We consider Euclidean first passage percolation on a large family of connected random geometric graphs in the d-dimensional Euclidean space encompassing various well-known models from stochastic geometry. In particular, we establish a strong linear growth property for shortest-path lengths on random geometric graphs which are generated by point processes. We consider the event that the growth of shortest-path lengths between two (end) points of the path does not admit a linear upper bound. Our linear growth property implies that the probability of this event tends to zero sub-exponentially fast if the direct (Euclidean) distance between the endpoints tends to infinity. Besides, for a wide class of stationary and isotropic random geometric graphs, our linear growth property implies a shape theorem for the Euclidean first passage model defined by such random geometric graphs. Finally, this shape theorem can be used to investigate a problem which is considered in structural analysis of fixed-access telecommunication networks, where we determine the limiting distribution of the length of the longest branch in the shortest-path tree extracted from a typical segment system if the intensity of network stations converges to 0.