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Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns.
In this work, a generalized adaptive control scheme for the global position stabilization of robot manipulators with bounded inputs is proposed. It gives rise to various families of bounded controllers with adaptive gravity compensation. Compared with the adaptive approaches previously developed in a bounded-input context, the proposed scheme guarantees the adaptive regulation objective: globally, avoiding discontinuities in the control expression as well as in the adaptation auxiliary dynamics, preventing the inputs to reach their natural saturation bounds, and imposing no saturation-avoidance restriction on the control gains. Experimental results corroborate the efficiency of the proposed adaptive scheme.
En la actuación de Cruz Roja Haitiana/ Cruz Roja Española en la emergencia de Artibonite (Haití), se evaluaron posibles puntos de intervención para el tratamiento de agua dentro de hospitales regionales convertidos en Centros de Tratamiento de Cólera (CTC) improvisados.
Evaluar las capacidades de Agua y Saneamiento del Centro Hospitalario de L'Estere, así como su respuesta de emergencia ante el brote epidémico de cólera a finales de Octubre de 2010.
Tras la confirmación de los primeros casos de cólera en la zona de Artibonite, se desplazó a la zona un equipo especializado de delegados en Agua y Saneamiento de la Cruz Roja Haitiana/Española que realizaron una valoración y evaluación de emergencia en la región, identificando el Centro Hospitalario de L'Estere, donde una brigada médica cubana ya ofrecía atención médica a la población previo al brote epidémico de cólera. Las tareas de apoyo a dicho centro fueron principalmente de potabilización y distribución de agua de diversas fuentes (aljibe propio y río), mantenimiento de niveles altos de cloración del agua, fabricación de letrinas y drenajes, así como capacitación en promoción de la higiene a usuarios y familiares de pacientes del Centro Hospitalario de L'Esfere y comunidades cercanas al mismo.
Del 21 de Octubre de 2010 al 26 de Octubre de 2010 se valoraron un total de 1966 pacientes; (424 hombres, 374 mujeres, 229 menores de 15 años, 596 de 5 a 10 años y 370 menores de 5 años), de los cuales 798 fueron diagnosticados de cólera. El número total de fallecidos en este periodo fue de 16.
Una evaluación y respuesta rápida de apoyo en Agua y Saneamiento a estructuras sanitarias regionales permite capacitar y mejorar la respuesta de los mismos ante enfermedades epidémicas como el cólera.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an efficient photocatalyst. It is, however, fully activated only under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Thus some research has been addressed to modify TiO2 so that it becomes sensitive to visible (Vis) light. The aim of this work was to modify the catalytic activation wavelength of TiO2 films by N2 plasma surface treatment. For such a purpose, sol-gel method was used to coat glass substrates with TiO2 films. The films so obtained were characterized by Raman Spectroscopy and SEM. For N2 plasma treatment, the films were exposed to N2 plasma and the effect of exposure time, N2 pressure and electric conditions on TiO2 photocatalytic activity under sunlight was studied. The photocatalytic activity was established via methylene blue (MB) degradation.
An M13 phage random 12-mers peptide library was used to screen cathepsin L mimotopes of Fasciola hepatica and to evaluate their immunogenicity in sheep. Seven clones showed positive reactivity to a rabbit anti-cathepsin L1/L2 antiserum in ELISA, and their amino acid sequences deduced by DNA sequencing were tentatively mapped on the protein. Twenty sheep were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 5 animals each, for immunization with 1×1014 phage particles of clones 1, 20, a mixture of 7 clones and PBS, without adjuvant at the beginning, and 4 weeks later. All groups were challenged with 300 metacercariae at week 6 and slaughtered 16 weeks later. The mean worm burdens after challenge were reduced by 47·61% and 33·91% in sheep vaccinated with clones 1 and 20, respectively; no effect was observed in animals inoculated with the clone mixture. Also, a significant reduction in worm size and burden was observed for those sheep immunized with clone 1. Animals receiving clone 20, showed a significant reduction in egg output. Immunization induced a reduction of egg viability ranging from 58·92 to 82·11%. Furthermore, vaccinated animals produced clone-specific antibodies which were boosted after challenge with metacercariae of F. hepatica.
This study addresses three issues: spatial downscaling, calibration, and combination of seasonal predictions produced by different coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. It examines the feasibility of using a Bayesian procedure for producing combined, well-calibrated downscaled seasonal rainfall forecasts for two regions in South America and river flow forecasts for the Paraná river in the south of Brazil and the Tocantins river in the north of Brazil. These forecasts are important for national electricity generation management and planning. A Bayesian procedure, referred to here as forecast assimilation, is used to combine and calibrate the rainfall predictions produced by three climate models. Forecast assimilation is able to improve the skill of 3-month lead November-December-January multi-model rainfall predictions over the two South American regions. Improvements are noted in forecast seasonal mean values and uncertainty estimates. River flow forecasts are less skilful than rainfall forecasts. This is partially because natural river flow is a derived quantity that is sensitive to hydrological as well as meteorological processes, and to human intervention in the form of reservoir management.
The commonly known properties of continuous measures such as the symmetry of the A∞ condition,
its equivalence to the reverse Hölder inequality, the left-openness of the Ap condition, etc., are no longer
necessarily true when the underlying measure is allowed to have atoms. The measures that preserve these
properties are called good measures. The class of good measures is investigated and various criteria for a
measure to belong to this class are presented.
We consider certain n-dimensional operators of Hardy type and we study their boundedness in These spaces were introduced by M. J. Carro and J. Soria and include weighted Lp, q spaces and classical Lorentz spaces. As an application, we obtain mixed weak-type inequalities for Calderón—Zygmund singular integrals, improving results due to K. Andersen and B. Muckenhoupt.
We present a study of a Bi-Mo catalyst, obtained by solid state reaction, for the oxidation of CO. Bismuth-molybdate catalysts form several phases (β3-Bi2Mo2O9, α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6, among others), depending upon the Bi/Mo ratio and the preparation method . The γ-Bi2MoO6 phase is the one that is stable at high temperatures, according to the phase diagram, and is the one we used as catalyst for the conversion of CO .
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