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To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders.
Data were from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face to face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n = 636 78) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity.
Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past 12 months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. A desire to handle the problem on one's own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers to both initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment drop-out (39.3%), followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders).
Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide.
Second harmonic generation from Langmuir-Blodgett films of E-N-octadecyl-4-(2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)ethenyl)pyridinium iodide (a hemicyanine) interleaved with 4, 4'-dioctadecyl-3, 5, 3', 5'-tetramethyldipyrrylmethene hydrobromide (spacer) increases quadratically with the number of active layers, the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of film structures comprising from 1 to 150 bilayers being 70 pm/V. The synthesis and nonlinear optical properties are reported.
The international reference strains of variola major (Harvey) and of variola minor (Butler) were grown in cultures of skin and muscle cells from human embryos. The development of infective virus, complement-fixing antigen, haemagglutinin and cytological changes were followed at four temperatures between 35 and 40 °C. No significant difference was found in the amount of virus produced by Harvey or Butler viruses at any of the experimental temperatures, but Harvey attained the plateau titre at 16 h, some 4 h ahead of Butler in the cultures incubated at 38 °C. Harvey also produced a higher and more prolonged yield of virus in the extracellular medium of cultures, inoculated at low multiplicity and incubated at 37 °C. At 38 °C small inocula of Harvey produced foci which developed and spread till the whole culture was necrotic; Butler foci did not spread and remained relatively undeveloped at this temperature.
Prior research on whether marriage is equally beneficial to the mental health of men and women is inconsistent due to methodological variation. This study addresses some prior methodological limitations and investigates gender differences in the association of first marriage and being previously married, with subsequent first onset of a range of mental disorders.
Cross-sectional household surveys in 15 countries from the WHO World Mental Health survey initiative (n=34493), with structured diagnostic assessment of mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Discrete-time survival analyses assessed the interaction of gender and marital status in the association with first onset of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.
Marriage (versus never married) was associated with reduced risk of first onset of most mental disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders this reduced risk was stronger among women, and for depression and panic disorder it was confined to men. Being previously married (versus stably married) was associated with increased risk of all disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders, this increased risk was stronger among women and for depression it was stronger among men.
Marriage was associated with reduced risk of the first onset of most mental disorders in both men and women but there were gender differences in the associations between marital status and onset of depressive and substance use disorders. These differences may be related to gender differences in the experience of multiple role demands within marriage, especially those concerning parenting.
The Working Group FITS (WG-FITS) is the international control authority for the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) data format. The WG-FITS was formed in 1988 by a formal resolution of the IAU XX General Assembly in Baltimore (MD, USA), 1988, to maintain the existing FITS standards and to approve future extensions to FITS.
The business meeting began with a brief review of the current rules and procedures of the WG, which are documented on the WG web page. Four regional FITS committees have been established by the WG, covering North American, Europe, Japan, and Australian/New Zealand, to provide advice to the WG on pending proposals. While it is recognized that this committee structure might need to be revised to provide representation to other regions, the current system is working well, and there were no motions to make any changes at this time.
The on-farm performance of more than 150 000 pre-basic potato (Solanum tuberosum) minitubers of 1–10 g was monitored over two years in contrasting environments in Nepal. Average minituber productivity (grams of basic seed produced per minituber planted) was 171 g in the southern plains and 116 g in the hills. Although the performance of minitubers varied between environments, minituber sizes and potato varieties, the overall results clearly indicated that minitubers can be successfully multiplied by small-scale farmers. This technology therefore allows for the highly decentralized production of basic seed which, in turn, will reduce farmers' dependence on an unreliable and costly supply of bulky conventional seed.
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