To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recent studies suggest an association of affective symptoms with striatal dopaminergic activity in Parkinson's Disease (PD). On the other hand, the psychopathological features of other common Movement Disorders (MD), such as Essential Tremor (ET) and Primary Dystonia, are less explored.
We investigated striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability and affective symptoms in these three different MD.
Materials and methods
22 pts with ET, 14 pts with focal dystonia and 34 idiopathic PD pts underwent 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. A control group of 15 healthy subjects was also analyzed.
Psychiatric assessment included the HAM-D scale for severity of depression, the HAM-A scale for anxiety levels, the Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) for anhedonia.
SPECT was carried out 3 hours after 111 MBq 123I-FP-CIT intravenous injection. Specific 123I-FP-CIT binding in the striatum and striatal subregions was calculated based on ROI analysis.
Significant reduction of 123I-FP-CIT binding ratios was found only in PD. Spearman's analysis showed an inverse correlation between anxiety and DAT availability in the left striatal regions of both ET and dystonic patients. On the contrary, a significant positive correlation was found in PD subjects.
This preliminary study provided evidence for an association between pre-synaptic striatal dopaminergic function of the left hemisphere and anxiety in MD, thus confirming the “transnosologic” relevance of dopaminergic dysfunction.
Unexpected findings in PD patients are in contrast with previous results. A down-regulation of DAT could be hypothesized in both ET and dystonic patients. This pattern seems to be concordant with preliminary findings in primary anxiety disorders.
Many evidences stress the implication of dopamine systems in the pathophysiology of depression. Currently, few and uncertain results are available on pre-synaptic dopaminergic dysfunction during depression. Our aim was to assess dopamine transporter (DAT) density in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with marked psychomotor retardation or anhedonia using 123I-FP-CIT SPET.
15 drug-free patients (F/M=8/7, mean age=44.6 SD=12.6 years) with MDD according to DSM-IV-R criteria, were enrolled for:
1. Psychometric assessment (of depression, anxiety, anhedonia and psychomotor impairment using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale and Depression Retardation Rating Scale);
2. DAT measurement with 123I-FP-CIT SPET.
14 healthy subjects, comparable for gender and age, formed the control group.
Patients had moderate-to-severe depression. They showed a significant decrease in DAT density in whole striatum bilaterally compared to controls. Furthermore, mean 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were significantly lower in caudate and putamen bilaterally. Patients were then divided into two subgroups: 7 had a relevant psychomotor retardation without anhedonia; 8 had severe anhedonia without retardation. The psychomotor retardation group showed significantly lower 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in left putamen compared to the anhedonic group. An inverse correlation between DAT density in left putamen and retardation scores were observed.
Present results confirm a decrease of DAT binding in MDD. Low DAT availability could represent a compensatory mechanism following dopamine reduction. Moreover, DAT reduction seems to be related more to retardation than anhedonic features, in agreement with previous PET imaging findings.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.