, we turn to the application of new research paradigms that will address critical issues in future investigations. It is expected that these studies will play a major role in setting the stage for clinical trials aimed at preventive intervention.
Deterioration in premorbid functioning is a common feature of schizophrenia, but sensitivity to psychosis conversion among clinical high-risk samples has not been examined. This study evaluates premorbid functioning as a predictor of psychosis conversion among a clinical high-risk sample, controlling for effects of prior developmental periods. Participants were 270 clinical high-risk individuals in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study—I, 78 of whom converted to psychosis over the next 2.5 years. Social, academic, and total maladjustment in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence were rated using the Cannon–Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Early adolescent social dysfunction significantly predicted conversion to psychosis (hazard ratio = 1.30, p = .014), independently of childhood social maladjustment and independently of severity of most baseline positive and negative prodromal symptoms. Baseline prodromal symptoms of disorganized communication, social anhedonia, suspiciousness, and diminished ideational richness mediated this association. Early adolescent social maladjustment and baseline suspiciousness together demonstrated moderate positive predictive power (59%) and high specificity (92.1%) in predicting conversion. Deterioration of academic and total functioning, although observed, did not predict conversion to psychosis. Results indicate early adolescent social dysfunction to be an important early predictor of conversion. As such, it may be a good candidate for inclusion in prediction algorithms and could represent an advantageous target for early intervention.
Exposure to maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional period results in an earlier prepartum activation of the fetal hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and altered stress responsiveness in the offspring. It is not known whether such changes are a consequence of exposure of the oocyte and/or the early embryo to maternal undernutrition in the periconceptional period. We have compared the effects of ‘periconceptional’ undernutrition (PCUN: maternal undernutrition imposed from at least 45 days before until 6 days after conception), and ‘early preimplantation’ undernutrition (PIUN: maternal undernutrition imposed for only 6 days after conception) on the expression of genes in the fetal anterior pituitary that regulate adrenal growth and steroidogenesis, proopiomelanorcortin (POMC), prohormone convertase 1 (PC1), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 2 (11βHSD1 and 2) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in fetal sheep at 136–138 days of gestation. Pituitary GR mRNA expression was significantly lower in the PCUN and PIUN groups in both singletons and twins compared with controls, although this suppression of GR expression was not associated with hypermethylation of the exon 17 region of the GR gene. In twin fetuses, the pituitary 11βHSD1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the PIUN group compared with the PCUN but not the control group. Thus, exposure of the single or twin embryo to maternal undernutrition for only 1 week after conception is sufficient to cause a suppression of the pituitary GR expression in late gestation. These changes may contribute to the increased stress responsiveness of the HPA axis in the offspring after exposure to poor nutrition during the periconceptional period.
Poor maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. To determine the impact of maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional (PCUN: −45 days to 6 days) and preimplantation (PIUN: 0–6 days) periods on cardiac growth and metabolism, we have quantified the mRNA and protein abundance of key regulators of cardiac growth and metabolism in the left ventricle of the sheep fetus in late gestation. The cardiac protein abundance of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phospho-acetyl CoA carboxykinase (ACC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK-4) were decreased, whereas ACC was increased in singletons in the PCUN and PIUN groups. In twins, however, cardiac ACC was decreased in the PCUN and PIUN groups, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) was increased in the PIUN group. In singletons, the cardiac abundance of insulin receptor β (IRβ) was decreased in the PCUN group, and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK-1) was decreased in the PCUN and PIUN groups. In twins, however, the cardiac abundance of IRβ and phospho-Akt substrate 160kDa (pAS160) were increased in the PIUN group. The cardiac abundance of insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF-2R), protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were decreased in PCUN and PIUN singletons and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was also decreased in the PIUN singletons. In contrast, in twins, cardiac abundance of IGF-2R and PKCα were increased in the PCUN and PIUN groups, phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (pRPS6) was increased in the PCUN group, and ERK and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were also increased in the PIUN fetuses. In conclusion, maternal undernutrition limited to around the time of conception is sufficient to alter the abundance of key factors regulating cardiac growth and metabolism and this may increase the propensity for cardiovascular diseases in later life.
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.
The release and migration of gaseous carbon-14 has been identified as a key issue for geological disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the UK. A significant fraction of carbon-14 in the UK inventory is in irradiated graphite. This paper describes measurements of gaseous carbon-14 releases from irradiated graphite on immersion in alkaline solution. Apparatus has been developed to discriminate organic and inorganic (14CO/14CO2) species in the gas phase by means of selective oxidation and capture. In the initial experiment, small amounts of gaseous carbon-14 (∼4 Bq) were released from 9 g of crushed graphite within a two-week period. In a long-term experiment, cumulative releases were measured periodically from an intact specimen of graphite over a 14 month period. A small fraction of the graphite carbon-14 inventory was released to the gas phase (∼0.004% as CO/CO2 and ∼0.001% associated with organic compounds). A larger quantity of carbon-14, about 0.1%, was released to the solution phase and was thought to be mainly 14CO2, with some possible organic component. In general, the rate of gaseous carbon-14 release decreased with time. The results suggest a small initial release of relatively labile, accessible carbon-14, with longer term release occurring at a much slower rate. Tritium (T) releases were also measured.
Deuteron magnetic resonance (DMR) has been used to further examine hydrogen (deuteron) populations in amorphous-silicon (a-Si) and in n-type crystalline silicon (x-Si). In both a-Si and x-Si DMR shows central components arising at least in part from isolated molecular deuterium and sharp doublet features from Si-bonded hydrogen (D). Our new results include the observation in x-Si of molecule-specific DMR multiple echoes from trapped ortho-D2. A second new result is the observation in x-Si of a substantialn Si-bonded D population with splittings between 46 and 80 kHz and perhaps arising from (deuterated) hydrogen bond-centered and antibonding configurations.
The prenatal diet can program an individual's cardiovascular system towards later higher resting blood pressure and kidney dysfunction, but the extent to which these programmed responses are directly determined by the timing of maternal nutritional manipulation is unknown. In the present study we examined whether maternal nutrient restriction targeted over the period of maximal placental growth, i.e. days 28–80 of gestation, resulted in altered blood pressure or kidney development in the juvenile offspring. This was undertaken in 6-month-old sheep born to mothers fed control (100–150 % of the recommended metabolisable energy (ME) intake for that stage of gestation) or nutrient-restricted (NR; 50 % ME; n 6) diets between days 28 and 80 of gestation. Controls were additionally grouped according to normal (>3, n 7) or low body condition score (LBCS; <2, n 6), thereby enabling us to examine the effect of maternal body composition on later cardiovascular function. From day 80 to term (approximately 147 d) all sheep were fed to 100 % ME. Offspring were weaned at 12 weeks and pasture-reared until 6 months of age when cardiovascular function was determined. Both LBCS and NR sheep tended to have lower resting systolic (control, 85 (SE 2); LBCS, 77 (SE 3); NR, 77 (SE 3) mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure relative to controls. Total nephron count was markedly lower in both LBCS and NR relative to controls (LBCS, 59 (SE 6); NR, 56 (SE 12) %). Our data suggest that maternal body composition around conception is as important as the level of nutrient intake during early pregnancy in programming later cardiovascular health.
A new synthesis route, based on internal oxidation reactions in multiphase alloys, is proposed for the controlled production of near-surface, complex ceramic-ceramic or ceramic-metallic composite structures. Using this approach, a microdispersion of a complex nitride perovskite, Cr3PtN, was formed in Cr2N or Cr(Pt) by internal nitridation of a two-phase Cr(Pt) + Cr3Pt precursor alloy. A framework for use of this phenomenon to synthesize island micro- (and potentially meso- or nano-) composite functional surface structures is presented.
Following the finite-time collapse of an unsteady interacting boundary
1), shortened length and time scales are examined here in the near-wall
transitional-turbulent boundary layers or during dynamic stall. The next
are described, in which (step 2) normal pressure gradients come into operation
with a continuing nonlinear critical-layer jump and then (step 3) vortex
induced typically. Normal pressure gradients enter in at least two ways,
on the internal or external flow configuration. This yields for certain
an extended KdV equation with an extra nonlinear integral contribution
by a coefficient which is proportional to the normal rate of change of
the velocity profile locally and whose sign turns out to be crucial. Positive
the coefficient lead to a further finite-time singularity, while negative
a rapid secondary instability phenomenon. Zero values in contrast allow
between solitary waves and wave packets to emerge at large scaled times,
eventually returning the flow to its original, longer, interactive, boundary-layer
but now coupled with multiple shorter-scale Euler regions. In external
quasi-external flows more generally an extended Benjamin–Ono equation
leading to a reversal in the roles of positive and negative values of the
The next step, 3, typically involves the strong wind-up of a local vortex,
leading on to
explosion or implosion of the vortex. Further discussion is also presented,
the three-dimensional setting, the computational implications, and experimental
Seasonal haul-out patterns and diet of individually marked leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) were investigated at Bird Island, South Georgia during the 1983–96 winters. A total of 2956 leopard seal sightings were made, and 121 seals were tagged during the study, mainly between 1993 and 1996. Photographs of scars and pelage patterns were also used to identify a subset of these individuals across years, which provided no evidence of tag loss between or within years. Leopard seals were observed between April and November; the mean time between the first and last sightings in each year was 208 d (s d ± 48). Between 1993–96, eight seals were resident around the island for more than 100 d, and the longest recorded residence was 130 d. The proportion of tagged seals resighted was 0.35 and 0.17 in 1995 and 1996 respectively. Based on estimates of body length, <5% of the seals were juveniles (0–1 years) and >70% were not sexually mature. There was considerable inter-annual variation in abundance, with a maximum of 502 sightings during 1994, compared with a minimum of 21 during 1986 and 1989. Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) were the main prey item (58% of kills observed and 53% of scats). Other items included penguins (28% of kills observed and 20% of scats) and fish (24% of scats). Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) and seabirds other than penguins were also present in the diet in small quantities.