To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Sample preparation techniques for radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater, as well as CO2 and CH4 in gas mixtures are presented. Focused efforts have been on developing a robust and low-background wet oxidation extraction method for DOC in freshwater, following routine methods developed for stable carbon isotope analysis and adapted for radiocarbon (14C) analysis. DIC (by acidification) and DOC (by wet oxidation) are converted to CO2 in pre-baked septum-fitted borosilicate bottles, where the resulting CO2 is extracted from the dissolved and headspace portions on a low-flow He-carrier flow-through system interfaced to a vacuum extraction line. A peripheral CH4 extraction line interfaces to the flow line to separate CH4 from environmental samples following the methods of Pack et al. 2015. High sample throughput and low blanks are achievable with this method. DIC and DOC blanks are consistently <0.7 pMC, while CO2 and CH4 blanks are typically <0.1 pMC.
As a result of interest in the characterization of materials with large d-spacings and layer periodicities, it has become necessary to develop a low-angle diffraction material which has welldefined diffraction peaks down to very small 2θ angles. The use of silver behenate, CH3(CH2)20COO-Ag, was introduced by one of the authors (TB) at the 1991 International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Annual Meeting and was shown to have a set of well-defined (001) diffraction peaks down to 1.5° 2θ when using CuKα radiation. The silver behenate diffraction peaks were observed to be slightly asymmetric with relatively long tails at the low angle side of the peaks. The average crystallite size along the c-axis was estimated using the Scherrer equation and was found to be 900 Å.
A task group of the JCPDS-ICJDD Data Collection and Analysis Subcommittee was established with the charge of investigating the use of silver behenate as a possible low-angle calibration material for diffraction applications. Utilizing several data collection and data analysis techniques, d001 long-period spacings in the range of 58.219-58.480 Å were obtained. Using the same collected data and one data analysis refinement calculation method resulted in long-period spacing with a range of 58.303-58.425 Å. Data collected using a silicon internal standard and the same singular data analysis calculation method provided d001 values with a range of 58.363-58.381 Å.
The formation of a full-range 2θ diffraction sample was also investigated. Silver behenate and inorganic powders were mixed with an epoxy binder to form a permanent sample which provides diffraction peaks over the entire 2θ range of a powder diffractometer.
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
40% of people with dementia have disturbed sleep but there are currently no known effective treatments. Studies of sleep hygiene and light therapy have not been powered to indicate feasibility and acceptability and have shown 40–50% retention. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session manualized evidence-based non-pharmacological therapy; Dementia RElAted Manual for Sleep; STrAtegies for RelaTives (DREAMS-START) for sleep disturbance in people with dementia.
We conducted a parallel, two-armed, single-blind randomized trial and randomized 2:1 to intervention: Treatment as Usual. Eligible participants had dementia and sleep disturbances (scoring ≥4 on one Sleep Disorders Inventory item) and a family carer and were recruited from two London memory services and Join Dementia Research. Participants wore an actiwatch for two weeks pre-randomization. Trained, clinically supervised psychology graduates delivered DREAMS-START to carers randomized to intervention; covering Understanding sleep and dementia; Making a plan (incorporating actiwatch information, light exposure using a light box); Daytime activity and routine; Difficult night-time behaviors; Taking care of your own (carer's) sleep; and What works? Strategies for the future. Carers kept their manual, light box, and relaxation recordings post-intervention. Outcome assessment was masked to allocation. The co-primary outcomes were feasibility (≥50% eligible people consenting to the study) and acceptability (≥75% of intervention group attending ≥4 intervention sessions).
In total, 63out of 95 (66%; 95% CI: 56–76%) eligible referrals consented between 04/08/2016 and 24/03/2017; 62 (65%; 95% CI: 55–75%) were randomized, and 37 out of 42 (88%; 95% CI: 75–96%) adhered to the intervention.
DREAM-START for sleep disorders in dementia is feasible and acceptable.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Weed control is a challenging aspect of pumpkin production. Winter rye mulches may offer growers a means to manage weeds in pumpkin; however, rye degradation leads to an immobilization of soil nitrogen. Combining winter rye with a nitrogen fixing legume such as hairy vetch is an interesting option that may solve this problem. Twelve combinations including three hairy vetch seeding rates, two termination dates and the use or not of glyphosate before rolling cover crops were studied during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons at the Laval University Agronomic Station in Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, Quebec, Canada to evaluate weed control and effects on pumpkin production. Adding hairy vetch to winter rye provided no benefits because of severe winterkill of the legume. Using glyphosate was necessary to prevent rye regrowth. Pumpkin growth was better and yields were higher than in the plots were no glyphosate was used. Mulches established at flowering (Zadoks 69) provided about 2,000 kg ha−1 more aboveground dry biomass than at early heading (Zadoks 51). This high biomass was essential in glyphosate treated plots in order to maintain excellent weed control throughout the growing season. When compared with the no-mulch weed-free control, yield in Zadoks 69+glyphosate treatment was lower in 2013 but comparable in 2014.
Resistance training is an important aspect of healthy ageing, yet participation rates are especially low among older people. Strategies are needed to ensure resistance training programmes are attractive to and appropriate for this target group. To inform the development of such strategies, individual interviews (N = 42) and focus groups (four groups, N = 37) were conducted with 79 Western Australians representing four stakeholder groups: instructors who deliver resistance training programmes to older people, health practitioners, policy makers and seniors. Results indicate that the need for personalised attention in the establishment and maintenance phases of a resistance training programme can constitute both a positive and negative aspect of older people's experiences. The negative aspects were identified as a series of tensions between the need for personalised attention and (a) the desire to participate in physical activity within social groups, (b) a preference for activity variation, (c) a dislike for large centres where personalised guidance is often available yet the surroundings can be considered unappealing, (d) cost issues and (e) the need for flexibility in attendance. Recommended strategies for overcoming these tensions include disseminating information about the benefits of resistance training in later life to increase motivation to participate, identifying additional methods of integrating resistance training into group exercise formats, making gyms more attractive to older people and providing non-gym alternatives for resistance training.
Twin researchers face the challenge of accurately determining the zygosity of twins for research. As part of the annual questionnaire between 1999 and 2006, 8,307 twins from the TwinsUK registry were asked to complete five questions (independently from their co-twin) to ascertain their self-perceived zygosity during childhood on up to five separate occasions. This questionnaire is known as the ‘peas in the pod’ questionnaire (PPQ), but there is little evidence of its validation. Answers were scored and classified as monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic (DZ), or unknown zygosity (UZ) and were compared with 4,484 twins with genotyping data who had not been selected for zygosity. Of these, 3,859 individuals (46.5% of those who had a zygosity from PPQ) had zygosity classified by both the PPQ and genotyping. Of the 708 individual twins whose answers meant that they were consistently classed as MZ in the PPQ, 683 (96.5%) were MZ within the genotype data. Of the 945 individual twins consistently classed as DZ within questionnaire, 936 (99.0%) were DZ in the genotype data. Where both twins scored MZ consistently across multiple questionnaires, 99.6% were MZ on genotyping, 99.7% were DZ on genotyping if both twins consistently scored DZ. However, for the initial questionnaire, 88.6% of those scoring as MZ were genotypically MZ and 98.7% DZ. For twin pairs where both scored UZ, 94.7% were DZ. Using the PPQ on a single occasion provided a definitive classification of whether the twin was MZ or DZ with an overall accuracy of 86.9%, increasing to 97.9% when there was a consistent classification of zygosity across multiple questionnaires. This study has shown that the PPQ questionnaire is an excellent proxy indicator of zygosity in the absence of genotyping information.
The impact of losing a limb in military service extends well beyond initial recovery and rehabilitation, with long-term consequences and challenges requiring health-care commitments across the lifecourse. This paper presents a systematic review of the current state of knowledge regarding the long-term impact of ageing and limb-loss in military veterans. Key databases were systematically searched including: ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, PsycArticles/PsychInfo, ProQuest Psychology and ProQuest Sociology Journals, and SPORTSDiscus. Empirical studies which focused on the long-term impact of limb-loss and/or health-care requirements in veterans were included. The search process revealed 30 papers relevant for inclusion. These papers focused broadly on four themes: (a) long-term health outcomes, prosthetics use and quality of life; (b) long-term psycho-social adaptation and coping with limb-loss; (c) disability and identity; and (d) estimating the long-term costs of care and prosthetic provision. Findings present a compelling case for ensuring the long-term care needs and costs of rehabilitation for older limbless veterans are met. A dearth of information on the lived experience of limb-loss and the needs of veterans’ families calls for further research to address these important issues.
Ruminant animal production faces numerous challenges and it seems that both economic and biological benefits will be derived from moving food characterization from simple energy and protein-based approaches to those which assess nutrient supply in some detail. In vitro systems will need to reflect this change and this paper considers in particular, the need for estimations of rumen volatile fatty acids and microbial protein supplies. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that in vitro techniques can be used to provide biochemical data which can themselves be used in mathematical models of wider processes. This paper also examines the need for in vitro techniques to reflect the microbial!animal response to the physical structure of foods and also the requirement for in vitro approaches which ask why a food has a certain value rather than simply what the value is. In vitro techniques also have a substantial role outside the digestive tract in predicting factors such as voluntary food intake and some aspects of tissue metabolism and some of these aspects are considered. Tor practical application in vitro techniques will need to provide value for money and be compatible as parameters in mathematical models to have an impact at farm level. In this regard physical in vitro techniques such as NIRS seem to have enormous potential.
Glucose and acetate are two of the most important metabolites which supply energy to ruminant tissues. Minimal quantities of glucose are absorbed from the alimentary tract and thus glucose requirements must be met through synthesis from gluconeogenic precursors. One such precursor is protein and, in the two experiments to be reported, the effect of varying protein supply on both glucose and acetate metabolism was studied. In experiment 1, protein supply was varied by the addition of two levels of fishmeal to a grass silage diet while in experiment 2, two diets (perennial ryegrass and white clover) known to supply widely different amounts of absorbed protein were compared.
In the tropics, fodder trees and shrubs are a very important source of nutrients, especially nitrogen. In vitro gas production methods used for food evaluation were originally developed for investigation of temperate forages and used a nitrogen-rich medium. Evaluation of fodder tree leaves in this medium may mask the effect of their nitrogen which it is important to understand. This trial studied the fermentation of a range of tropical fodder trees and shrubs in both nitrogen-rich and nitrogen-free media, in order to identify the main chemical entities contributing to gas production and the time within which such contributions were most important.
Ruminants in many less developed countries may consume poor quality roughages such as straws, stovers and senescent native pasture as a major part of their diet, particularly during the dry season when high-quality forages are in short supply. The majority of these roughages are high in fibre, low in protein and the intake of digestible nutrients often is not enough to meet maintenance requirements. Intake and digestibility of poor-quality roughages may be increased by supplementation. The response to supplementation can be attributed to an increase in the supply of nitrogen and/or readily fermentable carbohydrate, resulting in an increase in rumen cellulolytic micro-organisms and therefore enhanced fibre degradation.
Previous work in animal nutrition has focused on single foods and assumed additivity during in vitro fermentation. In the tropics, farmers are likely to offer mixtures of foods, including tree fodders, which may not be simply additive in nutritional terms. There is little information about the nutritional interactions between tropical foods. The objective of this research was to test the existence of associative effects of mixtures of tropical fodder tree leaves.
The longstanding association between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus and schizophrenia (SZ) risk has recently been accounted for, partially, by structural variation at the complement component 4 (C4) gene. This structural variation generates varying levels of C4 RNA expression, and genetic information from the MHC region can now be used to predict C4 RNA expression in the brain. Increased predicted C4A RNA expression is associated with the risk of SZ, and C4 is reported to influence synaptic pruning in animal models.
Based on our previous studies associating MHC SZ risk variants with poorer memory performance, we tested whether increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with reduced memory function in a large (n = 1238) dataset of psychosis cases and healthy participants, and with altered task-dependent cortical activation in a subset of these samples.
We observed that increased predicted C4A RNA expression predicted poorer performance on measures of memory recall (p = 0.016, corrected). Furthermore, in healthy participants, we found that increased predicted C4A RNA expression was associated with a pattern of reduced cortical activity in middle temporal cortex during a measure of visual processing (p < 0.05, corrected).
These data suggest that the effects of C4 on cognition were observable at both a cortical and behavioural level, and may represent one mechanism by which illness risk is mediated. As such, deficits in learning and memory may represent a therapeutic target for new molecular developments aimed at altering C4’s developmental role.
It might be expected that the same physical characteristics of a feed, determining the rate of breakdown in the rumen and physical fill, might also influence the rate at which an animal is able to eat a feed. Moseley and Manendez (1989) observed a positive relationship between intake rate measured over 1 minute periods and voluntary intake ad libitum. These authors also suggested that determination of eating rate could be used as a rapid method to evaluate intake characteristics of forages. The present work examines further the potential of what will now be referred to as short term intake rate (STIR value), as a method to rank forages in terms of their potential intake, digestibility and rate of passage.