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The technique of high resolution electron microscopy has been used to examine the structure of several multilayer systems (MLS) on an atomic scale. Mo/Si multilayers, in use in a number of x-ray optical element applications, and Mo/Si multilayers, of interest because of their magnetic properties, have been imaged in cross-section. Layer thicknesses, flatness and smoothness have been analysed: the layer width can vary by up to 0.6nm from the average value, and the layer flatness depends on the quality of the substrate surface for amorphous MLS, and on the details of the crystalline growth for the crystalline materials. The degree of crystallinity and the crystal orientation within the layers have also been investigated. In both cases, the high-Z layers are predominantly crystalline and the Si layers appear amorphous. Amorphous interfacial regions are visible between the Mo and Si layers, and crystalline cobalt suicide interfacial regions between the Co and Si layers. Using the structural measurements obtained from the HREM results, theoretical x-ray reflectivity behaviour has been calculated. It fits the experimental data very well.
The structures of e-beam evaporated Pd/V multilayer thin films have been studied under various film growth conditions. Both the deposition rate and the substrate temperature were varied in an e-beam source UHV deposition system, and the films were subsequently characterized by xray scattering and cross-sectional TEM.
A series of Cu/C and CuNi/C multilayer films are prepared for potential use as normal incidence x-ray reflectors. The use of a metal alloy layer is intended to enhance layer formation without metastable metallic carbide formation. The films are characterized both in composition and structure. Addition of Ni to the Cu-rich layer is seen to markedly improve the formation of continuous metal layers.
The structures of e-beam evaporated Pd/V multilayer thin films, which were fabricated at different substrate temperatures, have been characterized by high-angle annular dark-field microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy techniques. X-ray scattering and crosssectional electron microscopy showed that both the Pd and V layers are composed of small textured crystallites with dominant orientations of Pd (111) and V (110). It is found that Pd/V multilayers with high chemical modulation can be fabricated at substrate temperatures around 350 K and at a deposition rate of 0.2 nm/s. Here high-angle annular dark-field microscopy has been shown to provide direct information about the compositional variation of the interlayers of these ML.
Multilayer structures composed of alternating, ultrathin layers of Ru and B4C have been fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering. These multilayers are potentially important as normal incidence x-ray reflectors at wavelengths above the boron K-absorption edge at 65Å. The detailed structure of the layers has been characterized using x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that, under optimized deposition conditions, continuous layers can be grown that have smooth and abrupt interfaces. The normal incidence reflectivity at x-ray wavelengths of ∼70Å has been measured, and values as high as 20% have been obtained.
Multilayer (ML) structures composed of Mo-Be, Ru-Be and Rh-Be with bilayer periods of - 6 nm have been grown using dc magnetron sputter deposition. The ML microstructure has been characterized using x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the normal incidence reflectivity has been measured at soft x-ray wavelengths.
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