Field studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to determine the effect of tillage on the emergence of common waterhemp from the soil seedbank. Emergence of common waterhemp was three times greater in no-till than chisel-till cultivation. Tillage did not affect the initial time of emergence; however, the time to 50% emergence was longer in no-till than chisel till. Duration of emergence did not differ among tillage systems. Common waterhemp seed was concentrated near the soil surface in no-till plots, whereas seed in the chisel-till plots were primarily found between 9 and 15 cm. The delayed and increased emergence in no-till cultivation may contribute to the greater problems in managing common waterhemp in no-till plots compared with plots where tillage is used.