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Poor adherence to recommended intake protocols is common and a top challenge for micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes globally. Identifying modifiable predictors of intake adherence could inform the design and implementation of MNP projects.
We assessed high MNP intake adherence among children who had received MNP ≥2 months ago and consumed ≥1 sachet (n 771). High MNP intake adherence was defined as maternal report of child intake ≥45 sachets. We used logistic regression to assess demographic, intervention components and perception-of-use factors associated with high MNP intake.
Four districts of Nepal piloting an integrated infant and young child feeding and MNP project.
Children aged 6–23 months were eligible to receive sixty MNP sachets every 6 months with suggested intake of one sachet daily for 60 d. Cross-sectional surveys representative of children aged 6–23 months were conducted.
Receiving a reminder card was associated with increased odds for high intake (OR=2·18, 95 % CI 1·14, 4·18); exposure to other programme components was not associated with high intake. Mothers perceiving ≥1 positive effects in their child after MNP use was also associated with high intake (OR=6·55, 95 % CI 4·29, 10·01). Perceiving negative affects was not associated; however, the child not liking the food with MNP was associated with lower odds of high intake (OR=0·12, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·20).
Behaviour change intervention strategies tailored to address these modifiable predictors could potentially increase MNP intake adherence.
Various forms of containerised gas killing systems have been used to slaughter large numbers of poultry on farms during outbreaks of notifiable diseases. However, none of the systems have been fully evaluated to assess bird welfare, operators’ health and safety and biosecurity during operation. In addition, standard operating procedures associated with containerised gas killing systems are lacking in the literature. Therefore, a research and development project was initiated by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in the UK with the primary objective being to develop humane systems for culling poultry on farm and to produce operating procedures based on sound scientific principles. A series of studies have been conducted to achieve the objective and relevant observations and operating procedures are reviewed in this paper.
Immunohistochemical analysis of skin and draining lymph nodes of sheep repeatedly infested with the ixodid tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were studied for different antigen-presenting cells and lymphocyte subpopulations. Infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes adjacent to the tick bite site were observed. Skin biopsies showed significant increases in dermal infiltration of CD8+ and γδ+ T cells at 72 h and 8 days after both primary and secondary infestation. Infiltrations of MHC-II DR/DQ decreased at 72 h after tick infestation, whereas significant increases were recorded for 8-day skin biopsies. CD1+ cellular infiltrations were observed during secondary infestations at the dermis. Decreased ratios of CD4[ratio ]CD8 T cells and MHC-II[ratio ]CD1 antigen-presenting cells were observed in both infestations compared to healthy skin biopsies. Ratios of αβ[ratio ]γδ T cells increased gradually during infestation compared to uninfested skin. The regional lymph nodes from tick-infested sheep showed an increased CD8+, γδ+ T and CD1+ cellular infiltration compared to control lymph nodes. CD4+ T cells were decreased. There were no significant changes in CD45R+ cellular infiltration either at skin lesions or regional lymph nodes.
We present the first results from multi-site observations of the δ Scuti star XX Pyx (CD–24°7599). The observations were carried out as the 17th run of the Delta Scuti Network. We collected 583 hr of B, V time-series photometry, resulting in a detection level (4σ) in the amplitude spectrum of 0.5 mmag. We detect 6 new pulsation frequencies, bringing the total number of frequencies known in this star up 19.
The response of patients with major depressive illness to citalopram of amitriptyline was compared in a double-blind multi-centre trial. No differences in efficacy were observed, but citalopram had less hypnotic effect and a remarkably lower profile of side-effects.
A large number of flower buds, flowers and premature bolls of cotton are shed without contributing to seed-cotton yield. Abscission may be affected by environmental factors. It may, therefore, be possible to reduce it by modifying the micro-environment within the crop canopy.
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