To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
According to a recent study, ratings on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) obtained via a dedicated semi-structured interview are valid measures of the severity of psychotic depression. This study aimed to further test the validity, scalability and responsiveness of the PDAS in older adults using independent ratings on the Clinical Global Impression Scale – Severity (CGI-S) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as references.
Ratings were performed at admission and discharge at two old age psychiatric wards in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 62 older adults (mean age: 74.3 years) with psychotic depression were included. The PDAS was rated by trained nurses using the semi-structured PDAS interview. Senior psychiatrists scored the participants on the CGI-S. Psychologists or experienced nurses rated participants on the MADRS. Clinical validity was assessed by correlating the PDAS total scores with CGI-S ratings and MADRS total scores. Mokken analysis was performed to assess the scalability of the PDAS. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing the proportion of participants in remission (PDAS total score <8 at study baseline and endpoint).
The Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.79 for the PDAS versus CGI-S and PDAS versus MADRS, respectively. The Mokken analysis yielded a Loevinger coefficient of 0.46, which is indicative of scalability. At admission, no participants met the PDAS remission criterion. At discharge, 54% (95% confidence interval: 47%–60%) of the patients met this criterion.
The PDAS appears to be a clinically valid, scalable and responsive measure of the severity of psychotic depression in older adults.
We review our knowledge of the composition of cometary volatiles in the light of recent observations of comets C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) and C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) and examine how this could constrain models of planetary system formation.
To explore differences in the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) according to survey methodology.
Repeated point and period prevalence survey strategies.
University-affiliated primary and tertiary care center.
Analysis of data collected from 2006 to 2012 from annual HAI prevalence surveys using definitions proposed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study design allowed the analysis of the same data in the format of a point or a period prevalence survey.
Pooled point and period HAI prevalence was 7.46% and 9.84% (+32%), respectively. This additional 32% was mainly attributable to infections of the lower respiratory tract (2.42% vs 3.20% [+32%]) and the urinary tract (1.76% vs 2.62% [+49%]). Differences in surgical site infections (1.02% vs 1.20% [+19%]) and bloodstream infections (0.76% vs 0.86% [+13%]) were smaller. HAI prevalence for the point and period methodology in acute and long-term care were 7.47% versus 9.38 (+26%) and 8.37% versus 11.89% (+42%), respectively. Differences were stable over time. Focusing on the 4 major HAIs (respiratory tract, urinary tract, surgical site, and bloodstream infections) misses one-quarter of all HAIs.
More HAIs are identified by the period prevalence method, especially those of shorter duration (lower respiratory and urinary tract), which would make this method more suitable to be used in long-term care. Results of the 2 study methods cannot be benchmarked against each other.
Climate change is predicted to be a major threat for biodiversity and, from a conservation prospective, it is important to understand how ecosystems may respond to that change. Predicted climate change effects on the distribution of meadows in the arid and semi-arid Argentinean Patagonia by 2050 were assessed for change trends and areas of desertification vulnerability using species distribution models (SDM) and climate-change models. Four modelling techniques composed an ensemble-forecasting approach. Suitable areas for meadows will decrease by 7.85% by 2050 given predicted changes in climate. However, there were two contrasting trends: severe reduction of suitable areas for meadows in north-west Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island, and an expansion of suitable areas for meadows in the south and a small section in the north-west. Meadows in Patagonia will likely be impacted by climate change, probably due to changes in precipitation regimes, and consequently many species that rely on meadows in an arid environment will also be impacted. Given the low level of protection of meadows in Patagonia, such information on meadow distribution and vulnerability to climate change will be important for increasing and improving the network of conservation areas through conservation planning.
The efficiency of a tantalum nitride interlayer as a diffusion barrier for CeFe4Sb12 thermoelectric material against electrode copper material has been investigated. The thermal stability of CeFe4Sb12/TaN/Cu stackings has been investigated after annealing at 600°C from a microstructural study. CeFe4Sb12 and Cu appear to chemically react through the formation of CeCu2 and Cu2Sb phases whereas no reaction is observed for CeFe4Sb12 with TaN. This study showed that the TaN interlayer cannot inhibit the diffusion of Sb from the skutterudite substrate to the copper electrode but prevents the diffusion of Ce and consequently the formation of the CeCu2 phase.
In 2011 the IRSN conducted several assessments of atmospheric
radioactive releases due to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident (March
11, 2011) and of their impact on Japan’s terrestrial environment.
They were based on the IRSN’s emergency management tools and on
the abundant information and technical data gradually published
in Japan. According to these assessments, the main release phase
lasted from March 12 to 25, 2011 and impacted Japanese land in two
events, the first on 15 and 16 March, in which the main radioactive
deposits were formed, and the second from March 20 to 23, which
was less significant. The highest amounts of radioactive deposits were
found in an area extending upwards of several tens of kilometers
northwest of the plant. Lower amounts were discontinuously scattered
in an area extending up to over 250 km away. Initially composed
mainly of short-lived radionuclides, the deposits’ activity sharply
decreased in the subsequent weeks. Since the summer of 2011, cesium-134
and cesium-137 have become the residual deposits’ main components.
According to IRSN estimates, in the absence of protection, the doses
due to exposure to the radioactive plume during the atmospheric
release phase may have been potentially higher for people who remained
in coastal areas up to several tens of kilometers north and south
of the damaged plant. Thereafter, people living up to 50 km northwest
of the plant, outside the 20-km emergency evacuation zone, were potentially
most vulnerable to residual radioactive deposits over time.
Limb amputations are frequently performed as a result of trauma inflicted during conflict or disasters. As demonstrated during the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, coordinating care of these patients in austere settings is complex. During the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit, consensus statements were developed for international organizations providing care to limb amputation patients during disasters or humanitarian emergencies. Expanded planning is needed for a multidisciplinary surgical care team, inclusive of surgeons, anesthesiologists, rehabilitation specialists and mental health professionals. Surgical providers should approach amputation using an operative technique that optimizes limb length and prosthetic fitting. Appropriate anesthesia care involves both peri-operative and long-term pain control. Rehabilitation specialists must be involved early in treatment, ideally before amputation, and should educate the surgical team in prosthetic considerations. Mental health specialists must be included to help the patient with community reintegration. A key step in developing local health systemsis the establishment of surgical outcomes monitoring. Such monitoring can optimizepatient follow-up and foster professional accountability for the treatment of amputation patients in disaster settings and humanitarian emergencies.
The provision of surgery within humanitarian crises is complex, requiring coordination and cooperation among all stakeholders. During the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit best practice guidelines were proposed to provide greater accountability and standardization in surgical humanitarian relief efforts. Surgical humanitarian relief planning should occur early and include team selection and preparation, appropriate disaster-specific anticipatory planning, needs assessment, and an awareness of local resources and limitations of cross-cultural project management. Accurate medical record keeping and timely follow-up is important for a transient surgical population. Integration with local health systems is essential and will help facilitate longer term surgical health system strengthening.
Low-κ/Cu interconnect integration achievement is one of the key issues for the future sub-100 nm technologies. Nowadays, no definitive integration scheme has been reported. Low-κ integration is especially difficult because the trench/via etching and CMP processes can damage its properties. In the present work, we present results on different materials that could be used in such integration. We focused our study on the barrier (Ta/TaN) and on a low-κ material (dense and porous), that is a spin-on-dielectric (SOD) of the methylsilsesquioxane (MSQ) type. CMP slurries were made from monodisperse colloidal silica particles. In a first approach, the slurries compositions mainly differed by their pH and abrasive characteristics. The particle size ranged from 12 to 80 nm, with a pH varying between 2 and 11. The sensitivity of the Ta/TaN and low-κ removal rates will also be reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the different films were carried out in order to evaluate the impact of CMP on their surface quality. Measurements did not show any surface degradation or/and scratches, and no delamination has been observed. Post-CMP κ value measurements have been carried out to highlight possible damage on the low-ê dielectric materials.
After several decades of observations from space, direct measurements of the global threedimensional wind field remain elusive, however crucial to weather predictions. The ALADIN instrument, payload of the AEOLUS satellite (figure 1), will provide measurements of atmospheric wind profiles with global Earth coverage for the climatology and meteorology users. The AEOLUS programme is sponsored by the European Space Agency with a launch planned in 2008.
ALADIN belongs to a new class of Earth Observation payloads and will be the first European Lidar in space. The instrument comprises a diode-pumped high energy Nd:YAG laser and a direct detection receiver operating on aerosol and molecular backscatter signals in parallel. In addition to the Flight Model (FM), two instrument models are developed: a Pre-development Model (PDM) and an Opto-Structure-Thermal Model (OSTM). The OSTM integration has been completed and the flight equipments are under manufacturing. This paper describes the instrument design as well as the development status. The ALADIN instrument is developed under prime contractor EADS Astrium SAS with a consortium of thirty companies.
Sera from an age-stratified sample of 1810 people from the Caribbean island of St Lucia were tested for antibodies against varicella-zoster virus. The results indicate that very few infections occur in childhood, which agrees with clinical survey data from other tropical countries, but contrasts with the observed high case rate in children in temperate countries. The alternative hypotheses which may explain these results are discussed, and it is suggested that high ambient temperatures interfere with the transmission of the virus. Irrespective of the cause, the pattern of varicella incidence observed has important implications for any vaccination policy adopted in tropical countries.
The study examines the distribution of Trichuris trichiura infection in a village community in St Lucia, West Indies. The infection intensity of the same age-stratified population was assessed (by drug expelled worm burden and faecal egg count) at the initiation of the study, and after 17 months of reinfection following treatment. The frequency distribution of worm numbers per person was similar at both periods of sampling. There was a significant correlation between the initial infection intensity of an individual, and the intensity acquired by the same individual following the 17 month period of reinfection. This relationship was observed in a broad range of host age classes. The study provides firm evidence that individuals are predisposed to heavy (or light) T. trichiura infection.
The differential accumulation of fluorescent molecules in tumorigenic versus normal cells is a well-reported phenomenon and is the basis for photodiagnostic therapy. Through the use of confocal microscopy, the kinetic uptake and accumulation of fusarochromanone (FC101) was determined in two lines of living tumorigenic cells of mesenchymal-epithelial origin and normal fibroblast cells. Like other fluorescent cationic molecules, FC101 showed increased accumulation in tumorigenic cells; however, unlike other molecules, it appeared to be accumulated in a time-dependent manner. Also, unlike traditional fluorescent cationic molecules, FC101, a potent inhibitor of cell growth, showed preferential inhibition of tumorigenic B-16 melanoma cells and MCF7 cells derived from breast cancer adenocarcinoma when compared to normal cardiac fibroblasts. Further analysis of FC101's physicochemical properties using both experimentally obtained and simulated values revealed the likelihood of membrane permeation and oral bioavailability of the compound. These physicochemical properties of FC101 were also used to predict its intracellular localization lending credence to data observed by confocal microscopy.
A seroepidemiological study of the prevalence of mumps virus specific antibodies reveals a pattern of endemic peristence on the island of St Lucia in the West Indies. In the unvaccinated population the proportion seropositive rose rapidly in the child age classes to attain a stable plateau close to unity in value in the teenage and adult age groups. The average age at infection was estimated to be between 3 and 4 years of age and the average duration of detectable levels of maternally derived antibodies was approximately 3 months. Analyses based on mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of the virus suggest that in excess of 75% of each cohort of 1-to 2-year-old children must be effectively immunized to eliminate mumps virus transmission. A mumps radial haemolysis test, developed for quantitative measurements of antibody, is discussed.