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POST goosegrass and other grassy weed control in bermudagrass is problematic. Fewer herbicides that can control goosegrass are available due to regulatory pressure and herbicide resistance. Alternative herbicide options that offer effective control are needed. Previous research demonstrates that topramezone controls goosegrass, crabgrass, and other weed species; however, injury to bermudagrass may be unacceptable. The objective of this research was to evaluate the safening potential of topramezone combinations with different additives on bermudagrass. Field trials were conducted at Auburn University during summer and fall from 2015 to 2018 and 2017 to 2018, respectively. Treatments included topramezone mixtures and methylated seed oil applied in combination with five different additives: triclopyr, green turf pigment, green turf paint, ammonium sulfate, and chelated iron. Bermudagrass bleaching and necrosis symptoms were visually rated. Normalized-difference vegetative index measurements and clipping yield data were also collected. Topramezone plus chelated iron, as well as topramezone plus triclopyr, reduced bleaching potential the best; however, the combination of topramezone plus triclopyr resulted in necrosis that outweighed reductions in bleaching. Masking agents such as green turf paint and green turf pigment were ineffective in reducing injury when applied with topramezone. The combination of topramezone plus ammonium sulfate should be avoided because of the high level of necrosis. Topramezone-associated bleaching symptoms were transient and lasted 7 to 14 d on average. Findings from this research suggest that chelated iron added to topramezone and methylated seed oil mixtures acted as a safener on bermudagrass.
Crowdfunding is the process of taking a project in need of investment and asking a large group of people to supply the investment. It allows organisations to sell their product before production, reducing the risk of new product development. Organisations such as Tesla and General Electric have used crowdfunding successfully but crowdfunding is yet to be explored as part of a formalised product development framework. This paper includes the business case for commercialising new products with crowdfunding and presents crowdfunding as part of a product development and commercialisation framework.
Combinational creativity can play a significant role in supporting designers to produce creative ideas during the early stages of new product development. This paper explores conceptual distances in combinational creativity from computational perspectives. A study conducted indicates that different computational measurements show different conceptual distance results. However, the study suggests far-related ideas could lead to outcomes that are more creative than closely-related ones. This paper provides useful insights into exploring future computational design support tools.
Conceptual design, as an early phase of the design process, is known to have the highest impact on determining the innovation level of design results. Although many tools exist to support designers in conceptual design, additional knowledge, especially knowledge related to emerging technologies, is still often needed. In this paper the authors aim to propose a data-driven creative concept generation and evaluation approach to support designers in incorporating emerging technologies in the new product early development stage. The approach is demonstrated by means of an illustrated example.
Lichens of the Ramalina siliquosa complex dominate seashore cliffs in Europe and South-East Asia, but their taxonomy has been vigorously debated for over a century. On many cliffs, they exhibit a bewildering zonation of chemotypes that resembles the classic zonation of organisms that occupy the littoral zone below. Do the chemotypes represent separate species, or infraspecific variation? To better understand the systematics of this group, sequences from four genetic loci (ITS, IGS, RPB1 and RPB2) were obtained for 59 samples from Denmark, France, Iceland, Norway, UK, Japan and Korea, including all major chemotypes. Maximum likelihood analysis of these sequences, together with sequences from 36 other Ramalina species, reveals that the complex comprises two distinct phylogenetic lineages, each including multiple chemotypes. These two putative species-level lineages correspond to the currently accepted taxa R. cuspidata and R. siliquosa. There is no evidence that these two taxa are phylogenetic sister species. Consequently, the explanation of this chemotype complex as an example of ‘sibling speciation’ is rejected. Specimens traditionally called ‘R. siliquosa’ from South-East Asia form a third clade, identified here as R. semicuspidata, with an additional, divaricatic acid chemotype. Other results include a robustly supported clade of Ramalina species that produce medullary depsides and depsidones; this clade includes another well-supported clade of south-eastern United States coastal plain and tropical Ramalina species. By contrast, large, strap-shaped Ramalina species that lack medullary depsides and depsidones occur in separate lineages. In addition, close relationships between the following groups of species are indicated: R. farinacea with R. subfarinacea; R. fraxinea with R. leptocarpha, R. menziesii and R. subleptocarpha; R. sinensis with R. unifolia. Furthermore, a new, variolaric acid-only chemotype is reported for R. farinacea, and a new, acid-deficient chemotype is reported for a more broadly circumscribed R. culbersoniorum.
We investigate the phased evolution and variation of the South Asian monsoon and resulting weathering intensity and physical erosion in the Himalaya–Karakoram Mountains since late Pliocene time (c. 3.4 Ma) using a comprehensive approach. Neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions and single-grain zircon U–Pb age spectra reveal the sources of the deposits in the east Arabian Sea, and show a combination of sources from the Himalaya and the Karakoram–Kohistan–Ladakh Mountains, with sediments from the Indian Peninsula such as the Deccan Traps or Craton. We interpret shifts in the sediment sources to have been forced by sea-level changes that correlate with South Asian monsoon rainfall variation since late Pliocene time. We collected 908 samples from the International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1456A, which was drilled in the east Arabian Sea. Time series of hematite content and grain size of the sediments were examined downcore. We found South Asian monsoon precipitation and weathering intensity experienced three phases from late Pliocene time. Lower monsoon precipitation, with a lower variability and strong weathering intensity, occurred during 3.4–2.4 Ma; an increased and more variable South Asian monsoon rainfall, along with strengthened but fluctuating weathering intensity, occurred at 1.8–1.1 Ma; and a reduced rainfall with lower South Asian monsoon precipitation variability and moderate weathering intensity marked the period 1.1–0.1 Ma. Maximum entropy spectral analysis and wavelet transform show that there were orbital-dominated cycles of periods c. 100 and c. 41 ka in these proxy-based time series. We propose that the monsoon, sea level, global temperature and insolation together forced the weathering and erosion in SW Asia.
The objective of the study was to explore whether IETM participate in the development of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3).
Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 90 days of intraperitoneal injection with D-galactose and AlCl3 to establish the Alzheimer disease's model. After the administration, the study and memory ability of the Alzheimer disease's rats were observed by Morris water maze; The level of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats was determined by tachypleus amebocyte lysate method; The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats were determined by radioimmunity method; The express of amyloid β-protein precursor (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1) and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE) in hippocampus of Alzheimer disease's rats were detected by RT-PCR.
Compared with the normal control, the level of LPS in the sera and the express of APP, PSI, BACE mRNA in the hippocampus of Alzheimer disease's rats were markedly increased (P< 0.01).
The model of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and AlCl3 is accompanied IETM. This result suggests that IETM play an important role in the development of Alzheimer disease.
The objective of the present study was to explore the level of intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) in the model of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3).
Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 90 days of intraperitoneal injection with D-galactose and AlCl3 to establish the Alzheimer disease's model. After the administration, the study and memory ability of the Alzheimer disease's rats were observed by Morris water maze; The level of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats was determined by tachypleus amebocyte lysate method; The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats were determined by radioimmunity method;
Compared with the normal control, the level of LPS, TNF-α and IL-1 in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats were markedly increased (P< 0.01).
The model of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and AlCl3 is accompanied IETM.
The objective of the present study was to explore the intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) in the cell apoptosis of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3).
Adult wistar rats were subjected to 90 days of intraperitoneal injection with D-galactose and AlCl3 to establish the Alzheimer disease's model. After the administration, the study and memory ability of the Alzheimer disease's rats were observed by Morris water maze; The level of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats was determined by tachypleus amebocyte lysate method; The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats were determined by radioimmunity method; The apoptotic neuron was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL).
Compared with the normal control, the level of LPS, TNF-αin the sera and PD in the brine of Alzheimer disease's rats were markedly increased (P< 0.01).
The level of LPS, TNF-αin the sera and PD in the brine of Alzheimer disease's rats were markedly increased, IETM maybe an important reason of the apoptotic in Alzheimer disease.
Lipid rafts are specialized membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids and are important in the organization of receptor-protein complexes and the regulation of signaling.
Given the emerging significance of lipids with respect to receptor structure and activation, we investigated the role of lipid rafts and membrane cholesterol on D2 dopamine receptor (DAR) signaling. As the D2 DAR is the molecular target for all antipsychotic drugs, more information about its signaling may help refine therapeutics for schizophrenia.
D2 DAR constructs were expressed in HEK293T cells. Sucrose density fractionation resolved lipid rafts from other membrane components. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) was used to deplete membrane cholesterol and to disrupt lipid rafts.
Detergent solubilization followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation resolved lipid rafts from heavier membrane fractions. The D2 DAR was equally distributed amongst both the lipid raft and heavier membrane fractions. Pretreatment with MCD, however, eliminated both lipid raft markers and the D2 DAR from lipid raft fractions, although the receptor was still found in heavier membrane fractions. We also found that MCD treatment abolished D2 DAR-mediated inhibition of cAMP accumulation. In contrast D1 DAR-stimulated cAMP accumulation was unaffected by MCD treatment.
Our current results show that the D2 DAR is distributed in multiple membrane microdomains, including cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. We found that extraction of cholesterol disrupted lipid rafts and also an eliminated D2 DAR-mediated signaling. Thus, we hypothesize that lipid rafts are critical for D2 DAR signaling to occur.
To investigate the effect of Chinese herb Danshen-Dahuang on learning and memory ability in rats with Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by D-galactose and AlCl3 and its possible mechanisms.
The AD model was produced by injecting D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneally for 90 days. Since the 20th day of D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneal injection, the rats in Danshen-Dahuang group had been treated with Danshen-Dahuang extraction by intragastric administration for 70 days. Subsequently,learning and memory ability of the mice was evaluated by Morris water maze and hippocampal gene expression of APP, PS1 was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Rats intragastric administration with Danshen-Dahuang, mice had shorter latency (P< 0.05) and less error times (P< 0.05) in water maze test compared with those in AD model group. At the same time, Danshen-Dahuang down regulated the expression of APP, PS1 mRNA (P< 0.05) in hippocampus.
Danshen-Dahuang improves the learning and memory ability of AD rats, its mechanism may be related to the downregulated expression of APP, PS1 mRNA.
Anxiety and depressive disorders are common mental disorders in general population, imposing tremendous burden on both affected persons and society. Moreover, comorbidity between anxiety and depressive conditions is high, leading to substantial disability and functional impairment. Findings consistently suggest that anxiety disorders are primary to depression in the majority of comorbid cases. Yet, the question of whether anxiety disorders are risk factors for depression, and potentially even causal risk factors for the first onset of depression, remains unresolved. Recent results have shown that anxiety disorders increase the risk for subsequent depression, and also affect the course of depression, resulting in a poorer prognosis. Further, some results suggest a dose–response-relationship in revealing that a higher number of anxiety disorders and more severe impairment associated with anxiety disorders additionally increase the risk for subsequent depression. The goal of this paper is to review recent literature, summarize implications of previous findings, and suggest directions for future research regarding preventive and intervention strategies.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an important manifestation of mental and behavioral disorders after the disaste Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is an received established animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder.
To investigate endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway and unfolded protein reaction plays an important role in medial Prefrontal Cortex of PTSD rats by Single-prolonged stress (SPS).
Determined by the change of free intracellular Ca2+ the glucose-regulated Protein (GRP)94 and apoptosis-related cacaspase-12 expression.
A total of 60 healthy, male Wistar rats were selected for this study,randomly divided into a normal control group and SPS groups of 1d,4d,7d,14day and 28day. Behavioral of learning and memory capabilities of rats was observed by using Morris water maze. The expression of, GRP94 and cacaspase-12 was detected using immunohistochemical,Western Blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
In this study compared with control groups the intracellular free calcium level in mPFC was increased 1 day after SPS exposure (P< 0.05) decreased 7 days after SPS. The expression cacaspase-12 peaked at SPS 7d and then gradually decreased. GRP94 express in normal control group and increased 1 day after SPS exposure peaked at SPS 7d and then gradually decreased, at SPS 28d still higher than normal control group.
In SPS-PTSD rats the learning and memory capabilities of the rats decline;mPFC free intracellular Ca2+ may relate to endoplasmic reticulum stress;Endoplasmic reticulum stress launch unfolded protein reaction Endoplasmic reticulum apoptotic process which may relate to the pathogenesis of medial prefrontal cortex abnormal function in PTSD.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
To evaluate the upper airway morphology changes associated with ageing in adult Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
A total of 124 male patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea by overnight polysomnography, who underwent upper airway computed tomography, were enrolled. The linear dimensions, cross-sectional area and volume of the upper airway region and the surrounding bony frame were measured. The association between ageing and upper airway morphology was analysed.
Soft palate length, minimum cross-sectional area of the retroglossal region, lateral dimensions at the minimum cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions, nasopharyngeal volume, and average cross-sectional area of the nasopharyngeal region were found to significantly increase with ageing in all patients, while the upper airway shape flattened with ageing. The volume of the retropalatal region increased with ageing among the patients with a body mass index of less than 24 kg/m2. The volume of parapharyngeal fat pad increased with ageing among patients with a body mass index greater than 28 kg/m2.
A number of dimensional, cross-sectional and volumetric parameters of the pharynx increased with age, indicating that non-anatomical factors may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea in aged patients.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
There is an urgent need for new therapeutic options to treat muscle cramps; however, no patient-reported measures exist that capture the entire cramp experience. We conducted a qualitative study to assess the experience of patients suffering muscle cramps, aiming to understand what factors determine the impact cramps have in patients’ lives to guide the development of a patient-centered outcome measure of cramp severity and impact.
We enrolled patients with cramps due to several etiologies, including motor neuron disease, pregnancy-induced cramps, cirrhosis and hemodialysis, and idiopathic and exercise-induced cramps. Patients participated in semistructured interviews about their experiences with muscle cramps and their responses were recorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed with content analysis using data saturation to determine the sample size. We subsequently developed a conceptual framework of cramp severity and overall cramp impact.
Ten patients were interviewed when data saturation was reached. The cramp experience was similar across disease and physiological states known to cause muscle cramps. The main themes that compose the overall cramp impact are cramp characteristics, sleep interference, daytime activities interference, and the effect on mental health.
This framework will be used to develop a patient-reported outcome of cramp severity and impact.