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The morphology of englacial drainage networks and their temporal evolution are poorly characterised, particularly within cold ice masses. At present, direct observations of englacial channels are restricted in both spatial and temporal resolution. Through novel use of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) system, the interior geometry of an englacial channel in Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard, was reconstructed and mapped. Twenty-eight laser scan surveys were conducted in March 2016, capturing the glacier surface around a moulin entrance and the uppermost 122 m reach of the adjoining conduit. The resulting point clouds provide detailed 3-D visualisation of the channel with point accuracy of 6.54 mm, despite low (<60%) overall laser returns as a result of the physical and optical properties of the clean ice, snow, hoar frost and sediment surfaces forming the conduit interior. These point clouds are used to map the conduit morphology, enabling extraction of millimetre-to-centimetre scale geometric measurements. The conduit meanders at a depth of 48 m, with a sinuosity of 2.7, exhibiting teardrop shaped cross-section morphology. This improvement upon traditional surveying techniques demonstrates the potential of TLS as an investigative tool to elucidate the nature of glacier hydrological networks, through reconstruction of channel geometry and wall composition.
As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
Cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring has been used to identify the lower limit of pressure autoregulation in adult patients with brain injury. We hypothesise that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and time spent below the lower limit of autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass will result in hypoperfusion injuries to the brain detectable by elevation in serum glial fibrillary acidic protein level.
We designed a multicentre observational pilot study combining concurrent cerebrovascular reactivity and biomarker monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. All children undergoing bypass for CHD were eligible. Autoregulation was monitored with the haemoglobin volume index, a moving correlation coefficient between the mean arterial blood pressure and the near-infrared spectroscopy-based trend of cerebral blood volume. Both haemoglobin volume index and glial fibrillary acidic protein data were analysed by phases of bypass. Each patient’s autoregulation curve was analysed to identify the lower limit of autoregulation and optimal arterial blood pressure.
A total of 57 children had autoregulation and biomarker data for all phases of bypass. The mean baseline haemoglobin volume index was 0.084. Haemoglobin volume index increased with lowering of pressure with 82% demonstrating a lower limit of autoregulation (41±9 mmHg), whereas 100% demonstrated optimal blood pressure (48±11 mmHg). There was a significant association between an individual’s peak autoregulation and biomarker values (p=0.01).
Individual, dynamic non-invasive cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring demonstrated transient periods of impairment related to possible silent brain injury. The association between an impaired autoregulation burden and elevation in the serum brain biomarker may identify brain perfusion risk that could result in injury.
The 11 July 1991 total solar eclipse over Mauna Kea was a unique opportunity to study the limb profile of the 12.32 μm MgI emission line. Our observations used the NASA 3-meter Infrared Telescope Facility,1 and a new Goddard large cryogenic grating spectrometer. Spectra of the line were taken in the slitless mode at second contact. The results show that the emission peaks within ~ 300 km of the 12-μm continuum limb. This agrees with recent theoretical predictions for this line as a NLTE upper photospheric emission feature. However, the increase in optical depth for this extreme limb-viewing situation means that most of the observed emission arises from above Tmin, and we find that this emission is extended to altitudes well in excess of the model predictions. The line emission can be traced to altitudes as high as 2000 km above the 12-μm continuum limb, whereas theory predicts it to remain observable no higher than 500 km above the continuum limb. The substantial limb-extension observed in this line is qualitatively consistent with limb-extensions seen by other observers in the far-IR continuum, and may be indicative of departures from gravitational hydrostatic equilibrium in the upper solar atmosphere, and/or may result from temperature and density inhomogeneities. The extended altitude of formation of this line enhances its value as a Zeeman probe of magnetic fields.
Recent polarimetric observations of the 12.32-μm emission line have provided the observational basis for deriving vector magnetic fields in the upper photosphere with great sensitivity. We use a line source function from the non-LTE model of Carlsson, Rutten and Shchukina, and calculate the radiative transfer of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles. The results show that the profiles are not significantly affected by magneto-optical effects or by saturation, and reliable vector fields can be extracted by simply fitting the Seares relations to the Stokes profiles. Vector field observations for sunspots have shown that the field extends well beyond the photometric boundary of the sunspot, but that the field strength at the penumbral/photospheric boundary is less than half of the sunspot-center value. Within a mature sunspot, the 12-μm line profiles contain essentially no unpolarized radiation, indicating that the field is not intermittent in the sense of containing discrete flux tubes separated by field-free regions. We describe the design of a 12-μm Stokes polarimeter incorporating a high-resolution Fabry-Perot etalon and a 128 × 128 infrared array detector.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
The objective of this study was to determine whether altered maternal energy supply during mid-gestation results in differences in muscle histology or genes regulating fetal adipose and muscle development. In total, 22 Angus cross-bred heifers (BW=527.73±8.3 kg) were assigned randomly to the three dietary treatments providing 146% (HIGH; n=7), 87% (INT; n=7) or 72% (LOW; n=8) of the energy requirements for heifers from day 85 to day 180 of gestation. Fetuses were removed via cesarean section at day 180 of gestation and longissimus muscle (LM) and subcutaneous fat were collected and prepared for analysis of gene expression. Samples from the LM and semitendinosus (ST) were evaluated for muscle fiber diameter, area and number. The right hind limb was dissected and analyzed to determine compositional analysis. Fetal growth and muscle histology characteristics of the LM and ST were similar among treatments. Preadipocyte factor-1 expression was up-regulated in fetal LM (P<0.05) of HIGH fetuses as compared with INT, whereas LOW fetuses showed increased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBP-β) expression in LM as compared with INT (P<0.05). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γand C/EBP-α did not differ as a result of dietary treatment in LM or subcutaneous fat samples. There was a tendency for increased expression of fatty acid synthase in LM of LOW fetuses as compared with INT (P<0.10). Myogenin was more highly expressed (P<0.05) in LM of the LOW fetuses, whereas μ-calpain expression was increased in the HIGH treatment compared with INT. A tendency for increased expression of IGF-II was observed for both LOW and HIGH fetuses compared with INT (P<0.10). Expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, myoblast determination protein 1, myogenic factor 5, myogenic regulatory factor-4, m-calpain, calpastatin, IGF-I and myostatin was similar between treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that fetal growth characteristics are not affected by the level of maternal nutritional manipulation imposed in this study during mid-gestation. However, differences in expression of fetal genes regulating adipose and muscle tissue growth and development could lead to differences in postnatal composition and warrants further investigation.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
We discuss the stellar halos of massive elliptical galaxies, as revealed by our ambitious integral-field spectroscopic survey MASSIVE. We show that metallicity drops smoothly as a function of radius out to ~ 2.5 Re, while the [α/Fe] abundance ratios stay flat. The stars in the outskirts likely formed rapidly (to explain the high ratio of alpha to Fe) but in a relatively shallow potential (to explain the low metallicities). This is consistent with expectations for a two-phase growth of massive galaxies, in which the second phase involves accretion of small satellites. We also show some preliminary study of the gas content of these most MASSIVE galaxies.
Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest management on two forests in Tanzania was evaluated using a mixed method approach. Current forest condition, forest increment and forest use patterns were assessed through forest inventories, and changes in forest disturbance levels before and after the implementation of decentralized forest management were assessed on the basis of analyses of Landsat images. This biophysical evidence was then linked to changes in actual management practices, assessed through records, interviews and participatory observations, to provide a measure of the conservation impact of the policy change. Both forests in the study were found to be in good condition, and extraction was lower than overall forest increment. Divergent changes in forest disturbance levels were in evidence following the implementation of decentralized forest management. The evidence from records, interviews and participatory observations indicated that decentralized management had led to increased control of forest use and the observed divergence in forest disturbance levels appeared to be linked to differences in the way that village-level forest managers prioritized conservation objectives and forest-based livelihood strategies. The study illustrates that a mixed methods approach comprises a valid and promising way to evaluate impacts of conservation policies, even in the absence of control sites. By carefully linking policy outcomes to policy outputs, such an approach not only identifies whether such policies work as intended, but also potential mechanisms.
Terrestrial digital photonic technology development will not satisfy all of the aerospace requirements since RF links are often required. Organic electro-optic devices are readily adaptable to RF functions into the 100 GHz and above frequency range. In addition to lossless links, they can be utilized for RF signal processing functions such as mixing, efficient harmonic generation and filtering. Devices can be densely packed with negligible cross talk.
In addition to the well known survivability requirements for space born applications (lifetime, reliability, thermal, shock, vibration and radiation hardness), issues of weight and power become dominant. Organic devices based on thin film technologies have an obvious potential advantage with respect to weight. However, integration with other optical and/or electronic components needs to be considered since connectors often dominated size and weight. Performance (when translated back into the electronic domain) scales as the optical power and device sensitivity squared. Thus, advances in device sensitivity can be nullified by increases in optical loss.
New rigid rods amphiphilic molecules based on phenyl ethynylenes oligomers with hydrophilic side chains were synthesized by step by step method. The two most interesting products, the pentamer and the heptamer are enough amphiphilic to give stable Langmuir films that are able to be deposited as LB film on substrates as hydro-philic glass, ITO or hydrophilic silicon. A good transfer ratio of 1 is observed only by lifting, which suggests a Z type deposited film. A multilayer deposition can be carried out to 36 layers. The well structured films of 3.7 nm thick which are observed by X ray reflectivity suggest a rearragement in Y–type bilayer. By AFM, the observed irregular surface with steps of 3.7 and 1.8 nm high or multiples is coherent with a self-rearrangement of the single deposited layer to a double layer during the drying phase. The heptamer and pentamer show large stokes-shifts with a high photoluminescence emission peak at 516 and 504 nm respectively. LED properties were demonstrated using the ITO/oligoPY/ LiF-Al sandwich yielding photon emission at 516 nm for the heptamer. The electroluminescent device yields in the range of 10−3%. The demonstration of electroluminescence in a LB film of molecules aligned parallel to the substrate is very interesting because it confirms the possibility to tailor conduction and emission properties of the devices using a layer by layer deposition technique.
We examine the influence of various substrate preparation procedures for ion-beam assist deposition (IBAD) texturing of MgO. IBAD-MgO nano-texturing is very sensitive to the nucleation surface, and surface roughness has an important influence on the texture of the MgO layer. We studied Hastelloy C-276 metal alloy as the substrate. The untreated substrate is leveled by either electropolishing, mechanical polishing or solution deposition. All three methods are applied to continuously moving tapes in long lengths. The RMS surface roughness decreases from 20-50 nm for the untreated substrate to 0.5 nm, 0.3 nm and 1 nm respectively. The in-plane and out-of plane crystalline alignment of the MgO layer improves as the roughness is decreased below 2 nm.
A new oxydative-resistant, fusible and processible ethylene/acetylene copolymer has been synthesized. The content of rigid (acetylene) and flexible (ethylene) fragments has been widely varied. The structure of the nascent powders and the films compressed at room temperature have been investigated by SEM and WAXS. DSC has been used for studying the thermal properties. DC conductivity of the iodine doped samples has been measured as a function of temperature. It is shown that the doping leads to arising conductivity in the samples even at 10 Mol % acetylene fragments in copolymer. The conductivity up to 10−3 S/cm is reached for the samples with acetylene fragment concentration about 20 Mol %. It is found that a charge carrier transport in investigated copolymers is caused by doped polyacetylene fragments and described by the hopping Mechanism.