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Shunt-related adverse events are frequent in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig despite use of acetylsalicylic acid prophylaxis. A higher incidence of acetylsalicylic acid-resistance and sub-therapeutic acetylsalicylic acid levels has been reported in infants. We evaluated whether using high-dose acetylsalicylic acid can decrease shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we included infants ⩽1-year-old who underwent modified Blalock–Taussig placement and received acetylsalicylic acid in the ICU. We defined acetylsalicylic acid treatment groups as standard dose (⩽7 mg/kg/day) and high dose (⩾8 mg/kg/day) based on the initiating dose.
There were 34 infants in each group. Both groups were similar in age, gender, cardiac defect type, ICU length of stay, and time interval to second stage or definitive repair. Shunt interventions (18 versus 32%, p=0.16), shunt thrombosis (14 versus 17%, p=0.74), and mortality (9 versus 12%, p=0.65) were not significantly different between groups. On multiple logistic regression analysis, single-ventricle morphology (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval of 1.2–23, p=0.03) and post-operative red blood cells transfusion ⩾24 hours [odds ratio 15, confidence interval of (3–71), p<0.01] were associated with shunt-related adverse events. High-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment [odds ratio 2.6, confidence interval of (0.7–10), p=0.16] was not associated with decrease in these events.
High-dose acetylsalicylic acid may not be sufficient in reducing shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig. Post-operative red blood cells transfusion may be a modifiable risk factor for these events. A randomised trial is needed to determine appropriate acetylsalicylic acid dosing in infants with modified Blalock–Taussig.
The upper 20—30 m of ice-rich permafrost at three sites overridden by the northwest margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada, comprise massive ice beneath ice-rich diamicton or sandy silt. The diamicton and silt contain (1) truncated ice blocks up to 15 m long, (2) sand lenses and layers, (3) ice veins dipping at 20—30°, (4) ice lenses adjacent and parallel to sedimentary contacts, and (5) ice wedges. The massive ice is interpreted as intrasedimental or buried basal glacier ice, and the diamicton and silt as glacitectonite that has never thawed. Deformation of frozen ground was mainly ductile in character. Deformation was accompanied by sub-marginal erosion of permafrost, which formed an angular unconformity along the top of the massive ice and supplied ice clasts and sand bodies to the overlying glacitectonite. After deformation and erosion ceased, postglacial segregated ice and ice- wedge ice developed within the deformed permafrost.
The Chalk River Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry System has reached a state of reliable measurement of 14C using 2 to 5mg elemental carbon prepared by Mg reduction of CO2. For two comparisons of a near-modern unknown with the NBS oxalic acid standard we obtain a total error of ∼±4.5%, consisting of a random system error of about ±3.5% combined with the statistical counting error. Measurements have been made on 70 samples in 30 days of running time during the past year. Samples included deep rock carbonates, cosmogenic 14C in meteorites, charcoal from earthquake fault zones, collagen of bone artifacts and fossil beetle-fragments.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Oxygen and carbon aggregation in silicon after thermal processing can be characterized using SIMS profiles and SIMS imaging. Fluctuations in the oxygen SIMS signal during the profile have been correlated with the change in interstitial oxygen after thermal processing as measured by FTIR and the precipitate size as measured by TEM. In cases where precipitation is known to be the cause of impurity clustering, a computer program for simulating the profiling process allows semi-quantitative characterization of precipitates as a function of depth. The use of a Resistive Anode Encoder on a CAMECA IMS-3f coupled with image enhancement can be used to image oxygen and carbon related defects. Examples of this technique are given by imaging oxygen aggregation and the co-aggregation of oxygen and carbon in thermally-processed Czochralski-silicon.
Recent atomistic simulations using interatomic potentials for Nb developed employing the embedded atom method (EAM) and the model generalized pseudopotential theory (MGPT) have indicated a possible cusp at the Σ5(310) orientation in the energy vs tilt angle curves for<001> symmetric tilt grain boundaries. In addition, the most stable structure predicted using EAM exhibits shifts of one crystal relative to the other along the tilt axis and along the direction perpendicular to the tilt axis lying in the boundary plane. The structure predicted using the MGPT was mirror symmetric across the plane of the grain boundary. This boundary has been prepared for experimental study using the ultra high vacuum diffusion bonding method. A segment of this boundary has been studied using high resolution electron microscopy.
We have measured the transient events of the α-β martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline Ti films via single shot electron diffraction patterns with 1.5 ns temporal resolution. This was accomplished with a newly constructed dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), which combines pulsed laser systems and pump-probe techniques with a conventional TEM. The DTEM thereby enables studies of transformations that are (1) far too fast to be captured by conventional bulk techniques, and (2) difficult to study with current ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) instruments (which typically require an accumulation of multiple shots for each diffraction pattern). Martensitic transformations in nanocrystalline materials meet both criteria, with their rapid nucleation, characteristic interface velocities ∼1 km/s, and significant irreversible microstructural changes. Free-standing 40-nm-thick Ti films were laser-heated at a rate of ∼1010 K/s to a temperature above the 1155 K transition point, then probed at various time intervals with a 1.5-ns-long intense electron pulse. Diffraction patterns show an almost complete transition to the β phase within 500 ns. Post-mortem analysis (after the sample is allowed to cool) shows a reversion to the α phase coupled with substantial grain growth, lath formation, and texture modification. The cooled material also shows a complete lack of apparent dislocations, suggesting the possible importance of a "massive" short-range diffusion mechanism.
These studies have addressed the adsorption of CO on very thin (submonolayer to multilayer) deposits of Cu, Ni, Pd, and Fe on single crystals of Ru and W. The kinetics of the methanation, ethane hydrogenolysis, and cyclohexane dehydrogenation reactions have also been measured over these model bimetallic catalysts. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra of CO at submonolayer coverages reveal new desorption features which have significantly perturbed peak maxima from those observed on the bulk metals, indicating the unique character of these monolayer metallic films. This behavior has been correlated with LEED, ARUPS, work function, and kinetic measurements.
Screening and detecting virus by receptor-ligand interactions presents an important challenge in medical and environmental diagnostics, and in drug development. We have developed a direct colorimetric detection method based on a polymeric bilayer assembly. The bilayer is composed of a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyl siloxane and a Langmuir-Blodgett layer of polydiacetylene. The polydiacetylene layer is functionalized with receptor-specific ligands such as analogs of sialic acid. The ligand serves as a molecular recognition element, while the conjugated polymer backbone signals binding at the surface by a chromatic transition. The color transition is readily visible to the naked eye as a blue to red color change and can be quantified by visible absorption spectroscopy. The color transition can be inhibited by the presence of soluble inhibitors. Raman spectroscopic analysis shows that the color transition may arise from binding induced strain on the material resulting in bond elongation and conjugation length reduction.
Supramolecular organizates of liposomes and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films are described which are capable of specifically binding to pathogens such as influenza virus. The specific interaction is between the hemagglutinin protein of the virus and an α-C-glycoside of sialic acid expressed on the surface of the liposome or LB film. Sialic acidcontaining liposomes were found to inhibit influenza virus infectivity in cell culture, and may provide a basis for new materials which act as therapeutic agents. Sialic acid-containing LB films also specifically bind to the influenza virus. In this case, the conjugated polymer backbone acts as a built-in reporter of the binding event, measurable by a chromatic change in the visible absorption spectrum. These films may provide a basis for new materials which act as direct detectors of binding
We have simulated the atomic structures of the Σ 5 (210)/[001 ] symmetric tilt grain boundary using interatomic potentials for Nb developed employing the embedded atom method (EAM) and the model generalized pseudopotential theory (MGPT). These potentials do not predict the same lowest energy structure for the Σ 5 (210)/. Using the ultra high vacuum diffusion bonding process, we have fabricated Σ 5 (210)/ bicrystals. The samples have been observed using high resolution electron microscopy and the observed images have been compared with those simulated based on the structures predicted theoretically. The experimental result for the Σ 5 (210)/ is in close agreement with the structure predicted using the EAM.
We have designed, constructed, and are operating a unique capability for the production of highly controlled homophase and heterophase interfaces: an ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding machine. This machine is based on a previous design which is operating at the Max Planck Institut für Metallforschung, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, Stuttgart, FRG. In this method, flat-polished single or polycrystals of materials with controlled surface topography can be heat treated up to 1500°C in ultrahigh vacuum. Surfaces of annealed samples can be sputter cleaned and characterized prior to bonding. Samples can then be precisely aligned crystallographically to obtain desired grain boundary misorientations. Material couples can then be bonded at temperatures up to 1500°C and pressures up to 10 MPa. Results are presented from our initial work on Mo grain boundaries and Cu/Al2O3 interfaces.