To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
Objectives: One of the most prominent features of schizophrenia is relatively lower general cognitive ability (GCA). An emerging approach to understanding the roots of variation in GCA relies on network properties of the brain. In this multi-center study, we determined global characteristics of brain networks using graph theory and related these to GCA in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: Participants (N=116 controls, 80 patients with schizophrenia) were recruited from four sites. GCA was represented by the first principal component of a large battery of neurocognitive tests. Graph metrics were derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. Results: The global metrics of longer characteristic path length and reduced overall connectivity predicted lower GCA across groups, and group differences were noted for both variables. Measures of clustering, efficiency, and modularity did not differ across groups or predict GCA. Follow-up analyses investigated three topological types of connectivity—connections among high degree “rich club” nodes, “feeder” connections to these rich club nodes, and “local” connections not involving the rich club. Rich club and local connectivity predicted performance across groups. In a subsample (N=101 controls, 56 patients), a genetic measure reflecting mutation load, based on rare copy number deletions, was associated with longer characteristic path length. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of characteristic path lengths and rich club connectivity for GCA and provide no evidence for group differences in the relationships between graph metrics and GCA. (JINS, 2016, 22, 240–249)
The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the sub-mm and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinised and still has a large potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments. Some source catalogues have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that risk to remain unexplored. To maximise the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, we are in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalogue (HPSC) from all primary and parallel mode observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The catalogue will be made available online through archives like the Herschel Science Archive (HSA), the Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), and the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS).
Structural brain measures are employed as endophenotypes in the search for schizophrenia susceptibility genes. We analyzed two independent structural imaging datasets with voxel-based morphometry and with source-based morphometry, a multivariate, independent components analysis, to determine the stability and heritability of regional gray matter concentration abnormalities in schizophrenia. The samples comprised 209 and 102 patients with schizophrenia and 208 and 96 healthy volunteers, respectively. The second sample additionally included non-ill siblings of participants with and without schizophrenia. A standard voxel-based analysis showed reproducible regional gray matter deficits in the affected participants compared with unrelated, unaffected controls in both datasets: patients showed significant gray matter concentration deficits in cortical frontal, temporal, and insular lobes. Source-based morphometry (SBM) was applied to the gray matter images of the entire sample to determine the effects of diagnosis on networks of covarying structures. The SBM analysis extracted 24 significant sets of covarying regions (components). Four of these components showed significantly lower gray matter concentrations in patients (p < .05). We determined the familiality of the observed SBM components based on 66 sibling pairs (25 discordant for schizophrenia). Two components, one including the medial frontal, insular, inferior frontal, and temporal lobes, and the other including the posterior occipital lobe, showed significant familiality (p < .05). We conclude that structural brain deficits in schizophrenia are replicable, and that SBM can extract unique familial and likely heritable components. SBM provides a useful data reduction technique that can provide measures that may serve as endophenotypes for schizophrenia.
The aim of this study was to determine the potential association between housing type and multiple drug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from 283 laying-hen flocks. In each flock, a cloacal swab from four hens was collected and produced 1102 E. coli and 792 E. faecalis isolates. Broth microdilution was used to test susceptibility to antimicrobials. Country and housing type interacted differently with the MDR levels of both species. In the E. coli model, housing in a raised-floor system was associated with an increased risk of MDR compared to the conventional battery system [odds ratio (OR) 2·12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·13–3·97)]. In the E. faecalis model the MDR levels were lower in free-range systems than in conventional battery cages (OR 0·51, 95% CI 0·27–0·94). In Belgium, ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates were more numerous than in the other countries.
A total of 701 comets received names between July 2005 and June 2008. Comets observed only from the SOHO and STEREO missions, as well as further comets recognized from the long-defunct SOLWIND satellite, accounted for 520 of these names.
Epidemiological investigations increasingly employ dietary-pattern techniques to fully integrate dietary data. The present study evaluated the relationship of dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis with measures of insulin sensitivity (SI) and adiposity in the multi-ethnic, multi-centre Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, 1992–94). Cross-sectional data from 980 middle-aged adults, of whom 67% had normal and 33% had impaired glucose tolerance, were analysed. Usual dietary intake was obtained by an interviewer-administered, validated food-frequency questionnaire. Outcomes included SI, fasting insulin (FI), BMI and waist circumference. The relationship of dietary patterns to log(SI+1), log(FI), BMI and waist circumference was modelled with multivariable linear regressions. Cluster analysis identified six distinct diet patterns – ‘dark bread’, ‘wine’, ‘fruits’, ‘low-frequency eaters’, ‘fries’ and ‘white bread’. The ‘white bread’ and the ‘fries’ patterns over-represented the Hispanic IRAS population predominantly from two centres, while the ‘wine’ and ‘dark bread’ groups were dominated by non-Hispanic whites. The dietary patterns were associated significantly with each of the outcomes first at the crude, clinical level (P<0·001). Furthermore, they were significantly associated with FI, BMI and waist circumference independent of age, sex, race or ethnicity, clinic, family history of diabetes, smoking and activity (P<0.004), whereas significance was lost for SI. Studying the total dietary behaviour via a pattern approach allowed us to focus both on the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of diet. The present study identified highly consistent associations of distinct dietary patterns with measures of insulin resistance and adiposity, which are risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.
The parasitic angiosperms, Striga hermonthica and S. gesnerioides, obligate root parasites endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, constitute severe constraints to cereal and legume production in West and Central Africa. Over the years, a range of effective component technologies has been identified for Striga control in Africa. The potential of these technologies has been demonstrated under researcher-managed conditions. To promote farmer testing of the technologies, community workshops were conducted in 42 rural communities in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria. These revealed that agriculture was the main source of livelihood for most households. The three most important crops, maize, sorghum and pearl millet are attacked by S. hermonthica, regarded as the major constraint to crop production, often causing 70–100% crop loss. Farmers recognised two types of Striga damage (underground and aboveground), with greater damage being caused by underground Striga. Farmers attributed increasing incidence and severity of Striga damage to lack of capital, poor soil fertility, infestation of previously uninfested land by Striga seeds, and continuous cropping of host crops. The most widely used among the 15 existing Striga control techniques identified by the farmers were hoe weeding and hand pulling, application of inorganic fertilizer and manure, crop rotations, fallowing, and early planting. In assessing possible control measures farmers considered increased crop yield, reduced Striga reproduction and Striga emergence, greater crop vigour, and increased soil fertility as positive attributes. Negative attributes comprised increased labour requirement, higher costs, increased risk of crop damage or yield reduction, and lower quantity and quality of produce. Overall, a legume-cereal rotation was the most highly rated control option for S. hermonthica management evaluated by the farmers. The implications of these results are examined with respect to farmers' adoption and adaptation of Striga control options beyond the experimental plots.
Optical waveguides for three-dimensionally stacked chip fabrication
technologies, in which optical connection between layers plays a central
role, are described. CMOS-compatible approaches to optical via and waveguide
fabrication are addressed. Detailed modeling is used for design optimization
and also addresses how manufacturing variations from ideal design may affect
Dry etching of silver for the metallization in microelectronics is
investigated. Etching is performed using an electron-cyclotron-resonance
reactive-ion-beam-etching system (ECR-RIBE) in an Ar/CF4 or
Ar/CF4/O2 mixture. The etch characteristics are
strongly affected by ion energy (beam voltage and microwave energy); the
O2 concentration in the reactive mixture has only a small
effect. An anisotropic, smooth etch profile and clean surface are obtained.
Focused ion beam (FIB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to
study the etched profile and the roughness, respectively.
The application of porous low-k interlayer dielectrics is needed for
reducing the parasitical capacitance, especially at 65-nm node and beyond.
The understanding of process-induced modifications to material properties is
crucial for a successful integration of these low-k dielectrics. The dry
etching processes of porous low-k materials are important modules in ULSI
fabrication. In this study, the interaction between MSQ-based JSR LKD-5109
films (shown by PALS to have interconnected 2.8 nm size pores) with
CF4/O2 plasma has been investigated. Various ratios of
O2 content were designed to characterize its effects on the
etch rate, formation of polymerization layer, and properties of the LKD-5109
film. Composition analysis was conducted by SIMS and FTIR. Moisture
absorption and fluorine diffusion into low-k films after etch process are
observed, along with carbon depletion near the surface region. The influence
of etching chemistries on the morphological characteristics of thin Ta
barrier layers (8-nm in thickness) deposited on etched low-k films were
further investigated by SEM, and it is found that oxygen concentration has
significant influences on the morphological characteristics of thin Ta
An unexpected mode of plastic deformation was observed in damascene Cu
interconnect test structure during an in-situ electromigration experiment
and before the onset of visible microstructural damages (void, hillock
formation). We show here, using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray
microdiffraction, that the extent of this electromigration-induced
plasticity is dependent on the line width. The grain texture of the line
might also play an important role. In wide lines, plastic deformation
manifests itself as grain bending and the formation of subgrain structures,
while only grain rotation is observed in the narrower lines. This early
stage behavior can have a direct bearing on the final failure stage of
Ultra low dielectric constant (κ) material is needed as the inter-metal
dielectrics to reduce RC delay when device dimension is scaled to sub-100nm.
Porous dielectric films have been considered as good candidates for the
application as inter-metal dielectrics due to their ultra low-k properties.
Identifying proper dielectric copper diffusion barrier on the porous low-k
films is critical for the low-k/Cu damascene fabrication process. In this
study, we have evaluated the compatibility of plasma-deposited amorphous
Boron Nitride film as a dielectrics copper diffusion barrier on a MSQ-based
porous low-k LKD5109 film (from JSR). Both microwave plasma enhanced CVD
(2.45 GHz) and radio-frequency plasma enhanced CVD (13.56 MHz) were applied
for the BN deposition in order to evaluate the compatibility of the two
plasma processes with the porous film. Growth parameters were optimized to
minimize the boron diffusion and carbon depletion in the porous low-k films,
which were found to have deleterious effects on the dielectric properties of
the low-k films. FTIR and micro-Raman were employed for analyzing the
changes in chemical structure of the low-k films after BN growth.
Capacitance-voltage measurement was used to characterize the dielectric
constants of BN film on Si and the BN-deposited porous low-k film. SIMS
characterization was carried out to evaluate the performance of the BN film
against copper diffusion.
The physical and electrical properties as well as thermal stability of
reactively sputtered titanium nitride (TiN) film serving as a diffusion
barrier was studied for silver (Ag) metallization. The thermal stability of
Ag/TiN metallizations on Si with 12-nm-thick TiN barriers, as-deposited and
after annealing at 300-650°C in N2/H2 for 30 min, was
investigated with sheet resistance measurement, X-ray diffraction, focused
ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electrical measurement no change of
sheet resistance was found after annealing at 600°C, but an abrupt rise
appeared at 650°C annealing. There are two causes by which the Ag/TiN/Si
structure became degraded. One is agglomeration of the silver layer, and the
other is oxidation and diffusion which are also associated problems during