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CVD is a major burden on the health system in the UK. On average, diets are not aligned with current dietary recommendations, including those for salt, saturated fat, fibre, fruit and vegetables. Obesity prevalence is high and the majority of the population is consuming more energy than required. Addressing these issues would reduce the burden of CVD and help reduce inequalities in health. There is currently a range of policy interventions in place in England designed to help improve diets and reduce obesity, which in turn should help reduce the risk of CVD. Further actions may be needed in the long term to deliver sustained improvements to diet and health.
Prophylactic vaccines against Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) are under development. EBV-naïve college freshmen are ideal candidates for an efficacy trial, because their incidence of infectious mononucleosis (mono) during freshman year is as high as 20%. To assess perceptions about mono and a mono vaccine, and to learn if EBV immune status could be determined using a gingival swab rather than phlebotomy, we performed a cross-sectional study of 235 healthy students at the beginning of their freshman year. Subjects completed questionnaires and donated oral washes, gingival swabs and venous blood. Overall, 90% of students found the swab easy to use and 80% preferred the swab over venepuncture. Of the 193 students with sufficient samples, 108 (56%) had EBV antibodies in blood vs. 87 (45.1%) in the gingival swab. The sensitivity and specificity of the swab compared with blood for detecting EBV antibodies was 75.9% and 94.1%, respectively, with an accuracy of 89.3%. EBV DNA was detected in the oral wash and swab of 39.2% and 30.4% of blood-antibody-positive individuals, respectively. In conclusion, 44% of our freshmen were EBV-naïve and thus vaccine candidates, the gingival swab was an acceptable alternative to phlebotomy for detecting EBV antibody but needs improved sensitivity, and the perceived value of EBV vaccine was high (72% believed they would benefit).
Practice makes perfect, or so the adage has it. But does that principle apply to the scholarly practices of theorizing international politics? Will the practice of centering practices as objects of analysis lead to an improved (if still imperfect) theoretic account? Will it better enable the practitioners of the discipline of International Relations (IR) to engage in productive intertheoretic or interparadigmatic dialogue and, in doing so, to transcend the oft-invoked binaries of material vs. ideational perspectives and agential vs. structural emphases? The contributors to this volume maintain that it will: if IR scholars were regularly to focus attention on “social doing” – on grounding theory in social–political life as it is performed in competent performances – they would be better able to converse across substantive domains, theoretic perspectives, and methodological approaches.
We respond as sympathetic critics. Specifically, we endorse the argument that a focus on practices holds appreciable potential as a conceptual framework for the analysis of the empirics of international politics. Placing practices at the center of analysis, making them a “conceptual focal point,” we agree, should aid and enrich researchers’ efforts to grasp the complexities of international social–political life, while also providing the basis for theoretically fruitful conversations that bridge the many divides that afflict the IR field. Focusing on practices, and the background knowledge that they embody, and through which they are socially meaningful, holds the potential to foster serious engagement between realists and liberals, for example, over the conditions of possibility for and limitations on stable patterns of cooperation among agents of state, as well as the production of interstate enmities. Rather than recapitulating meta-theoretic assumptions about the determinative (or plastic) role of anarchy – whether or not it is what states make of it – or conversely about the world-order-making role of transgovernmental networks and global civil society in addressing such core questions of the discipline, IR scholars’ turn to practices – asking what is being done in producing interstate harmonies and/or enmities, what competent performances are involved – should go a long way toward bridging paradigmatic divides. Similarly, the agent-centered analyses of many constructivists and the intertextual focus of some poststructuralists could reach a point of productive conversation about the materialization of discourse in practices of normalization of international social life. We believe and we hope that the partisans of the “isms” of the discipline can effectively mute much of the currently sterile war of scholarly position by turning away from the defense of respective meta-theoretic foundations and toward empirical attention to the “doing” of international politics. Accordingly, we commend the editors of and the contributors to this volume for providing systematic exemplification of a framework for focusing on practices.
As part of a complete theoretical description of the behaviour of the electric
arc in the vacuum arc remelting process, a model has been developed for the column
of plasma generated by a single cluster of cathode microspots. The model aims in
particular to calculate the distribution of thermal energy transferred by the plasma
to the surface of the anodic melt pool. The theoretical approach combines a kinetic
model, taking into account the formation of the plasma in the cathodic region, and a
hydrodynamic model, describing the expansion of the plasma in the vacuum between
The focus of Commission 12 is on the solar interior, on global phenomena of the quiet Sun, and on the Sun’s radiative outputs, both spectral and total. These are the topics treated below in our discussion of Scientific Highlights. The many topics having to do with solar activity at photospheric to coronal levels, are dealt with in the report by Commission 10, while the report of Commission 49 describes research on the solar wind and interplanetary medium.
Kinetics of congruent ordering in Cu3Au at 350 °C was investigated by means of a three-dimensional atom probe. This instrument, called a Tomographic Atom Probe (TAP), enables atomic resolution images of a small volume (10 × 10 × 100 nm3) of the material reconstructed in the three dimensions of space. The time evolution of ordered domains at 350 °C shows that a t1/2 law is followed as soon as 5 min. For this aging time, the nucleus diameter is close to 1.7 nm. This scaling law was observed even before domains came into contact (t = 50 min). Competitive growth was observed to start as soon as 5 min. The number density was observed to decrease rapidly up to t = 50 min. A slower decrease was observed when domains begin to impinge. Experimental conditions and requirements as well as advantages of TAP as compared to HREM for the study of ordering are discussed in detail.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
Glasses of the system AgI-Ag2O-(0.95B2O3:0.05SiO2) have been formed by microwave processing using a domestic multi-mode oven operating at 900 watts and 2.45 GHz. Microwave heating resulted in rapid melting times with homogeneity in the quenched glasses equivalent to or better than conventional melting at 730°C. The glass forming region in this pseudo-ternary system is compared with the conventionally melted glass forming region in the system AgI-Ag2O-B2O3. A reversible color difference has been observed between glasses conventionally melted and those melted by microwave for all glass compositions in our system.
Effects of convective mixing on the concentration homogeneity of the crystal has been demonstrated. Insitu observations of the solid liquid interface shape during crystal growth are presented which can be used to optimize the dopant distribution. Observations of the interface during growth are discussed varying the parameters in a controlled manner to minimize the thermosolutal effects. It has been observed that beyond a critical velocity for the particular dopant level, the interface shape changes. The change in the interface shape can be related to the fluid flow in the melt. Two different instability regions, namely convective and morphological are addressed. Experimentally observed result are compared with the existing convecto-diffusive theories.
During a 7-day conditioning treatment of clumps of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) somatic embryos on a medium containing 0.75 M sucrose, the fructose and glucose concentrations remained constant, whereas a ten-fold and twenty-fold increase were noted for sucrose and starch concentrations, respectively. The only new sugar detected was arabinose which remained at a low concentration. After conditioning on media supplemented with various sugars and polyols at similar osmolarities, recovery of clumps of embryo growth was satisfactory except with ribose. After an additional desiccation period, survival was optimal with fructose, galactose, sucrose and glucose, intermediate with maltose and lower with other compounds. When embryos were cryopreserved without previous desiccation, survival was noted after conditioning treatment with sucrose only. In contrast, when freezing was performed after dehydration, survival could be obtained with several substances. It was optimal with sucrose, fructose, galactose and raffinose but was possible also with sorbitol and glucose. Intensity of recovery of proliferation was highest with embryos conditioned with sucrose.
In some countries, such as the U.S.A., there are quite a lot of major planetariums and an enormous number of small fixed-operating planetariums. In France, the situation is not as good. There are only three planetariums with domes in excess of 15 meters across, six with diameters between six and nine meters, and ten transportable ones. For these last — five EX3s, three Starlabs and two of personal design — the inflatable domes are between four and five meters in diameter, providing a dedicated astronomy teaching facility significantly large to accommodate a typical class.
A common characteristic of dependent industrializing countries is a substantial direct entrepreneurial role for the state. One explanation for this is that in dependent industrializing countries the system of allocation and production has been captured by a key group, the techno-bureaucratic elite. The argument is that this elite lends its political support to the state, in return for the state substituting as entrepreneur in the industrialization process.
In this article we analyze the theoretical implications of this explanation of the entrepreneurial state. A formal model is constructed of the relationship between state entrepreneurship, material consequences for the techno-bureaucratic elite, and important domestic and international constraints. We then use deductive methods to analyze the logic of state entrepreneurship. Among other things, we show how cyclical fluctuations in the global economy are reflected in constantly changing levels of state entrepreneurship, and we investigate the consequences of alternative kinds of dependency syndromes for histories of entrepreneurial substitution and for streams of benefits to the techno-bureaucratic elite. It is demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between the tendencies to reach stable levels of state entrepreneurship and the long-term potential for economic growth.
The concept of dependence is used in several different scholarly traditions to refer to aspects of relational asymmetry in international and transnational relations. In three such traditions, dependence refers to three quite different kinds of concepts with the result that possibilities are restricted for fruitful dialogue about dependence across these scholarly traditions of dependencia theory, systematic empiricism, and formal, analytical theory. To aggravate this problem of multiple “languages,” there are two basic conceptual notions generally associated with the term dependence. These two meanings have clearly distinct implications for the nature of a theory of dependence, the character of entities dependent on one another, and the assessment or measurement of dependence. Thus, if the “language” gap is to be bridged and fruitful dialogue is to occur among different scholarly traditions, attention must be directed to the basic conceptual meaning of dependence in each tradition. Dialogue between systematic empiricism and dependencia theory is possible if empiricists recognize the fundamentally historical and historicist character of the particular substance of dependencia theory. These principles are exemplified here.
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