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Clathrate Hydrates can be formed under high vacuum conditions by annealing vapor-deposited amorphous ices of the appropriate composition. When astrophysically significant H2O:CH3OH ices are deposited and annealed, Type II Clathrate Hydrates are formed which can hold up to 6 mole % large guest molecules such as methanol and 12 mole % small guest molecules such as CO2 and CO. The solid state transformation of amorphous mixed molecular ice into crystalline clathrate hydrate and its sublimation at higher temperatures may serve to explain heretofore anomalous mechanical and gas release properties observed in cometary ices and laboratory ice analog experiments.
Digital tonometry is designed to non-invasively screen for endothelial dysfunction by the detection of impaired flow-induced reactive hyperaemia in the fingertip. We determined whether digital reactive hyperaemia correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis in two groups of children at increased risk for endothelial dysfunction.
A total of 15 obese children and 23 non-obese, dyslipidaemic children, 8–21 years of age, were enrolled, and their medical histories, anthropometric measurements, carotid wall thickness by means of ultrasonography, and fasting blood samples for cardiovascular risk factors were obtained. The standard endoPAT index of digital reactive hyperaemia was modified to reflect the true peak response or the integrated response of the entire post-occlusion period. In each group, age, sex, pubertal status, carotid wall thickness, and multiple cardiovascular risk factors were tested as predictors of endothelial dysfunction.
In the non-obese, dyslipidaemic group, but not in the obese group, both indices strongly correlated with height (r=0.55, p=0.007, by peak response) followed by weight, waist circumference, and age. In both groups, neither index of reactive hyperaemia significantly correlated with any other cardiovascular risk factor.
Contrary to the known age-related increase in atherosclerosis, digital reactive hyperaemia increased with age and its correlates in non-obese, dyslipidaemic children and was not related to other cardiovascular risk factors in either group. The reason for the lack of this relationship with age in obese children is unknown. The age-dependent physiology of digital microvascular reactivity and the endothelium-independent factors controlling the peak hyperaemic response need further study in children with a wide age range.
We report the morphological and compositional characteristics of Er-doped GaN grown by MBE on Si(111) substrates and their effect on optical properties. The GaN was grown by molecular beam epitaxy using solid sources (for Ga and Er) and a plasma gas source for N2. The films emit by photoexcitation in the visible and near infrared wavelengths from the Er atomic levels. The morphology of the GaN:Er films was examined by AFM. Composition was determined by SIMS depth profiling that revealed a large Er concentration at 4.5×1021 atoms/cm3 accompanied by a high oxygen impurity concentration.
We present the results of a program to develop techniques that enable high-resolution photometric measurements using modest research instruments available to small colleges, and then demonstrate those techniques in a pilot photometric project.
Using a 25 cm Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope and SBIG ST7E CCD camera, we develop techniques that enabled milli-magnitude photometric resolution. The pilot project studied five transits of the recently discovered gas giant planet orbiting HD 209458. We measured a flux drop of 1.46 ± 0.17% during the transit which corresponds to a planetary diameter of 1.39 ± 0.14 RJup, a transit period of 2h 48min ± 21min, and planet orbital inclination of 87.6 ± 1.3°. We determined the orbital period as 3.5234 ± 0.0026 days. These results agree well with other studies which used professional grade research instruments. We suggest a number of other challenging photometric research areas suitable for graduate and undergraduate investigation using equipment common to many small colleges.
In this paper, the degradation processes of commercial supercapacitors aged at 2.7 V and 65 °C for 2000 h were studied. The crystallinity, thermal stability, and specific surface areas of the carbon electrodes of the supercapacitors were measured. Significant changes and degradations in the carbon electrodes were observed for the aged supercapacitors. New functional groups were also found on the surface of the electrodes. The degradation of the lattice structures and the reduction in the specific surface area were as well observed for the aged supercapacitors. It was suggested that the aging of supercapacitors significantly changed the electrode surface which affects considerably electrical properties and functionality of supercapacitors. We have also performed experiments which suggest that the aging effect on the electrode is not uniformly distributed through its length.
We report the morphological and compositional characteristics of Er-doped GaN grown by MBE on Si(111) substrates and their effect on optical properties. The GaN was grown by molecular beam epitaxy using solid sources (for Ga and Er) and a plasma gas source for N2. The films emit by photoexcitation in the visible and near infrared wavelengths from the Er atomic levels. The morphology of the GaN:Er films was examined by AFM. Composition was determined by SIMS depth profiling that revealed a large Er concentration at 4.5 × 1021 atoms/cm3 accompanied by a high oxygen impurity concentration.
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