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Cone-in-cone (CIC) and beef (BF) carbonate lenses ornament detachment zone faults underlying Triassic growth basins on Edgeøya. Field relationships place CIC and BF growth as during early diagenesis and a transition from hydroplastic to a later brittle-style of faulting that is marked by coarser calcite veining. Deformation is constrained to have occurred at <300 m depth. Multiple models exist for CIC formation. For the Edgeøya example, textural analysis of thin-sections suggests that small tensile fractures and carbonate shell fragments nucleated development of calcite aggregates with CIC and BF morphology within unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediment to form asymmetric antitaxial tensile aggregates subparallel to bedding and fault surfaces. The conical forms result from differential growth on stepped, cleavage-parallel faces of fibres facing host sediment, with preferential inclusion incorporation at inner corners. The preferred directions of calcite growth are attributed to local stresses and seepage flow associated with pore pressure gradients. Substantial framboidal pyrite in the sediments represents an early phase of microbially driven sulphate reduction, which may have induced calcite mineralization. The transition to brittle-style faulting was marked by development of deformation twins in CIC/BF fibres, and a transition to coarse, blocky calcite growth in relay arrays of steeply oriented microveins. This indicates local fault-related stresses substantially changed during shallow diagenesis and lithification, an evolution attributed to changing pore pressures, seepage forces and material moduli. Calcite mineralizations at Edgeøya track the very significant changes in mechanical properties and stress states that occur during synlithification deformation at very shallow crustal levels.
The objective was to investigate the effect of intake before fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360±22 kg) were maintained at 21°C and fed three different energy intakes within a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-day periods. Steers were fed alfalfa cubes to provide 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×NEm during 19 days of each experimental period. Steers were placed in individual metabolism stalls fitted with indirect calorimetry head-boxes on day 20 of each experimental period (FED steers) and fed their normal meal. On day 21 of each period the reticulorumen was emptied, washed and refilled with ruminal buffer (NaCl=96; NaHCO3=24; KHCO3=30; K2HPO4=2; CaCl2=1.5; MgCl2=1.5 mmol/kg of buffer) aerated with 75% N2 and 25% CO2 before introduction to the rumen (steers were not fed; WASHED steers). Each gas exchange was measured over 24 h. HP for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×NEm were 479, 597 and 714 kJ/daykg0.75 (s.e.m. =16), respectively. The plateau RQ was 0.756, 0.824 and 0.860 for the 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×NEm intakes for the FED steers, respectively. After rumen washing, fasting HP was 331, 359 and 400 kJ/daykg0.75 (s.e.m.=13) for 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0×NEm intakes before fasting, respectively. The RQ for WASHED rumen steers was 0.717, 0.710 and 0.719, respectively. Cortisol and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in WASHED rumen steers did not exceed threshold levels for severe energy deficit and stress as can be induced from prolonged fasting. This study demonstrates that a fasting state can be emulated using the washed rumen technique, minimizing the time required as opposed to traditional fasting methodologies, without causing a severe energy deficit and stress.
Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (Gt). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and Gt (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that could contribute to reduced blood flow and motility and lead to reduced growth rates of cattle.
With the precise, nearly-continuous photometry from the Kepler satellite and the sub-milliarcsecond resolving capabilities of the CHARA Array, astronomy is entering a new age for the imaging and understanding of stellar magnetic activity. We present first results from our Guest Observer Program, where 180 single-epoch surface image reconstructions of KIC 5110407 have revealed differential rotation and hints of magnetic activity cycles based on both spot and flare variations. Analysis of our larger, full dataset will establish in unprecedented detail how surface magnetic activity correlates with stellar age and spectral type. In addition to Kepler work, we have harnessed the power of the world's largest infrared interferometer to “directly” image the spotted surfaces of a few of the closest RS CVn systems, allowing a comparison of contemporaneous Doppler and light-curve inversion imaging techniques.
We examine challenges and opportunities involved in applying ecosystem services to public land management with an emphasis on national forests in the United States. We review historical forest management paradigms and related economic approaches, outline a conceptual framework defining the informational needs of forest managers, and consider the feasibility of its application given the types of ecological information typically available and the expanding set of services considered in management decisions. Economists can make their work more relevant to managers by broadening their focus to include qualitative approaches and more directly and effectively collaborating with managers and natural scientists.
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in ruminant calves, but its impact on nutrient metabolism across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with catheters in the carotid artery, mesenteric vein, portal vein and hepatic vein were paired by age and randomly assigned to control (0.5% bovine serum albumin in saline; n = 4) or GLP-2 (100 μg/kg BW per day bovine GLP-2 in bovine serum albumin; n = 4). Treatments were administered subcutaneously every 12 h for 10 days. Blood flow was measured on days 0 and 10 and included 3 periods: baseline (saline infusion), treatment (infusion of bovine serum albumin or 3.76 μg/kg BW per h GLP-2) and recovery (saline infusion). Arterial concentrations and net PDV, hepatic and total splanchnic fluxes of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, β-hydroxybutyrate and urea-N were measured on days 0 and 10. Arterial concentrations and net fluxes of all amino acids and glucose metabolism using continuous intravenous infusion of [U13-C]glucose were measured on day 10 only. A 1-h infusion of GLP-2 increased blood flow in the portal and hepatic veins when administered to calves not previously exposed to exogenous GLP-2, but after a 10-day administration of GLP-2 the blood flow response to the 1-h GLP-2 infusion was substantially attenuated. The 1-h GLP-2 infusion also did not appreciably alter nutrient fluxes on either day 0 or 10. In contrast, long-term GLP-2 administration reduced arterial concentrations and net PDV flux of many essential and non-essential amino acids. Despite the significant alterations in amino acid metabolism, glucose irreversible loss and utilization by PDV and non-PDV tissues were not affected by GLP-2. Fluxes of amino acids across the PDV were generally reduced by GLP-2, potentially by increased small intestinal epithelial growth and thus energy and amino acid requirements of this tissue. Increased PDV extraction of glutamine and alterations in PDV metabolism of arginine, ornithine and citrulline support the concept that GLP-2 influences intestine-specific amino acid metabolism. Alterations in amino acid metabolism but unchanged glucose metabolism suggests that the growth effects induced by GLP-2 in ruminants increase reliance on amino acids preferentially over glucose. Thus, GLP-2 increases PDV utilization of amino acids, but not glucose, concurrent with stimulated growth of the small intestinal epithelium in post-absorptive ruminant calves.
The current status of the DRIFT (Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks)
experiment at Boulby Mine is presented, including the latest limits on the WIMP
spin-dependent cross-section from 1.5 kg days of running with a mixture of CS2
and CF4. Planned upgrades to DRIFT IId are detailed, along with ongoing work
towards DRIFT III, which aims to be the world’s first 10 m3-scale directional
Dark Matter detector.
Findings from the first two years of a long-term study of conifer log decomposition are presented. Log decomposition is regulated by the physical and chemical states, and development of decomposer foodwebs. The functional group with the greatest initial effect on the log is the channelisers, represented in our study by ambrosia and bark beetles. They not only create multitudes of channels into the logs but vector the initial decomposer community. Ambrosia beetles exclude certain elements of the decomposer community from channels until they vacate the log, at the end of their reproductive phase. The foodweb during the early stages of decomposition includes nitrogen-fixing and other bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods. Seasonal fluctuations of temperature and moisture are hypothesised to work in tandem to modulate the activities of the decomposer community.
There is a widespread interest in development and characterization of CMP consumables due to an existing and potential market, as the CMP process becomes widely accepted in the field of microelectronics fabrication. A non-destructive Ultra Sound Testing (UST) technique developed at the University of South Florida has been successfully used in the past to map the variation of specific gravity over the entire volume of the pad. To gage the impact of the variation in specific gravity with in the body of the polishing pad, the results of UST of pads need to be correlated with actual polishing performance of the pad. In this research, UST was performed on IC 1000 Suba IV/ A4 polishing pad, and novel polyurethane pads, Pad A (with sub pad) and Pad B (without sub pad). The novel pads have been specifically developed for Interlayer Dielectric (ILD) polishing. 6 inch coupons from polishing pad regions of interest (high and low ultra sound transmission) determined after the ultrasound map were punched out and further evaluated. The mechanical properties of the pad material from the coupons were evaluated using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and tribological properties were evaluated by performing CMP on 6 inch coupons in the CETR CMP tester.
High doses (1016–1017/cm2) of 170 keV Er+ were implanted into single-crystal 〈111〉Si at implantation temperatures between 350°C and 520°C. Annealing at 800°C in vacuum following the implant, the growth and coalescence of ErSi2 precipitates leads to a buried single crystalline ErSi2 layer. This has been studied using Rutherford backscattering/channeling, X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional TEM and resistance versus temperature measurements. Samples implanted at 520°C using an Er dose of 7 × 1016/cm2 and thermally annealed were subsequently used as seeds for the mesocpitaxial growth of the buried layer during a second implantation and annealing process. Growth occurs meso-epitaxially along both interfaces through beam induced, defect mediated mobility of Er atoms. The crystalline quality of the ErSi2 layer strongly depends on the temperature during the second implantation.
Opto-chemical transducers, which exhibit changes in luminescence and/or absorption characteristics as a function of local conditions, are currently of great interest for use in performing quantitative chemical analyses. Present research is focused on the preparation and characterization of novel optrode materials which may be remotely interrogated via optical fiber carriers. The approach under investigation involves preparation of sol-gel derived films which are sensitized by the entrapment of analyte-complexing organic probe molecules. Zn(II)aq induced perturbations to the luminescence behavior of a porphyrin derivative entrapped within a porous sol-gel derived host matrix are detailed.
Poly (methyl methacrylate)/single walled carbon nanotube (PMMA/SWNT) composites were polymerized in the presence of carbon nanotubes via three methods: heat, uv radiation and ionizing radiation (gamma). Samples were solvent processed and cast into films. Thin films with varying degrees of transparency resulted from these composites. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) characterized glass transition temperatures. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) quantified the transparency of composites. The dielectric constant (ε') was obtained from Dielectric Analysis (DEA) and correlated to the refractive index values using Maxwell's Relationship. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) provided images of the polymer- nanotube composite.
We present an overview of the locally self-consistent multiple scattering (LSMS) method. The method is based on real space multiple scattering theory, is naturally highly parallel, and has been implemented on Intel Paragon parallel platforms within the Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. O(N)-scaling is demonstrated for unit cells as large as 1000-atoms. We discuss in detail how the real space convergence properties of the method can be controlled by taking advantage of the stationary properties of a finite temperature Harris-Foulkes free energy functional. We show how the LSMS method can be combined with spin-dynamics to treat non-collinear magnetic states of materials. We show some preliminary results for the ground state magnetic structure of FCC Fe0.6 5Ni 0.35 alloys that indicate the possible existence of non-collinear arranges of magnetic moments in this system.
The objective of this study was to define further the environmental requirements for safe sites for germination of diffuse knapweed achenes (seeds). Germination temperature profiles were developed for diffuse knapweed seeds collected from sites in the Great Basin and Colorado. Each profile consisted of seeds germinated at 55 constant or alternating temperatures from 0 through 40 C. The resulting germination was used to develop quadratic response surfaces with regression analysis. Some germination occurred from 71 to 96% of the temperature regimes, depending on the accession being tested. Maximum observed germination ranged from 85 to 98%. Optimum germination, defined as the maximum observed minus one half the confidence interval at the 0.01 level of probability, occurred at a wide range of temperatures from cold periods of 0 through 20 C, alternating with warm periods of 10 through 35 C. The temperature regimes that most frequently supported optimum germination were 5/25 C (5 C for 16 h and 25 C for 8 h in each 24-h period) and 10/25 C. Germination of diffuse knapweed seeds was generally higher at alternating than constant temperatures.
Hypoxia-reperfusion injury is an important determinant of secondary brain injury. In the acute phase of cerebral reperfusion, pro-inflammatory events enhance expression of cerebral endothelial (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin) adhesion molecules, which play an important role in brain hypoxia-reperfusion injury. Midazolam is the most commonly used sedative in patients with brain injury. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of midazolam on the expression of cerebral endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin during hypoxia-reperfusion injury invitro.
The up-regulation of mouse cerebral endothelial cells intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin was assessed following hypoxia-reoxygenation (hypoxia-reperfusion). Cells were pre-treated with three different concentrations of midazolam (0, 5 and 50 μg mL−1) prior to hypoxia. Flow cytometry was used to estimate adhesion molecule expression mean channel fluorescence. Data are presented as mean ± SD.
Mouse cerebral endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin expression was greater after exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation compared to normoxia (mean channel fluorescence) 241 ± 12 vs. 140 ± 7 and 120 ± 14 vs. 46 ± 7, respectively, P < 0.05. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin expression was decreased by midazolam (5 μg mL−1) pre-incubation compared to control, mean channel fluorescence 184 ± 10 vs. 241 ± 12 and 51 ± 7 vs. 120 ± 14, respectively, P < 0.05. Midazolam at 50 μg mL−1 had the same effect as 5 μg mL−1.
Pre-treatment with midazolam diminishes increased expression of cerebral endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin expression following hypoxia-reoxygenation.
In the potential energy landscape theory of liquids, the energetic configurational landscape of a liquid is modeled using a potential energy function comprising a population of stable potential energy minima called inherent states, which represent the stable atomic configurations of the liquid. These configurations are separated by saddle points that represent barriers for configurational hopping between the inherent states. In this article, we survey recent progress in understanding metallic glass-forming liquids from a potential energy landscape perspective. Flow is modeled as activated hopping between inherent states across energy barriers that are assumed to be, on average, sinusoidal. This treatment gives rise to a functional relation between viscosity and isoconfigurational shear modulus, leading to rheological laws describing the Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosity of metallic glass-forming liquids over a broad range of rheological behavior. High-frequency ultrasonic data gathered within the supercooled-liquid region are shown to correlate well with rheological data, thus confirming the validity of the proposed treatment. Variations in shear modulus induced either by thermal excitation or mechanical deformation can be correlated to variations in the measured stored enthalpy or equivalently to the configurational potential energy of the liquid. This shows that the elastic and rheological properties of a liquid or glass are uniquely related to the average potential energy of the occupied inherent states.
Topographic and image maps of archaeological landscapes can be made using airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. Such maps contain more three-dimensional data than conventional maps and may be more spatially accurate. In addition to providing a record of topography, LiDAR images may reveal surface indications of archaeological deposits unnoticed when using more conventional discovery techniques. LiDAR data and derived imagery need to be integrated with existing forms of archaeological data for their full potential to be realized.
Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) experiments were carried out at the
Idaho Accelerator Center (ICA) using the 5 ns (FWHM) and 22 MeV electron
beam. The electron beam was brought to an approximate head-on collision
with a 7 ns (FWHM), 10 Hz, 29 MW peak power Nd:YAG laser. We observed
clear and narrow X-ray peaks resulting from the interaction of
relativistic electrons with the 532 nm Nd:YAG laser second harmonic line
on top of a very low bremsstrahlung background. We have developed a method
of using LCS as a non-intercepting electron beam monitor. Unlike the
method used by Leemans et al. (1996),
our method focused on the variation of the shape of the LCS spectrum
rather than the LCS intensity as a function of the observation angle in
order to extract the electron beam parameters at the interaction region.
The electron beam parameters were determined by making simultaneous fits
to spectra taken across the LCS X-ray cone. We also used the variation of
LCS X-ray peak energy and spectral width as a function of the detector
angles to determine the electron beam angular spread, and direction and
compared the results to the previous method. Experimental data show that
in addition to being viewed as potential bright, tunable and monochromatic
X-ray source, LCS can provide important information on electron beam pulse
length, direction, energy, angular, and energy spread. Since the quality
of LCS X-ray peaks, such as degree of monochromaticity, peak energy and
flux, depends strongly on the electron beam parameters, LCS can therefore
be viewed as an important non-destructive means for electron beam
Background and objective: Astrocytes exposed to hypoxia produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on cerebral endothelium. This study investigated the effects of midazolam on this response. Methods: Mouse astrocytes were exposed to 4 h of hypoxia and 24 h of reoxygenation. Astrocyte-conditioned medium were applied to mouse cerebral endothelial cell cultures for 4 h and 24 h in normoxia. Endothelial cells were pre-incubated for 1 h with midazolam (0, 5, 50 μg L−1). Flow cytometry was used to estimate endothelial ICAM-1 expression. IL-1β concentrations were measured with ELISA. Repeated comparisons were made using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey Test as appropriate. Data are mean (SD). Results: Mouse cerebral endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression was greater after 24 h exposure to hypoxia–reoxygenation astrocyte-conditioned medium compared to normoxic astrocyte-conditioned medium (mean channel flouresence 112.5 (9.5) vs. 81.5 (7.5), P = 0.01). ICAM-1 expression was decreased by midazolam (5 μg L−1) compared to control (mean channel flouresence 81.35 (7.5) vs. 112.5 (9.5), P = 0.01). Supernatant IL-1β concentrations (pg mL−1) in astrocytes exposed to hypoxia–reoxygenation were greater than those exposed to normoxia (16.41 (2.35) vs. 10.5 (2.13), P = 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that decreased cerebral endothelial ICAM-1 expression in response to activated glial cell compartment by midazolam may decrease post ischaemic brain inflammation and secondary brain injury.