To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Identifying and tackling recrystallization is a critical factor in the reliable radiocarbon (14C) dating of carbonates, since exogenous carbon can be incorporated and thus mask the real age of the samples. Vermetids are among the most important bioindicators used for paleo sea-level reconstruction, and the accuracy of their chronology can significantly impact sea-level curves. Age differences larger than 1 14C kyr before and after acid etching, combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that indicates a significant amount of calcite still remains in the shell, led us to apply the previously developed carbonate density separation protocol (CarDS). Using a solution of sodium polytungstate, with density of 2.80 g/cm3, we successfully separated different carbonate fractions for a set of 10 vermetid samples from the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southeast of Brazil. Each separation was verified by XRD analysis and the 14C concentrations of different fractions were compared. The results show that the calcite fraction in the studied vermetid samples varied from 12 to 63% and aragonite fraction ages are up to 2 14C kyr older than the raw samples, thus confirming the efficacy of CarDS in removing young carbonates and the importance of density separation to vermetids prior to accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic baits and attractants for fruit flies on the biology of its parasitoid Fopius arisanus. We tested two food-based attractants; hydrolysed corn protein (Biofruit® 3%) and sugarcane molasses (7%), their mixtures with spinosad and malathion-based insecticides, and a ready-to-use commercial bait (Success 0.02 CB®). Malathion-based lures were used as references for mortality (i.e., positive control), while negative control was honey. The formulations Biofruit® + malathion (T1), molasses + malathion (T2), and spinosad + molasses (T3) were toxic to F. arisanus, being classified as harmful (class 4). In addition, toxic baits composed of Biofruit + spinosad (T4) reduced parasitism by 97.99%, being rated as moderately harmful (class 3). Yet, Success 0.02 CB® (T7) was considered slightly toxic (class 2), causing a 64.55% reduction in parasitism. Regarding the biological parameters of F. arisanus, offspring number and parasitoid longevity were significantly reduced by using hydrolysed protein attractants when compared to the control (honey). However, sugarcane molasses improved parasitoid reproduction and longevity, as did the honey. Lastly, ingestion tests showed the major role of attractants in toxic-bait formulations against F. arisanus.
Tetraspanins, such as CD81, can form lateral associations with each other and with other transmembrane proteins. These interactions may underlie CD81 functions in multiple cellular processes, such as adhesion, morphology, migration, and differentiation. Since CD81's role in neuronal cells’ migration has not been established, we here evaluated effects of CD81 on the migratory phenotype of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. CD81 was found enriched at SH-SY5Y cell's membrane, co-localizing with its interactor filamentous-actin (F-actin) in migratory relevant structures of the leading edge (filopodia, stress fibers, and adhesion sites). CD81 overexpression increased the number of cells with a migratory phenotype, in a potentially phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)–Ak strain transforming (AKT) mediated manner. Indeed, CD81 also co-localized with AKT, a CD81-interactor and actin remodeling agent, at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K, the canonical AKT activator, led both to a decrease in the acquisition of a migratory phenotype and to a redistribution of intracellular CD81 and F-actin into cytoplasmic agglomerates. These findings suggest that in neuronal-like cells CD81 bridges active AKT and actin, promoting the actin remodeling that leads to a motile cell morphology. Further studies on this CD81-mediated mechanism will improve our knowledge on important physiological and pathological processes such as cell migration and differentiation, and tumor metastasis.
In the framework of coupled cell systems, a coupled cell network describes graphically the dynamical dependencies between individual dynamical systems, the cells. The fundamental network of a network reveals the hidden symmetries of that network. Subspaces defined by equalities of coordinates which are flow-invariant for any coupled cell system consistent with a network structure are called the network synchrony subspaces. Moreover, for every synchrony subspace, each network admissible system restricted to that subspace is a dynamical system consistent with a smaller network called a quotient network. We characterize networks such that: the network is a subnetwork of its fundamental network, and the network is a fundamental network. Moreover, we prove that the fundamental network construction preserves the quotient relation and it transforms the subnetwork relation into the quotient relation. The size of cycles in a network and the distance of a cell to a cycle are two important properties concerning the description of the network architecture. In this paper, we relate these two architectural properties in a network and its fundamental network.
In this study, we compared duration of untreated illness (DUI) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients and investigated its correlates, both within specific diagnoses and across the whole sample.
Eighty-eight patients (33 OCD, 24 SAD, and 31 PD) had their diagnosis confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were assessed for treatment-seeking variables, and were evaluated with instruments aimed at quantifying transdiagnostic features (i.e., the Cause subscale of the Illness Perception Questionnaire–Mental Health and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index–Revised) and severity of illness (i.e., Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, and the Social Phobia Inventory).
The only differences between groups with short (<2 years) versus long (>2 years) DUI were greater fear of public display of anxiety in the first group and greater social avoidance in the second group. The DUI was significantly different between groups that sought treatment after the onset of illness, with OCD patients having longer DUI than PD patients and shorter DUI than SAD patients. Further, DUI correlated negatively with the perception of OCD being caused by stress and positively with severity of panic-related disability in SAD patients, but not in PD or OCD patients.
There was substantial delay in treatment seeking among the anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, particularly those with OCD or SAD. Perception of stress as a cause of OCD prompted treatment seeking, while severity of panic symptoms delayed treatment seeking.
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
BirdLife International´s Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) Programme has identified, documented and mapped over 13,000 sites of international importance for birds. IBAs have been influential with governments, multilateral agreements, businesses and others in: (1) informing governments’ efforts to expand protected area networks (in particular to meet their commitments through the Convention on Biological Diversity); (2) supporting the identification of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) in the marine realm, (3) identifying Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention; (4) identifying sites of importance for species under the Convention on Migratory Species and its sister agreements; (5) identifying Special Protected Areas under the EU Birds Directive; (6) applying the environmental safeguards of international finance institutions such as the International Finance Corporation; (7) supporting the private sector to manage environmental risk in its operations; and (8) helping donor organisations like the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund (CEPF) to prioritise investment in site-based conservation. The identification of IBAs (and IBAs in Danger: the most threatened of these) has also triggered conservation and management actions at site level, most notably by civil society organisations and local conservation groups. IBA data have therefore been widely used by stakeholders at different levels to help conserve a network of sites essential to maintaining the populations and habitats of birds as well as other biodiversity. The experience of IBA identification and conservation is shaping the design and implementation of the recently launched Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) Partnership and programme, as IBAs form a core part of the KBA network.
Knowing the burden of influenza is helpful for policy decisions. Here we estimated the contribution of influenza-like illness (ILI) visits associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza among all clinic visits in a Senegal sentinel network. ILI data from ten sentinel sites were collected from January 2013 to December 2015. ILI was defined as an axillary measured fever of more than 37.5 °C with a cough or a sore throat. Collected nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza viruses by rRT-PCR. Influenza-associated ILI was defined as ILI with laboratory-confirmed influenza. For the influenza disease burden estimation, we used all-case outpatient visits during the study period who sought care at selected sites. Of 4030 ILI outpatients tested, 1022 were influenza positive. The estimated proportional contribution of influenza-associated ILI was, per 100 outpatients, 1.2 (95% CI 1.1–1.3), 0.32 (95% CI 0.28–0.35), 1.11 (95% CI 1.05–1.16) during 2013, 2014, 2015, respectively. The age-specific outpatient visits proportions of influenza-associated ILI were higher among children under 5 years (0.68%, 95% CI: 0.62–0.70). The predominant virus during years 2013 and 2015 was influenza B while A/H3N2 subtype was predominant during 2014. Influenza viruses cause a substantial burden of outpatient visits particularly among children under 5 of age in Senegal and highlight the need of vaccination in risk groups.
Considering the impact of coastal dynamics on the radiocarbon (14C) marine reservoir effect (MRE), upwelling has the potential of enhancing marine influence, usually 14C depleted. Freshwater input can contribute either to increased reservoir offsets, when dead carbon from rock weathering is available, but also towards an atmospheric 14C signal, when the presence of terrestrial organic matter from catchment prevails. An overview of the MRE studies based on shellmounds on the coast of Rio de Janeiro reveals a pattern of negative local corrections for Saquarema and Rio das Ostras but positive values for Cabo Frio island, suggesting the presence of cold upwelling waters in Cabo Frio at 1.6–1.2 cal kBP. New results for a shellmound on the Ilha Grande island, in the western portion of the Rio de Janeiro coast, revealed a negative value at about 3 ka. We discuss distribution of MRE values and temporal variability in the region and their relation to ocean dynamics, continental input and the choice of marine organisms used for ∆R determination. A comparison of local reservoir offsets for the Saquarema region obtained from fish otolith and mollusk shells revealed similar ΔR distributions, showing that both materials can be equally used.
This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients’ entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04–49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34–24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11–15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group). Consumers at high risk of alcoholism (OR 2·94, 95% CI 1·08–7·99) and those treated in an outpatient hospital unit (OR 8·22, 95% CI 2·79–24·21%) also were more likely to default. Our results establish that substance abuse was independently associated with default. National TB programmes might be more likely to achieve their control targets if they include interventions aimed at improving adherence and cure rates, by diagnosing and treating substance abuse concurrently with standard TB therapy.
Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.
Perinatal mortality is increased considerably in multiple pregnancies compared to singleton pregnancies, with single intrauterine fetal demise (sIUFD) presenting a rare but unique perinatal problem. Monochorionic pregnancies are at particular risk of sIUFD due to bidirectional inter-twin placental vascular anastomoses. The resulting inter-twin blood flow can become unbalanced, causing acute and chronic inter-twin transfusion and profound anemia secondary to fetal exsanguination into the low-pressure circulation of the dead fetus. If the sIUFD occurs after 14 weeks’ gestation it is believed to have the most significant effect on the continuing pregnancy as the co-twin is at increased risk of preterm delivery, long-term neurological complications, and death. This article will focus on fetal brain injury in the surviving co-twin in the case of sIUFD, as it is the most common kind of injury in sIUFD, and one which concerns parents and may be the basis for terminating the pregnancy. We will outline how these brain injuries are thought to occur and describe potential pathophysiological mechanisms. We will discuss risk factors for brain injury in cases of sIUFD, including: chorionicity, cause of the sIUFD (spontaneous or secondary to an underlying pathological process such as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome), gestation of delivery and how to prevent brain injury in the co-twin. We also review modes of imaging, discuss the difficulties in predicting the long-term outcome for co-twin survivors, and highlight the dearth of research in this area.
To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.
Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion.
Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries.
Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38–43 % for women and 41–45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16–27 % for women and 20–26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south–north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13–20 % (women) and 10–17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24–34 % (women) and 23–35 % (men) in central/northern Europe.
We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.
Tin oxide aerogels were synthesized using the epoxide-assisted technique and characterized with X-ray diffraction, diffusive reflectance spectroscopy, particle-induced X-ray emission and scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate that the material is electrically semi-insulating as the result of oxygen vacancies that appear as fixed charges at the bottom of the conduction band. A modification of the technique with the addition of hydrogen peroxide is proposed to reduce the levels of defects and enhance the optical transparency of the material.
Tungsten (W) was select for an extensive use in nuclear fusion devices due to its low neutron activation, high melting point and sputtering threshold as well as low hydrogen inventory. Nevertheless, W is brittle at low and moderate temperatures, which results in abnormal thermal stress, component fracture and extra erosion under reactor operation due to inherent thermal cycling events. An attractive way to solve these problems involves the addition of other refractory metals in the W matrix and tantalum (Ta) is a natural candidate. It has a high ductility, toughness and radiation resistance relative to those of W and transmutes to W by high-energy neutron irradiation. Recently, IST proposed the production of W-Ta composite by mechanical synthesis.
The composite should reveal the individual properties of the pristine phases as long as the interdiffusion between the components is significantly avoided during the consolidation/sintering route of the final material. Sintering operations at temperatures higher than 1300ºC lead to significant improvements in the final densification and thermal conductivity of the composites, which is crucial for fusion applications. However, W and Ta interdiffusion can be relevant above 1300ºC, mainly due to diffusion of W into Ta, and the aim of the present work is to control the mechanism.
W-Taf composites presenting 10 and 20 at.% of Ta where produced by alloying W powders and Ta fibres with a planetary ball milling route (MA) and by consolidating the mixture with spark plasma sintering (SPS) in the 1300-1600ºC temperature range. The final densifications remain fairly constant in both composites after sintering at different temperatures (83 to 87%) and the elemental interdiffusion remained low at 1300ºC. Nevertheless, the diffusivity of W in Ta became significant at 1600ºC, leading to the formation of a solid solution zone with a stoichiometry close to W16Ta84. The mechanism was followed by scanning electron and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies (SEM/EDS; Figures 1 and 2, Table 1). Fabrication routes yielding high densifications and low interdiffusion are currently under investigation.
The work has been supported by the Contract of Association between Euratom and IST and by the Fund. Ciência e a Tecnologia contracts PTDC/CTM/100163/2008, Pest-OE/SADG/LA0010/2011 and PEST-OE/CTM-UI0084/2011.
SMYB1 is a Schistosoma mansoni protein highly similar to members of the Y-box binding protein family. Similar to other homologues, SMYB1 is able to bind double- and single-stranded DNA, as well as RNA molecules. The characterization of proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression in S. mansoni is of great importance for the understanding of molecular events that control morphological and physiological changes in this parasite. Here we demonstrate that SMYB1 is located in the cytoplasm of cells from different life-cycle stages of S. mansoni, suggesting that this protein is probably acting in mRNA metabolism in the cytoplasm and corroborating previous findings from our group that showed its ability to bind RNA. Protein–protein interactions are important events in all biological processes, since most proteins execute their functions through large supramolecular structures. Yeast two-hybrid screenings using SMYB1 as bait identified a partner in S. mansoni similar to the SmD3 protein of Drosophila melanogaster (SmRNP), which is important in the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes. Also, pull-down assays were conducted using immobilized GST-SMYB1 proteins and confirmed the SMYB1-SmRNP interaction. The interaction of SMYB1 with a protein involved in mRNA processing suggests that it may act in processes such as turnover, transport and stabilization of RNA molecules.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the utilization of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in growing sheep consuming increasing amounts of dicalcium phosphate. Eighteen growing sheep, aged 8 months, were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 12·5 and 25 g of dicalcium phosphate/day. During the experiment, animals were injected intravenously with 7·4 MBq of 45Ca and 32P and samples of plasma, faeces and urine were subsequently taken daily for 1 week after injection. Rumen fluid was sampled on days 4–7 after injection. Specific radioactivity in plasma and in faeces were used to determine true absorption of Ca and P, whereas plasmatic and ruminal specific radio-activities were used to determine endogenous P flow into the rumen and turnover time of rumen P. Increasing dicalcium phosphate intake led to linear increases in faecal excretion of endogenous Ca and P (P<0·05), suggesting that surpluses of ingested Ca and P were voided through secretion to the gut. True absorption coefficients for 0, 12·5 and 25 g of dicalcium phosphate ingested daily were 0·54, 0·41 and 0·38 for Ca, and 0·66, 0·62 and 0·64 for P, respectively. Flows of endogenous P into the rumen increased linearly and ruminal turnover time of P decreased linearly (P<0·01) as P intake was increased. Concentrations of Ca and P in bone were not affected by the increased amounts of these minerals ingested (P<0·05). In conclusion, increasing ingestion of dicalcium phosphate increases faecal excretion of Ca and P, thus decreasing the efficiency of utilization of both minerals. Moreover, increasing levels of dietary P increased endogenous P excretion, contributing to the amount of P disposed of in the environment.