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There is renewed interest in the inverse association between psychiatric hospital and prison places, with reciprocal time trends shown in more than one country. We hypothesised that the numbers of admissions to psychiatric hospitals and committals to prisons in Ireland would also correlate inversely over time (i.e. dynamic measures of admission and committal rather than static, cross-sectional numbers of places).
Publicly available activity statistics for psychiatric hospitals and prisons in Ireland were collated from 1986 to 2010.
There was a reciprocal association between psychiatric admissions and prison committals (Pearson r=−0.788, p<0.001), an increase of 91 prison committals for every 100 psychiatric hospital admissions foregone.
Penrose’s hypothesis applies to admissions to psychiatric hospitals and prisons in Ireland over time (dynamic measures), just as it does to the numbers of places in psychiatric hospitals and prisons in Ireland and elsewhere (static, cross-sectional measures). Although no causal connection can be definitively established yet, mentally disordered prisoners are usually known to community mental health services. Psychiatric services for prisons and the community should be linked to ensure that the needs of those currently accessing care through prisons can also be met in the community.
A number of diseases of ruminants are related to deficiencies of vitamin E and selenium (Se). Nutritional myopathy or white muscle disease (Blaxter and Sharman, 1953; Oksanen, 1965; Allen, Bradley, Berrett, Parr, Swannack, Barton and MacPhee, 1975; McMurray and McEldowney, 1977) affects the young bovine. Crawley and Bradley (1978) have described a sudden death syndrome in Se-deficient, bucket-fed, calves, which disappeared when Se was added to the diet.
We found recently that sodium hydroxide, when used as a grain preservative, will rapidly destroy vitamin E in barley (McMurray, Blanchflower and Rice, 1980). This observation has been applied experimentally to make diets deficient in vitamin E which are already naturally deficient in selenium (Se). Such barley, when supplemented with other essential minerals and vitamins plus either soya bean protein or urea, will allow moderate growth (0.7 kg/day) when fed to young ruminants.
Determination of the rate of mass flow in contact binary systems is one of the most important motives for their observation. Many of these binaries are in over-contact configuration with a common equipotential surface located somewhwere between the inner and outer Lagrangian zero-velocity surfaces. Most are active systems displaying frequent lightcurve and period changes resulting in residuals behaviour depictable by intersecting linear segments.
We sought to identify and review published studies that discuss the ethical considerations, from a physician’s perspective, of managing a hunger strike in a prison setting.
A database search was conducted to identify relevant publications. We included case studies, case series, guidelines and review articles published over a 20-year period. Non-English language publications were translated.
The review found 23 papers from 12 jurisdictions published in five languages suitable for inclusion.
Key themes from included publications are identified and summarised in the context of accepted guidelines from the World Medical Association. Whilst there seems to be an overall consensus favouring autonomy over beneficence, tensions along this fine balance are magnified in jurisdictions where legislation leads to a dual loyalty conflict for the physician.
Many medications administered to patients with schizophrenia possess anticholinergic properties. When aggregated, pharmacological treatments may result in a considerable anticholinergic burden. The extent to which anticholinergic burden has a deleterious effect on cognition and impairs ability to participate in and benefit from psychosocial treatments is unknown.
Seventy patients were followed for approximately 3 years. The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) was administered at baseline. Anticholinergic burden was measured with the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale. Ability to benefit from psychosocial programmes was measured using the DUNDRUM-3 Programme Completion Scale (D-3) at baseline and follow-up. Psychiatric symptoms were measured using the PANSS. Total antipsychotic dose was measured using chlorpromazine equivalents. Functioning was measured using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS).
Mediation analysis found that the influence of anticholinergic burden on ability to participate and benefit from psychosocial programmes was completely mediated by the MCCB. For every 1-unit increase on the ACB scale, change scores for DUNDRUM-3 decreased by −0.27 points. This relationship appears specific to anticholinergic burden and not total antipsychotic dose. Moreover, mediation appears to be specific to cognition and not psychopathology. Baseline functioning also acted as mediator but only when MCCB was not controlled for.
Anticholinergic burden has a significant impact on patients’ ability to participate in and benefit from psychosocial treatment programmes. Physicians need to be mindful of the cumulative effect that medications can have on patient cognition, functional capacity and ability to benefit from psychosocial treatments.
Amorphous GaN films have been deposited onto various substrates by ion-assisted deposition. The films were deposited at room temperature using nitrogen ion energies in the range 40-900 eV. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis show that the Ga:N atomic ratio is approximately one for films grown with ion energy near 500 eV; these films have the highest transparency. Films grown with ion energies below 300 eV are Ga rich, and show reduced transparency across the visible. Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirm the amorphous nature of the films. Annealing studies on a-GaN establish that the films begin to crystallise at a temperature of about 700 C. To investigate the local bonding environment of the Ga or N atoms, we have measured the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of the transparent GaN films. The EXAFS results indicate that the films are dominated by heteropolar tetrahedral bonding, with a low density of homopolar bonds.
The synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of sulfide-based lithiumglasses are briefly reviewed. Of the many probes that have been used to study these materials two will be discussed in more detail, namely solid state NMR and conductivity measurements at high frequency (106-109 Hz). Solid state NMR is particularly useful in understanding the network structure of these glasses and the role coformers play in modifying the glass network. Electrochemical measurements, including impedance at high frequency, give information concerning dynamic processes, and show that someof these glasses are potentially useful in miniature and thin-film solid state batteries.
Defects on polished as well as hot SC1 treated silicon wafers were investigated with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Surface Scanning Inspection Systems (SSIS). Measurement with two SSIS of different type allows to identify most of the surface defects as non particulate scatterers. AFM of these defects reveals tiny pits or groups of pits. An almost linear relation is found between the geometrical lateral defect dimension and their average size in units of LSE (Latex Sphere Equivalent; an effective measure for the scattering cross section) as reported by one of the SSIS for the defects on wafers treated with hot SC1. Growth rates of about 40 nmLSE/h are observed for the defects during subsequent treatments of wafers with hot SC1. The LSE-size distribution of as-grown defects with a peak at about 105 and 110 nmLSE is obtained for two types of wafer by modeling the defect evolution during hot SC1 treatment. The number of surface flaws ≥ 0.12 μmLSE on a substrate is reduced by two orders of magnitude for epitaxial layers as thin as 1.5 μm.
This study examined the effect of ion irradiation and subsequent thermal annealing on GeSi/Si strained-layer heterostructures. Comparison between samples irradiated at 253°C with low energy (23 keV) and high energy (1.0 MeV) Si ions showed that damage within the alloy layer increases the strain whereas irradiation through the layer/substrate interface decreases the strain. Loop-like defects formed at the GeSi/Si interface during high energy irradiation and interacting segments of these defects were shown to have edge character with Burgers vector a/2<110>. These defects are believed responsible for the observed strain relief. Irradiation was also shown to affect strain relaxation kinetics and defect morphologies during subsequent thermal annealing. For example, after annealing to 900°C, un-irradiated material contained thermally-induced misfit dislocations, while ion-irradiated samples showed no such dislocations.
DLTS revealed that each plasma type (He and SiCl4) introduced its own characteristic set of defects. Some of the defects created during He processing and one defect introduced by SiCl4 etching had identical electronic properties to those introduced during high energy (MeV) He ion bombardment. SiC14etching introduced only two prominent defects, one of which is metastable with electronic properties similar to a metastable defect previously reported in high and low energy He-ion bombardment of Si-doped GaAs. IV measurements demonstrated that the characteristics of SBDs fabricated on He-ion processed surfaces were very poor compared to those of control diodes (diodes fabricated on surfaces cleaned by conventional wet etching). In contrast, the properties of SBDs fabricated on SiCl4 etched surfaces were as good as, and in some cases superior to, those of control diodes. SBDs fabricated on annealed (at 450°C for 30 minutes) He-processed samples exhibited improved but still poor rectification. In contrast, SBDs fabricated on annealed SiCl4 etched surfaces had virtually the same characteristics as those fabricated on unannealed SiCl4 etched samples.
High purity GaAs grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using nitrogen as a carrier gas has been studied by optically detected cyclotron resonance (ODCR) at microwave and far infrared frequencies. Upon variation of the experimental parameters such as sample temperature, optical excitation density and microwave power the residual ionized (donor) and neutral (acceptor) impurity concentrations can be estimated, they are 2×1012 cm−3 and 5×1013 cm−3, respectively. The luminescence results indicate C to be the dominant residual acceptor. The residual donors were identified as S, Se, Sn from the observation of the internal 1s - 3p×105 cm2/Vs.