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The purpose of this review is to examine the replication attempts of psychotherapy clinical trials for depression and anxiety. We focus specifically on replications of trials that exhibit large differences between psychotherapies. The replicability of these trials is especially important for meta-analysis, where the inclusion of false-positive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions about treatment efficacy.
Standard replication criteria were developed to distinguish direct from conceptual replication methodologies. Next, an exhaustive literature search was conducted for published meta-analyses of psychotherapy comparisons. Trials that exhibited large effects (d > 0.8) were culled from these meta-analyses. For each trial, a cited replication was conducted to determine if the trial had been subsequently replicated by either ‘direct’ or ‘conceptual’ methods. Finally, a broader search was conducted to examine the extent of replication efforts in the psychotherapy literature overall.
In the meta-analytic search, a total of N = 10 meta-analyses met the inclusion criteria. From these meta-analyses, N = 12 distinct trials exhibited large effect sizes. The meta-analyses containing more than two large effect trials reported evidence for treatment superiority. A cited replication search yielded no direct replication attempts (N = 0) for the trials with large effects, and N = 4 conceptual replication attempts of average or above average quality. However, of these four attempts, only two partially corroborated the results from their original trial.
Meta-analytic reviews are influenced by trials with large effects, and it is not uncommon for these reviews to contain several such trials. Since we find no evidence that trials with such large effects are directly replicable, treatment superiority conclusions from these reviews are highly questionable. To enhance the quality of clinical science, the development of authoritative replication criteria for clinical trials is needed. Moreover, quality benchmarks should be considered before trials are included in a meta-analysis, or replications are attempted.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
All Earth Science students need to understand the origins, environments, and basic processes that produce igneous and metamorphic rocks. This concise introductory textbook provides students with the essential knowledge needed to understand how petrology relates to other topics in the geologic sciences, and has been written specifically for one-semester courses. Throughout, the emphasis is on interpreting the mineralogy and petrology of rock suites in terms of origin and environment, with the first half of the book concentrating on igneous rocks, and the second half on metamorphic rocks. This Second Edition has been thoroughly revised and brought completely up-to-date. It now includes a new chapter on the application of stable and radiogenic isotopes in petrology, introducing students to the concept of isotopic fractionation and describing the process of radioactive decay. The discussions of phase diagrams, connections between igneous and metamorphic rock suites, and convergent margin magmatism have also been expanded. There is a new glossary of terms, updated end-of-chapter exercises, and updated further readings.