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We present an overview of the latest results from the PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS, PI: E. Schinnerer), which has mapped CO(1-0) emission in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 40pc resolution. Our data are sensitive to GMCs above 105 M⊙, allowing the construction of the largest GMC catalog to date – containing over 1500 objects – using the CPROPS algorithm (Rosolowsky & Leroy 2006). In the inner disk of M51, the properties of the CO emission show significant variation that can be linked to the dynamical environment in which the molecular gas is located. We find that dynamically distinct regions host clouds with different properties and exhibit different GMC mass spectra, as well as distinct patterns of star formation. To understand how this sensitivity to environment emerges, we consider the role of pressure on GMC stabilization (including shear and star formation feedback-driven turbulence). We suggest that, in the presence of significant external pressure, streaming motions driven by the spiral arm can act to reduce the surface pressure on clouds. The resulting stabilization impacts the global pattern of star formation and can account for the observed non-monotonic radial dependence of the gas depletion time. Our findings have implications for the observed scatter in the standard GMC relations and extragalactic star formation laws.
Routine laboratory testing may not detect non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) reliably. Active clinical, epidemiological, environmental health, and laboratory collaboration probably influence successful detection and study of non-O157 STEC infection. We summarized two outbreak investigations in which such coordinated efforts identified non-O157 STEC disease and led to effective control measures. Outbreak 1 involved illness associated with consuming unpasteurized apple cider from a local orchard. Public health personnel were notified by a local hospital; stool specimens from ill persons contained O111 STEC. Outbreak 2 involved bloody diarrhoea at a correctional facility. Public health personnel were notified by the facility infection control officer; O45 STEC was the implicated agent. These reports highlight the ability of non-O157 STEC to cause outbreaks and demonstrate that a coordinated effort by clinicians, infection-control practitioners, clinical diagnostic laboratorians, and public health personnel can lead to effective identification, investigation, and prevention of non-O157 STEC disease.
We have measured the photovoltaic spectra at 300K for a PIN GaAs/AlGaAs structure containing five coupled wells (50A/28A) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The spectra were obtained in the energy range from 1.40 eV to 1.60 eV. This is the region in which optical transitions between the sub-band valence and conduction states are possible. Five direct optical transitions are allowed for this structure. These transitions are normally difficult to measure at room temperature because of broadening, nevertheless, some of the allowed transitions were observed from the photovoltaic spectra and agreed with calculations. We have previously shown that measurements made using electroreflectance (ER) agree with these results. However, with ER, three possible transitions were observed but only one with certainty, possibly because of interference caused by adjacent line spectra interaction. This interference appears to be less pronounced in the photovoltaic spectra, which aids in the identification of transitions.
A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections occurred in the USA in November–December 2006 in patrons of restaurant chain A. We identified 77 cases with chain A exposure in four states – Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Fifty-one (66%) patients were hospitalized, and seven (9%) developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome; none died. In a matched analysis controlling for age in 31 cases and 55 controls, illness was associated with consumption of shredded iceberg lettuce [matched odds ratio (mOR) 8·0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–348·1] and shredded cheddar cheese (mOR 6·2, CI 1·7–33·7). Lettuce, an uncooked ingredient, was more commonly consumed (97% of patients) than cheddar cheese (84%) and a single source supplied all affected restaurants. A single source of cheese could not explain the regional distribution of outbreak cases. The outbreak highlights challenges in conducting rapid multistate investigations and the importance of incorporating epidemiological study results with other investigative findings.
Tight binaries discovered in young nearby associations are ideal targets to provide dynamical mass measurments through orbital monitoring. Coupled with estimated temperatures, surface gravities and luminosities, direct mass measurments provide benchmarks for evolutionary models of low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.5 M๏) and brown dwarfs (M ≤ 0.078 M๏) at young ages (Age ≤ 100 Myrs).
TWA22 AB is likely to be a member of the nearby TW Hydrae association (Age ~ 8 Myr). It was resolved in a tigh binary with a projected separation of a few AU. In this paper we present preliminary results on the companion orbital monitoring and on the spectral characterisation of the system.
This paper presents the dynamic injury tolerances for the female humerus and forearm derived from
dynamic 3-point bending tests using 22 female cadaver upper extremities. Twelve female humeri were tested
at an average strain rate of 3.7±1.3%/s. The strain rates were chosen to be representative of those observed
during upper extremity interaction with frontal and side airbags. The average moment to failure when mass
scaled for the 5th centile female was 128±19 Nm. Using data from the in situ strain gauges during the drop
tests and geometric properties obtained from pretest CT scans, an average dynamic elastic modulus for the
female humerus was found to be 24.4±3.9 GPa. The injury tolerance for the forearm was determined from
10 female forearms tested at an average strain rate of 3.94±2.0%/s. Using 3 matched forearm pairs, it was
determined that the forearm is 21% stronger in the supinated position (92±5 Nm) versus the pronated
position (75±7 Nm). Two distinct fracture patterns were seen for the pronated and supinated groups. In
the supinated position the average difference in fracture time between the radius and ulna was a negligible
0.4±0.3 ms. However, the pronated tests yielded an average difference in fracture time of 3.6±1.2 ms, with
the ulna breaking before the radius in every test. This trend implies that in the pronated position, the ulna
and radius are loaded independently, while in the supinated position the ulna and radius are loaded together
as a combined structure. To produce a conservative injury criterion, a total of 7 female forearms were tested
in the pronated position, which resulted in the forearm injury criterion of 58±12 Nm when scaled for the
5th centile female. It is anticipated that these data will provide injury reference values for the female forearm
during driver air bag loading, and the female humerus during side air bag loading.
We evaluated the effects of acetazolamide in 4 young patients with Friedreich's ataxia by clinical and quantitative laboratory methods. Dynamic muscle function of the lower extremity was measured during isokinetic knee movements and gait. The acetazolamide trial was terminated at 7 to 11 weeks because of reported side effects or increased ataxia in 3 of the patients. The quantitative evaluations revealed lower dynamic strength values and alterations in the gait movement pattern in all patients. These changes, which were interpreted as deterioration, were partially reversible with cessation of acetazolamide. The advantages of such quantitative evaluations of dynamic muscle function in the evaluation of therapy in Friedreich's ataxia are discussed.
Overwintering stages of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), and the McDaniel spider mite, Tetranychus mcdanieli McGregor, on harvested apples were destroyed with ethylene dibromide using a dosage of 6 mg/l. for 4 h at 24 °C. Some control was achieved at lower temperatures but the dosage had to be increased accordingly. No injury of the fruit occurred. Taste tests showed that flavour of the apples was not adversely affected even after treatment with 10 mg/l. for 4 h.
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