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Salvia daiguii Y.K.Wei & Y.B.Huang, a new species from China, is described. Salvia daiguii belongs to Salvia subg. Glutinaria (Raf.) G.X.Hu, C.L.Xiang & B.T.Drew, sect. Sobiso (Raf.) G.X.Hu, A.Takano & B.T.Drew, and is distinguished from morphologically similar species by differences in its habit, leaves, inflorescences and flowers. It has a narrow distribution in a karst region of Yongding District, Hunan Province, central China. A key to the Chinese species of section Sobiso is also presented.
Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a children’s neuromuscular disorder. Although motor neuron loss is a major feature of the disease, we have identified fatty acid abnormalities in SMA patients and in preclinical animal models, suggesting metabolic perturbation is also an important component of SMA. Methods: Biochemical, histological, proteomic, and high resolution respirometry were used. Results: SMA patients are more susceptible to dyslipidemia than the average population as determined by a standard lipid profile in a cohort of 72 pediatric patients. As well, we observed a non-alcoholic liver disease phenotype in apreclinical mouse model. Denervation alone was not sufficient to induce liver steatosis, as a mouse model of ALS, did not develop fatty liver. Hyperglucagonemia in Smn2B/-mice could explain the hepatic steatosis by increasing plasma substrate availability via glycogen depletion and peripheral lipolysis. Proteomic analysis identified mitochondrion and lipid metabolism as major clusters. Alterations in mitochondrial function were revealed by high-resolution respirometry. Finally, low-fat diets led to increased survival in Smn2B/-mice. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence for lipid metabolism defects in SMA. Further investigation will be required to establish the primary mechanism of these alterations and understand how they lead to additional co-morbidities in SMA patients.
The International Centre for Diffraction Data (1CDD), formally the Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), recently published a compilation of metal and alloy indexes of powder diffraction and structural data. This compilation is designed to make the identification and characterization of metallic and related materials easier and far more accurate. Systematic searches for chemical analogs and greater use of partial chemical knowledge are now possible.
X-ray diffraction techniques have been used for the structure characterization of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films. A powder diffraction analysis of Y-Ba-Cu-O films showed that the films deposited at 650°C on Si are polycrystalline and have an orthorhambic structure similar to that of the YBa2Cu3O7 bulk superconductors. In addition to the conventional powder diffraction technique, both the rocking curve and the grazing incidence diffraction methods were used to characterize a YBa2Cu3O7 film on (110) SrTiO3 substrate. Results showed that the film was epitaxially grown and aligned with its substrate in a true epitaxy. Phase identification and line broadening analyses of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films showed that the films are comprised of one or more superconducting phases and probably contain stacking faults.
As a result of interest in the characterization of materials with large d-spacings and layer periodicities, it has become necessary to develop a low-angle diffraction material which has welldefined diffraction peaks down to very small 2θ angles. The use of silver behenate, CH3(CH2)20COO-Ag, was introduced by one of the authors (TB) at the 1991 International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Annual Meeting and was shown to have a set of well-defined (001) diffraction peaks down to 1.5° 2θ when using CuKα radiation. The silver behenate diffraction peaks were observed to be slightly asymmetric with relatively long tails at the low angle side of the peaks. The average crystallite size along the c-axis was estimated using the Scherrer equation and was found to be 900 Å.
A task group of the JCPDS-ICJDD Data Collection and Analysis Subcommittee was established with the charge of investigating the use of silver behenate as a possible low-angle calibration material for diffraction applications. Utilizing several data collection and data analysis techniques, d001 long-period spacings in the range of 58.219-58.480 Å were obtained. Using the same collected data and one data analysis refinement calculation method resulted in long-period spacing with a range of 58.303-58.425 Å. Data collected using a silicon internal standard and the same singular data analysis calculation method provided d001 values with a range of 58.363-58.381 Å.
The formation of a full-range 2θ diffraction sample was also investigated. Silver behenate and inorganic powders were mixed with an epoxy binder to form a permanent sample which provides diffraction peaks over the entire 2θ range of a powder diffractometer.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
AFM-based nanoelectrical modes have numerous
applications in fields ranging from semiconductors
to biology. The data produced have traditionally
been in the form of a 2D map, generated in contact
mode, with a single electrical data point per
XY location. Electrical ramps
or spectra would be generated at a few, carefully
selected locations. This article discusses a new
approach to nanoelectrical imaging that creates an
electrical data cube and a correlated nanomechanical
data cube while operating at normal imaging speeds.
This approach avoids contact mode imaging, thus
extending electrical measurements to soft and
fragile samples and improving measurement
consistency. Moreover, this is a general approach
that is applicable to most nanoelectrical modes and
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations. Overall, the pooled analysis yielded a statistically significant association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07–1.62). Furthermore, six studies that tested maternal enterovirus infection showed a pooled OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.05–2.27). Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (I2 = 70.1%, P < 0.001) and was mainly attributable to the different study designs, ascertaining methods and sample size among different studies. This study provides evidence for an association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM.
We report on a novel processing route to prepare La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2/Cu bulk composites by low-temperature hot pressing. With increasing copper content, the compressive strength of the composites first decrease and then increase owing to the buffering effect of copper, but the magnetocaloric effect reduces to some extent. Copper addition improves the thermal conductivity of the composites, which compensates for the decrease in thermal conductivity due to porosity. A relatively large entropy change of 5.75–7.19 J/(kg K) at 2 T near the Curie temperature (249 K), good thermal conductivity of 7.51–15.55 W/(m·K), and improved compressive strength of 151.1–248.0 MPa make these composites attractive magnetic refrigeration materials.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Characterize the expression kinetics of HIV-1 Envelope and their relationship to virus production at the cellular level. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In vitro and ex vivo laboratory analyses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Initial studies addressing the kinetics of cell surface. Envelope (Env) expression reveal that Env expression to peaks on day 2 post infection. Next steps include a series of experiments to compare the kinetics of Env cell surface expression with broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb)-mediated ADCC and the characterization of virus production kinetics in this same context. To be maximally effective, ADCC elimination of infected cells should occur before peak Env expression. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Potent bNAbs to HIV-1 recognize vulnerable sites on the HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein and are of great clinical interest due to their potential use in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Their effectiveness depends not only on the neutralization of viral infectivity, but also on the elimination of productively infected cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). On a cellular level, ADCC dynamics are determined by the timing and level of Env expression on the surface of HIV-infected cells. This study aims to delineate the expression kinetics of HIV-1 Envelope and their relationship to virus production. We expect that it will provide new insights into the utility of bNAb-mediated ADCC in treating and possibly curing HIV-1 infection; therefore results might have substantial impact on future HIV treatment strategies.
To explore the prevalence and drivers of hospital-level variability in antibiotic utilization among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients to inform antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.
Retrospective cohort study using data merged from the Pediatric Health Information System and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
The study included 27 transplant centers in freestanding children’s hospitals.
The primary outcome was days of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in the interval from day of HCT through neutrophil engraftment. Hospital antibiotic utilization rates were reported as days of therapy (DOTs) per 1,000 neutropenic days. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate hospital utilization rates, adjusting for patient covariates including demographics, transplant characteristics, and severity of illness. To better quantify the magnitude of hospital variation and to explore hospital-level drivers in addition to patient-level drivers of variation, mixed-effects negative binomial models were also constructed.
Adjusted hospital rates of antipseudomonal antibiotic use varied from 436 to 1121 DOTs per 1,000 neutropenic days, and rates of broad-spectrum, gram-positive antibiotic use varied from 153 to 728 DOTs per 1,000 neutropenic days. We detected variability by hospital in choice of antipseudomonal agent (ie, cephalosporins, penicillins, and carbapenems), but gram-positive coverage was primarily driven by vancomycin use. Considerable center-level variability remained even after controlling for additional hospital-level factors. Antibiotic use was not strongly associated with days of significant illness or mortality.
Among a homogenous population of children undergoing HCT for acute leukemia, both the quantity and spectrum of antibiotic exposure in the immediate posttransplant period varied widely. Antimicrobial stewardship initiatives can apply these data to optimize the use of antibiotics in transplant patients.
Introduction: Two published studies reported natriuretic peptides can aid in risk-stratification of Emergency Department (ED) syncope. We sought to assess the role of N-Terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT pro-BNP) to identify syncope patients at risk for serious adverse events (SAE) within 30 days of the ED visit, and its value above that of the Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS). Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study at 6 large Canadian EDs from Nov 2011 to Feb 2015. We enrolled adults who presented within 24-hours of syncope and excluded those with persistent altered mentation, obvious seizure, and intoxication. We collected patient characteristics, nine CSRS predictors (includes troponin), ED management and NT pro-BNP levels. Adjudicated serious adverse events (SAE) included death, cardiac SAE (arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, serious structural heart disease) and non-cardiac SAE (pulmonary embolism, severe hemorrhage and procedural interventions within 30-days). We used two tailed t-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 1359 patients (mean age 57.2 years, 54.7% females, 13.3% hospitalized) enrolled, 148 patients (10.9%; 0.7% deaths, 7.9% cardiac SAE including 6.1% arrhythmia) suffered SAE within 30-days. The mean NT pro-BNP values, when compared to the patients with no SAE (499.8ng/L) was significantly higher among the 56 patients who suffered SAE after ED disposition (3147ng/L, p=0.001), and among the 35 patients with cardiac SAE after ED disposition (2016.2ng/L, p=0.02). While there was a trend to higher levels among patients who suffered arrhythmia after the ED visit, it was not statistically significant (1776.4ng/L, p=0.07). In a model with CSRS predictors, the adjusted odds ratio for NT pro-BNP was 8.0 (95%CI 1.8, 35.9) and troponin was 3.8 (95%CI 1.7, 8.8). The addition of NT pro-BNP did not significantly improve the classification performance (p=0.76) with areas under the curves for CSRS was 0.91 (95%CI 0.88, 0.95) and CSRS with NT pro-BNP was 0.92 (95%CI 0.88, 0.95). Conclusion: In this multicenter study, mean NT pro-BNP levels were significantly higher among ED syncope patients who suffered SAE including cardiac SAE after ED disposition. Though NT pro-BNP was a significant independent predictor of SAE after ED disposition, it did not improve accuracy in ED syncope risk-stratification when compared to CSRS. Hence, we do not recommend NT pro-BNP measurement for ED syncope management.
Species richness is not evenly distributed across the tree of life and a limited number of lineages comprise an extraordinarily large number of species. In lichen-forming fungi, only two genera are known to be ‘ultradiverse’ (>500 species), with the most diverse genus, Xanthoparmelia, consisting of c. 820 species. While Australia and South Africa are known as current centres of diversity for Xanthoparmelia, it is not well known when and where this massive diversity arose. To better understand the geographical and temporal context of diversification in this diverse genus, we sampled 191 Xanthoparmelia specimens representing c. 124 species/species-level lineages from populations worldwide. From these specimens, we generated a multi-locus sequence data set using Sanger and high-throughput sequencing to reconstruct evolutionary relationships in Xanthoparmelia, estimate divergence times and reconstruct biogeographical histories in a maximum likelihood and Bayesian framework. This study corroborated the phylogenetic placement of several morphologically or chemically diverse taxa within Xanthoparmelia, such as Almbornia, Chondropsis, Karoowia, Namakwa, Neofuscelia, Omphalodiella, Paraparmelia, Placoparmelia and Xanthomaculina, in addition to improved phylogenetic resolution and reconstruction of previously unsampled lineages within Xanthoparmelia. Our data indicate that Xanthoparmelia most likely originated in Africa during the early Miocene, coinciding with global aridification and development of open habitats. Reconstructed biogeographical histories of Xanthoparmelia reveal diversification restricted to continents with infrequent intercontinental exchange by long-distance dispersal. While likely mechanisms by which Xanthoparmelia obtained strikingly high levels of species richness in Australia and South Africa remain uncertain, this study provides a framework for ongoing research into diverse lineages of lichen-forming fungi. Finally, our study highlights a novel approach for generating locus-specific molecular sequence data sets from high throughput metagenomic reads.
Introduction: The management of patient flow in the emergency department (ED) is crucial for the practice of emergency medicine (EM). However, this skill is difficult to teach didactically and is learned implicitly in the latter half of residency training. To help expedite the learning process, we developed the GridlockED board game as an educational tool to simulate ED patient flow. By having junior medical trainees play this game, we believe that they will develop a greater understanding of patient flow and resource management in the ED. Additionally, since GridlockED is a cooperative game, players may also benefit by improving their communication and teamwork skills. Methods: GridlockED was developed over twenty months of iterative gameplay and review. Feedback from attending emergency physicians, residents, and medical students was integrated into the game through a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model. Emergency medicine nurses, physicians and residents at McMaster University were recruited to play GridlockED. Each player completed a pre-survey to collect demographic data and to assess their prior experience with playing board games. All play sessions were recorded for data collection purposes. Following each game session, a member of the research team conducted an exit interview with the players to gather information about their play experience and the educational value of the game. A post-survey was also sent to each participant for further feedback. Results: Eighteen gameplay sessions were conducted from June to August 2017. A total of thirty-two participants played the game (13 emergency physicians, 15 residents, and four nurses). Overall responses to the post-gameplay survey showed that players endorsed GridlockED as a useful potential teaching tool (75%, n=24/32) and the majority felt that it had the potential to improve patient flow in the ED (56%, n=18/32). Most participants found that the game was easy to play (91%, n=27/29), and that the instructions were clear (87.5%, n=28/32). Respondents also felt that the game reflected real life scenarios (56%, n=18) and that cases reflected the types of patients that they saw in the ED (78%, n=25). Conclusion: Our results have shown an overall positive response to GridlockED, with most participants supporting it as both an engaging board game and potential teaching tool. We believe that future studies with larger sample sizes and medical students will further validate the use of serious games in medical education.
Many studies have documented robust relationships between depression and hopelessness and subsequent suicidal thoughts and behaviours; however, much weaker and non-significant effects have also been reported. These inconsistencies raise questions about whether and to what degree these factors confer risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviours.
This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude and clinical utility of depression and hopelessness as risk factors for suicide ideation, attempts and death.
We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies from 1971 to 31 December 2014 that included at least one longitudinal analysis predicting suicide ideation, attempt or death using any depression or hopelessness variable.
Overall prediction was weaker than anticipated, with weighted mean odds ratios of 1.96 (1.81–2.13) for ideation, 1.63 (1.55–1.72) for attempt and 1.33 (1.18–1.49) for death. Adjusting for publication bias further reduced estimates. Effects generally persisted regardless of sample severity, sample age or follow-up length.
Several methodological constraints were prominent across studies; addressing these issues would likely be fruitful moving forward.
Characterisation of genetic diversity in a large number of European pig populations has been undertaken with EC support. The populations sampled included local (rare) breeds, national varieties of the major international breeds, commercial lines and the Chinese Meishan breed. A second phase of the project will sample a further 50 Chinese breeds. Neutral genetic markers (AFLP and microsatellites), with individual or bulk typing, were used and compared.
DNA from 59 European pig populations was extracted on samples of about 50 individuals per population. Individuals were typed for 50 microsatellites and for 148 AFLP bands. A subset of 25 populations was typed for 20 microsatellites on pools of DNA. Allele frequencies were estimated by direct allele counting for the co-dominant markers. Frequencies of AFLP negative alleles (absent bands) were obtained by taking the square root of absent band frequencies. Within-breed variability was summarised using standard statistics: expected and observed heterozygosity, mean observed and effective numbers of alleles, and F statistics. Between-breed diversity analysis was based on a bootstrapped Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree derived from Reynolds distances (DR). The standard distance of Nei (DS) was also calculated.
The structural integrity of nuclear fission and fusion power plant components is the focus of this research. The state of the art is using micro scale specimens milled with a focussed ion beam (FIB). Because of their very low volume such specimens can be lab tested, even when irradiated to low or medium level of activity. This offers a possibility of testing multiple specimens to investigate stochastic effects, e.g. effects of irradiation on the shift of the ductile to brittle transition. However, FIB milled specimens suffer from Ga contamination, to the degree that the validity of fracture data obtained on such specimens is questionable. We propose to use nano-additive manufacturing as an alternative to FIB for making micro scale fracture specimens. A combination of two-photon polymerization and electrodeposition and sputtering was used to manufacture micro-scale Brazilian disk fracture specimens (CBD), which are free from Ga and thus better suited for the study of irradiation effects on structural integrity. In this study Ni CBD specimens were made with 30 µm diameter and up to 13 µm thickness. The slot width varied between 1 µm to 2.9 µm width the corresponding slot length of between 7.5 µm and 8 µm. Consecutive FIB characterization shows that the specimens have polycrystalline microstructure with sub-µm grains. The work is ongoing making W CBD specimens and on reducing the slot width and using chemical vapor deposition fabrication.