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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
All patients undergoing tympanomastoid surgery should be assessed post-operatively for a ‘dead ear’; however, tuning forks are frequently inaccessible.
To demonstrate that smartphone-based vibration applications provide equivalent accuracy to tuning forks when performing Weber's test.
Data were collected on lay participants with no underlying hearing loss. Earplugs were used to simulate conductive hearing loss. Both the right and left ears were tested with the iBrateMe vibration application on an iPhone and using a 512 Hz tuning fork.
Occluding the left ear, the tuning fork lateralised to the left in 18 out of 20 cases. In 20 out of 20 cases, sound lateralised to the left with the iPhone (chi-square test, p = 0.147). Occluding the right ear, the tuning fork lateralised to the right in 19 out of 20 cases. In 19 out of 20 cases, sound lateralised to the right with the iPhone (chi-square test, p > 0.999).
Smartphone-based vibration applications represent a viable, more accessible alternative to tuning forks when assessing for conductive hearing loss. They can therefore be utilised on the ward round, in patients following tympanomastoid surgery, for example.
Evaluate the feasibility, fidelity and preliminary efficacy of Camp NERF to prevent unhealthy weight gain and promote healthy behaviours in children during the summer.
Camp NERF was an 8-week, multicomponent, theory-based programme coupled with the US Department of Agriculture’s Summer Food Service Program. Twelve eligible elementary-school sites were randomized to one of three treatment groups: (i) Active Control (non-nutrition, -physical activity (PA), -mental health); (ii) Standard Care (nutrition and PA); or (iii) Enhanced Care (nutrition and PA, plus cognitive behavioural techniques) programming. Efficacy was determined by assessing mean change by group in child outcomes using hierarchical linear regression models.
Low-income, urban neighbourhoods in Columbus, OH, USA.
Economically disadvantaged, racial minority children of elementary school age (kindergarten–5th grade).
Eighty-seven child–caregiver dyads consented; eighty-one completed pre- and post-intervention assessments resulting in a 93·10 % retention rate. Delivery of the intended lesson occurred 79–90 % of the time. Of the children, 56·98 % (n 49) were female; 89·53 % (n 77) were Black. Overall mean change in BMI Z-score from baseline to post-intervention was −0·03 (se 0·05); change in BMI Z-score did not differ significantly between treatment group. Change in nutrition, PA, mental health or psychosocial outcomes did not differ between groups.
Results from the current study demonstrate feasibility and fidelity, yet no intervention effect of Camp NERF. Instead, findings suggest that participation in structured programming of any type (health behaviour-related or not) may prevent unhealthy summer weight gain. Additional studies are needed to confirm findings. Results have implications for child nutrition policy addressing the issue of summer health.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 68 children. Children with ASD have 2 core areas of difficulty: social communication skills and restricted and repetitive interests and patterns of behavior. Children with social skills deficits are at higher risk of developing mental health problems, and underdeveloped social skills predict poorer quality of life in adulthood. Therapies have been developed to help people with ASD improve social abilities in childhood, often involving a clinician directly teaching social skills lessons, either one-on-one or in a group setting. However, children with ASD can become anxious when interacting with other people and have an intrinsic motivation to interact with technology. To capitalize on this interest, this research team developed a robot, the socially animated machine (SAM) to teach social skills to children with ASD. Previous research found that this intervention was feasible and enjoyable for children with ASD and average cognitive ability, and participants improved in complex emotion recognition following intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether participants of all IQ levels were motivated by the SAM intervention, and whether they improved on emotion identification, facial recognition, social skills, and adaptive behavior. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study recruited 20 children with ASD ages 5–14. Children completed tasks measuring ASD symptoms, IQ, receptive language, facial recognition, and emotion identification and were assigned to the control group (nonemotion dance games with SAM robot) or the intervention group (emotion games with SAM robot). Parents and teachers completed questionnaires about the child’s social skills. Following the robot intervention, facial recognition, emotion identification, and social skills were measured again, and parents and children rated participant enjoyment during the robot interaction. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, parents and children in both groups rated the robot interaction as highly enjoyable and motivating (parent ratings: M=26.4 out of 30, child ratings: M=17.5 out of 20). There were no differences between groups on post-test measures when controlling for pre-test scores (all p>0.05). Both groups improved over time on emotion identification accuracy (intervention: M=13.0% improvement, t=2.57, p<0.05; control: M=10.2% improvement, t=2.38, p<0.05) and parent-rated social skills (intervention: pre-test M=113.8, post-test M=100.6, t=−3.37, p=0.01; Control: pre-test M=107.9, post-test M=89.0, t=−2.83, p<0.05; decrease in scores indicates improvement). Teachers saw a decrease in problem behaviors for the intervention group (pre-test M=127.4, post-test M=119.6, t=−3.79, p<0.01, decrease in scores indicates improvement). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study shows that children with ASD and all levels of cognitive ability enjoyed and were motivated by the SAM robot intervention. This is particularly important for children with ASD who often have difficulty with attention and motivation. Children who are intrinsically motivated by the learning process will be more likely to benefit from it; therefore, continuing to pursue the methodology of robot-based interventions with this population is a worthwhile endeavor.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
The local electrode atom probe (LEAP) has become the primary instrument used for atom probe tomography measurements. Recent advances in detector and laser design, together with updated hit detection algorithms, have been incorporated into the latest LEAP 5000 instrument, but the implications of these changes on measurements, particularly the size and chemistry of small clusters and elemental segregations, have not been explored. In this study, we compare data sets from a variety of materials with small-scale chemical heterogeneity using both a LEAP 3000 instrument with 37% detector efficiency and a 532-nm green laser and a new LEAP 5000 instrument with a manufacturer estimated increase to 52% detector efficiency, and a 355-nm ultraviolet laser. In general, it was found that the number of atoms within small clusters or surface segregation increased in the LEAP 5000, as would be expected by the reported increase in detector efficiency from the LEAP 3000 architecture, but subtle differences in chemistry were observed which are attributed to changes in the way multiple hit detection is calculated using the LEAP 5000.
A two-dimensional particle simulation model of the sea-ice ridging process is developed. In this model, ridges are formed from an intact layer of newly frozen lead ice colliding with a thick multi-year floe. Blocks broken from the leading edge of the lead ice collect above and beneath the multi-year floe to form the characteristic ridge structure seen in the central Arctic. The total energy consumed in ridging ice, which is converted into the potential energy of the ridge structure and dissipated by the frictional and inelastic contacts between blocks of ice, is calculated explicitly. The results of preliminary numerical experiments using this model indicate that the amount of energy required to ridge ice may be much larger than previous estimates.
Local ice strains and in situ ice stresses were simultaneously measured on the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX). The experiment took place in the fall of 1988 and was centered about an ice-strengthened ship moored to a multi-year floe in the pack ice northeast of Spitsbergen. During the period of data collection, which extended from early October to late November, the ship and the ice surrounding it drifted from 82°40′N, 32°32′E to 78°54′N, 31°27′E.
As soon as ice temperatures were low enough to permit installation, stress sensors were placed at four sites, two sites on each of two adjacent multi-year floes. Principal stress components and the principal stress direction were determined at each sensor. At the same time, microwave transponders, capable of measuring ice deformation to accuracies better than 1 m, were positioned within 1 km of the stress sensors and provided an approximation of the local strain field.
What makes this joint dataset particularly interesting is that it includes some large ridging events and a particularly large event which terminated the experiment when the multi-year floes in the local area were broken into small fragments. A wide range of ice stresses was measured during the period. The largest compressive stresses, about 250 kPa, were measured by the near-surface sensors. Although sensors in different locations responded differently to ice movement, the large events were common to all shallow sensors.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
The yields of spring barley during a medium-term (7 years) compost and slurry addition experiment and the soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, bacterial community structure, soil microbial biomass and soil respiration rates have been determined to assess the effects of repeated, and in some cases very large, organic amendments on soil and crop parameters. For compost, total additions were equivalent to up to 119 t C/ha and 1·7 t N/ha and for slurry they were 25 t C/ha and 0·35 t N/ha over 7 years, which represented very large additions compared to control soil C and N contents (69 t C/ha and 0·3 t N/ha in the 0–30 cm soil depth). There was an initial positive response to compost and slurry addition on barley yield, but over the experiment the yield differential between the amounts of compost addition declined, indicating that repeated addition of compost at a lower rate over several years had the same cumulative effect as a large single compost application. By the end of the experiment it was clear that the addition of compost and slurry increased soil C and N contents, especially towards the top of the soil profile, as well as soil respiration rates. However, the increases in soil C and N contents were not proportional to the amount of C and N added, suggesting either that: (i) a portion of the added C and N was more vulnerable to loss; (ii) that its addition rendered another C or N pool in the soil more susceptible to loss; or (iii) that the C inputs from additional crop productivity did not increase in line with the organic amendments. Soil microbial biomass was depressed at the highest rate of organic amendment, and whilst this may have been due to genuine toxic or inhibitory effects of large amounts of compost, it could also be due to the inaccuracy of the substrate-induced respiration approach used for determining soil biomass when there is a large supply of organic matter. At the highest compost addition, the bacterial community structure was significantly altered, suggesting that the amendments significantly altered soil community dynamics.
Paleecological data allow not only the study of trends along deep-time chronological transects but can also be used to reconstruct ecological gradients through time, which can help identify causal factors that may be strongly correlated in modern ecosystems. We have applied such an analysis to Bergmann’s rule, which posits a causal relationship between temperature and body size in mammals. Bergmann’s rule predicts that latitudinal gradients should exist during any interval of time, with larger taxa toward the poles and smaller taxa toward the equator. It also predicts that the strength of these gradients should vary with time, becoming weaker during warmer periods and stronger during colder conditions. We tested these predictions by reconstructing body-mass trends within canid and equid genera at different intervals of the Oligo-Miocene along the West Coast of North America. To allow for comparisons with modern taxa, body mass was reconstructed along the same transect for modern Canis and Odocoileus. Of the 17 fossil genera analyzed, only two showed the expected positive relationship with latitude, nor was there consistent evidence for a relationship between paleotemperature and body mass. Likewise, the strength of body-size gradients does not change predictably with climate through time. The evidence for clear gradients is ambiguous even in the modern genera analyzed. These results suggest that, counter to Bergmann’s rule, temperature alone is not a primary driver of body size and underscore the importance of regional-scale paleoecological analyses in identifying such drivers.
This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of plasma type and
duration on the contact angle of silicon (Si) and fused silica (FS) for the
deposition of Poly (3,4 ethyldioxythiophene) Polystyrene Sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)
via drop casting. The two methods used to measure contact angles were goniometry
and profilometry. Both methods agreed that the lowest contact angles were given
by: 1) 30 seconds in nitrogen/oxygen mix for Si substrates, and 2) 10 minutes in
pure oxygen plasma for FS substrates.
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and establish the proportion of people with psychosis meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study also aimed to identify the key lifestyle behaviours associated with increased risk of the MetS and to investigate whether the MetS is associated with illness severity and degree of functional impairment.
Baseline data were collected as part of a large randomized controlled trial (IMPaCT RCT). The study took place within community mental health teams in five Mental Health NHS Trusts in urban and rural locations across England. A total of 450 randomly selected out-patients, aged 18–65 years, with an established psychotic illness were recruited. We ascertained the prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors, illness severity and functional impairment and calculated rates of the MetS, using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria.
High rates of cardiometabolic risk factors were found. Nearly all women and most men had waist circumference exceeding the IDF threshold for central obesity. Half the sample was obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and a fifth met the criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Females were more likely to be obese than males (61% v. 42%, p < 0.001). Of the 308 patients with complete laboratory measures, 57% (n = 175) met the IDF criteria for the MetS.
In the UK, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with psychotic illnesses is much higher than that observed in national general population studies as well as in most international studies of patients with psychosis.