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Many studies have documented robust relationships between depression and hopelessness and subsequent suicidal thoughts and behaviours; however, much weaker and non-significant effects have also been reported. These inconsistencies raise questions about whether and to what degree these factors confer risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviours.
This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude and clinical utility of depression and hopelessness as risk factors for suicide ideation, attempts and death.
We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies from 1971 to 31 December 2014 that included at least one longitudinal analysis predicting suicide ideation, attempt or death using any depression or hopelessness variable.
Overall prediction was weaker than anticipated, with weighted mean odds ratios of 1.96 (1.81–2.13) for ideation, 1.63 (1.55–1.72) for attempt and 1.33 (1.18–1.49) for death. Adjusting for publication bias further reduced estimates. Effects generally persisted regardless of sample severity, sample age or follow-up length.
Several methodological constraints were prominent across studies; addressing these issues would likely be fruitful moving forward.
This note provides a correct proof of the result claimed by the second author that locally compact normal spaces are collectionwise Hausdorff in certain models obtained by forcing with a coherent Souslin tree. A novel feature of the proof is the use of saturation of the non-stationary ideal on
, as well as of a strong form of Chang's Conjecture. Together with other improvements, this enables the consistent characterization of locally compact hereditarily paracompact spaces as those locally compact, hereditarily normal spaces that do not include a copy of
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
This paper analyzes age and cohort changes in the occupational attainment of Blacks and Whites born in successive decades from 1910 to 1979. Occupational attainment is operationalized as “occupational returns to education” and “earnings returns to occupation.” The primary objective is to determine whether the relative occupational attainment of Blacks of the baby-boom generation and Generation X improved over that of their great-grandparents, grandparents, and parents. The results indicate that Blacks and Whites, and men and women improved their occupational attainment levels over those of previous birth cohorts. However, neither Black men of the baby-boom generation nor those of Generation X improved their occupational attainment relative to White men of the same age and born in the same decade. Moreover, on a per capita basis, Black men’s occupational status declined for the most recent birth cohorts due in large part to joblessness starting with members of the 1940 birth cohort, which increased progressively with each successive birth cohort. On the other hand, Black women seem to have improved their occupational status relative to White women, but the improvements fluctuated over the decades. These findings are discussed in relation to possible causes and limitations of this analysis.
Research has long noted higher prevalence rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among individuals with psychotic symptoms. Major theories have proposed several explanations to account for this association. Given the differences in the literature regarding the operationalization of psychosis and sample characteristics, a quantitative review is needed to determine to what extent and how psychosis confers risk for suicidality.
We searched PsycInfo, PubMed, and GoogleScholar for studies published before 1 January 2016. To be included in the analysis, studies must have used at least one psychosis-related factor to longitudinally predict suicide ideation, attempt, or death. The initial search yielded 2541 studies. Fifty studies were retained for analysis, yielding 128 statistical tests.
Suicide death was the most commonly studied outcome (43.0%), followed by attempt (39.1%) and ideation (18.0%). The median follow-up length was 7.5 years. Overall, psychosis significantly conferred risk across three outcomes, with weighted mean ORs of 1.70 (1.39–2.08) for ideation, 1.36 (1.25–1.48) for attempt, and 1.40 (1.14–1.72) for death. Detailed analyses indicated that positive symptoms consistently conferred risk across outcomes; negative symptoms were not significantly associated with ideation, and were protective against death. Some small moderator effects were detected for sample characteristics.
Psychosis is a significant risk factor for suicide ideation, attempt, and death. The finding that positive symptoms increased suicide risk and negative symptoms seemed to decrease risk sheds light on the potential mechanisms for the association between psychosis and suicidality. We note several limitations of the literature and offer suggestions for future directions.
The University of Georgia (USA) is partnering with the University of Padova (Italy) for a dual Master’s degree program in sustainable agriculture, promoting collaboration on some of the biggest challenges facing agriculture today. This innovative program which was launched during 2016 provides students with outstanding training and a unique opportunity to learn about the challenges, opportunities, and leading edges of precision agriculture on another continent – an experience which will serve graduates well when they enter the job market in an increasingly global economy. This paper presents the goals of the program, the curriculum, and describes the opportunities available to prospective students. In addition it describes the process of developing the dual degree which can be used as guide by others wishing to develop similar programs.
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life, depression, as a
risk factor for dementia, using [11C]PK11195 positron emission
tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13
controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly
higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised
[11C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions
associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex,
and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and
subiculum. Our findings suggest neuroinflammation requires further
investigation in late-life depression, both as a possible aetiological
factor and a potential therapeutic target.
Objectives: We describe a new evidence-based method for screening and evaluating emerging medical technologies. Washington State agencies, under legislative direction, have granted authority to its agency Medical Directors and policy leaders to make coverage decisions on medical technologies using a “dossier” process. The dossier process is employed when technology advocates or manufacturers request Washington State healthcare purchasers to pay for new and emerging technologies. This offers the advocate an opportunity to submit scientific evidence and information classically associated with a more formal health technology assessment.
Methods: The submitted information is independently reviewed and summarized for Washington State's public healthcare purchasers allowing a more standardized coverage decision for all public purchasers in Washington State.
Results: This process has allowed Washington State to make twelve evidence-based coverage decisions at a fraction of the cost of classic technology assessment. To date, of twelve reviews over 6 years, one health technology was approved for coverage, ten were not covered and one did not require a coverage decision.
Conclusions: This evidence-based dossier process has yielded high-value coverage decisions of new and emerging medical technologies for public healthcare purchasers in Washington State.