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This chapter presents a historical sketch of biolinguistics. It explains the knowledge of language, and explores how language develops in a child, and how language evolves in a species. These three questions are interrelated in a particular way. The question of how language develops in the child depends on understanding what the properties of the language system are, the answer to the question about what knowledge of language is. The third question about how language evolved in the species, depends crucially on the answers to the first two questions. In practice, one only has partial answers to all three questions, so that it becomes necessary to study all the questions in parallel, constantly revising the answers as new empirical data becomes available. A conceptual breakthrough was achieved with the development of the principles and parameters approach to language acquisition.
To evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori in healthy laryngeal mucosa.
Prospective analysis of Helicobacter pylori colonisation in healthy laryngeal mucosa, using the 13C urea breath test and polymerase chain reaction analysis.
Twenty randomly chosen men (28–78 years) without laryngeal pathology or gastrointestinal disease were investigated. All subjects were scheduled for elective operative procedures, under general, endotracheal anaesthesia. Cytobrush samples were taken for Helicobacter pylori DNA detection. Nested polymerase chain reaction testing was performed on DNA solutions using two primer pairs from the urease A gene of the Helicobacter pylori genome. The 13C urea breath test was performed on two exhalation samples.
Eight (40 per cent) of the subjects were positive for urease on urea breath testing; none were positive for Helicobacter pylori DNA on polymerase chain reaction testing.
Based on these results, we do not consider Helicobacter pylori to be a normal constituent of healthy laryngeal microflora.
Lhermitte (1983) coined the term “utilization behavior” (UB) to define a neurobehavioral syndrome in which the visuo-tactile presentation of objects compels patients to grasp and use them, despite the fact that they have not been instructed to do so. The author suggested that UB was the consequence of frontal lobe damage. Thereafter, Shallice, Burgess, Schon, and Baxter (1989) questioned Lhermitte’s (1983) procedure for eliciting UB, putting forward an alternative research methodology that led to differentiate two forms of UB: “induced” and “incidental.” To date, there has been no direct comparison between these two procedures, nor have any other methodologies been used to explore this clinical sign, which is related to fundamental concepts such as free will and human autonomy. We investigated UB in 70 subjects (25 patients with frontal lobe lesions, 10 patients with posterior brain damage and 35 control subjects) using the methodologies of Lhermitte (1983) and Shallice et al. (1989), as well as an original “verbal generation” procedure. Our results show that the verbal generation procedure reveals UB efficiently and that elicitation of this sign appears to be directly linked to the content of the task. We discuss the interpretation of UB in terms of an executive control deficit. (JINS, 2010, 16, 453–462.)
In a factory population the occurrence of reactions to tetanus toxoid was recorded after 6740 injections. The incidence of general reactions was 0·3 % and of local reactions 2·6%. The local reaction rate to the first injection of the basic immunization course was 0·9%, to the second injection 2·7%, and to the third injection 7·4%. To booster injections the rate was 1·6%. The local reaction rate was appreciably higher in women than in men – 14·4 % and 5·7 % respectively in the case of the third injection – and the incidence among women increased with age.
Tetanus vaccine containing 10 Lf of toxoid caused fewer reactions than one containing 20 Lf, but a reduction in the content of aluminium adjuvant did not affect the reaction rate.
Almost all reactors were found to have a satisfactory serum antitoxin concentration at the time of the reaction or developed a satisfactory immunity within 1–6 months.
Skin tests were made in 32 hypersensitive patients. Neither the diluent, thiomersal preservative, nor the culture medium appeared to be responsible for hypersensitivity. The degree of hypersensitivity elicited by a special highly purified toxoid was only very slightly less than that elicited by the commercially pure toxoid. It is suggested that reactions are largely due to the toxoid antigen itself rather than to impurities or other components of the vaccine.
This paper presents a thermoviscoelastic model for shape memory polymers (SMPs). The model has been developed base on the hypothesis that structural and stress relaxation are the primary shape memory mechanisms of crosslinked, glassy SMP, and that consideration of these mechanisms is essential for predicting the time-dependence of the shape memory response. Comparisons with experiments show that the model can reproduce the rate-dependent strain-temperature and stress-strain response of a crossslinked, glassy SMP. The model also captures many important features of the temperature and time dependence of the free strain recovery and constrained stress recovery response.
The effect of He plasma pretreatment on interaction of O and H atoms with SiCOH low-k materials is studied using a special experimental system designed for this purpose. The experimental system allowed separate study of the effects of He plasma, VUV light and He 21S0 metastable atoms. It is shown that the carbon depletion by oxygen atoms can be significantly reduced by He plasma pretreatment. Considerable increase of CH and CH2-CH2 groups in the surface area of low-k films is observed when the films were exposed to VUV light and metastable atoms generated by He plasma. FTIR and ellipsometry showed formation of densified surface layer. This carbon rich densified surface layer decreases damage of low-k film when it is exposed in O2 plasma. The impact of H atoms on low-K surface noticeably differs from O atoms effect. The H atoms saturate all unbounded remaining carbon bonds thereby promoting improvement of SiOCH structure.
There has been a significant effort to create spiral sensors by changing either the periodic d-spacing of the structure or the dielectric constants of the materials by combining the multi-faceted environmental responsiveness of polymer hydrogels with dielectrical structures.1 Reversible spiral switches with dimensional functionalities that respond to chemical environment were constructed. When the spiral photonic actuator was swollen in hydrophilic acetic acid, right-handed spiral structures are formed, while the spiral photonic actuator was swollen in hydrophobic hexane, left-handed spiral structures are formed. All actuators returned back to the transparent planar state after deswelling processes. These reversible spiral photonic actuators can be applied in the application of mechanical actuators, electrical devices, and optical components.
The post-genomic technologies are generating vast quantities of data but many nutritional scientists are not trained or equipped to analyse it. In high-resolution NMR spectra of urine, for example, the number and complexity of spectral features mean that computational techniques are required to interrogate and display the data in a manner intelligible to the researcher. In addition, there are often multiple underlying biological factors influencing the data and it is difficult to pinpoint which are having the most significant effect. This is especially true in nutritional studies, where small variations in diet can trigger multiple changes in gene expression and metabolite concentration. One class of computational tools that are useful for analysing this highly multivariate data include the well-known ‘whole spectrum’ methods of principal component analysis and partial least squares. In this work, we present a nutritional case study in which NMR data generated from a human dietary Cu intervention study is analysed using multivariate methods and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed. It is concluded that an alternative approach, called feature subset selection, will be important in this type of work; here we have used a genetic algorithm to identify the small peaks (arising from metabolites of low concentration) that have been altered significantly following a dietary intervention.
Efficient application of piezoelectric sensors and actuators requires extensive investigations of their loading limits, failure-behavior and life-span under service conditions. Here the performance of laminar PZT-patch-modules is studied, applying a combined approach of experimental and numerical tests. Four-point bending tests are used to evaluate the sensor performance. Linear electro-mechanical coupling is implemented in an 8-node brick user element of the research finite element code FEAP to develop a flexible FE-tool for piezoelectric problems. Comparative FE-analyses of the bending test are carried out in order to assess the capability of the implemented FEAP user element versus the commercially available FE-code ABAQUS. FE-results show good agreement with the experimental tests, different element types yield slight deviations which are discussed.
A specific experimental Laser Scattering Tomography (LST) acquisition
procedure is presented. It is adapted to the characterization of materials
containing scattering defects ranging from 1 to 102/mm3. The technique
makes it possible to obtain good resolution within a volume chosen to contain
a statistically significant defect density. This method is used to show that
the gas levitation technique makes it possible to significantly decrease
scattering defects in glasses. In parallel, individual study of defects in
such glasses is also presented.
A new test structure for electromigration failure analysis of via-interconnect metallization schemes was developed. Multi-via/interconnect chain arrays were used in a parallel/serial testing arrangement. Due to improved statistical sampling, the multi-via test structures enabled measurement of drift velocity phenomena at via/interconnect interfaces with a very limited number of test devices per stressing condition, and without reducing the signal to noise ratio. Furthermore, realistic, production-type metallization schemes can be characterized without usually required “traditional” drift velocity-type metal stacks incorporating highly resistive shunt-layers. Critical length effects were investigated as a function of line length and current density. At interconnect lengths close to the critical Blech-length, resistance saturation effects were encountered and used for calculations of the critical current density-length product, (jl)*. Furthermore, a new resistance saturation model was developed and found to correlate well with the acquired data. Critical length effects can accurately be measured and used for length-dependent interconnect performance evaluation on the device-level.
High-resolution resistance measurements of metal stripes have been performed to study void growth during in situ annealing at 180°C. Void growth has been characterized by resistance monitoring over 14,000 hours. During the annealing of Al-lwt%Cu stripes, Cu atoms from solution migrate to grain boundaries to form Al2Cu precipitates leading to a drop in resistance. At the same time, relaxation of tensile stresses in metal stripes takes place in the form of void nucleation and growth, leading to an increase in resistance. The resistance drop due to precipitation was shown to obey Avrami's precipitation kinetics while void growth over this time period obeyed a diffusion-type equation. The resulting equation to describe this physical model was fitted to the measured resistance data. Extrapolation to failure condition (ΔR/R=10%) could therefore be obtained for all the devices under test and plotted on a cumulative probability plot. Using the measured value of activation energy for void growth, stressmigration reliability was then assessed by extrapolation to an operating temperature. Post-mortem microscopy was performed to correlate resistance increase with void density and size in these interconnects. Finite element simulations were performed to calculate resistance increases due to voiding in metal stripes and correlate these with the experimentally obtained data.
We have measured the admittance (conductance and capacitance) of a-Si:H/c-Si heterostructure Schottky diodes as a function of frequency, temperature and voltage in the dark and under spectral illumination (in the wavelength range between λ=500nm and λ=1200nm). Thus, it is possible to observe the activation/deactivation of trapping-detrapping effects within the a-Si:H layer (near the a-Si:H/c-Si interface). We have determined the conduction band offset of the a-Si:H/c-Si heterostructure. The spectral behaviour of the admittance is dominated by the absorption of light in the c-Si and the valence band offset of the heterojunction. We have also developed an equivalent circuit of the a-Si:H/c-Si heterostructure Schottky diode in the dark, which is capable of describing the measured behaviour.
Confinement of sows in farrowing crates and early weaning of piglets are two major areas of concern in relation to animal welfare in intensive pig production systems. In this project, two alternative lactation systems in which these potential stressors are absent or reduced were evaluated.
36 sows and litters were used in an experiment to evaluate, from weekly performance records and observations of behaviour, two alternative strategies for housing and management during lactation in comparison with a conventional current system:
(1)Family system (F): Sows were housed throughout in groups of four with voluntary access farrowing pens. Piglets remained with the sows for 12 weeks and a boar was introduced after 3 weeks to induce oestrus.
(2)Multisuckling system (M): Sows farrowed in individual crates but were grouped in fours in straw pens after 2 weeks. Piglets remained with the sows for 12 weeks and a boar was introduced after 3 weeks.
(3)Conventional commercial system (C). Sows remained in part-slatted, unbedded farrowing crates throughout a four week lactation. Piglets weaned into flat decks and transfered after four weeks into fully slatted grower pens.
The differential diagnosis of a presenting symptom is usually to be found as a section of an article on a disorder in which the particular symptom is common. Thus one learns a great deal about the widely different pathological processes responsible for epigastric pain in a description of peptic ulcer, and much about headache in descriptions of cerebral tumour or migraine. Amnesia is peculiar in this respect in that succinct expressions of its differential diagnosis are rarely found in the description of individual disorders.