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Children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders are at elevated risk for a range of behavioral and emotional problems. However, as the usual reporter of psychopathology in children is the parent, reports of early problems in children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders may be biased by the parents' own experience of mental illness and their mental state.
Independent observers rated psychopathology using the Test Observation Form in 378 children and youth between the ages of 4 and 24 (mean = 11.01, s.d. = 4.40) who had a parent with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or no history of mood and psychotic disorders.
Observed attentional problems were elevated in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (effect sizes ranging between 0.31 and 0.56). Oppositional behavior and language/thought problems showed variable degrees of elevation (effect sizes 0.17 to 0.57) across the three high-risk groups, with the greatest difficulties observed in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Observed anxiety was increased in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (effect sizes 0.19 and 0.25 respectively) but not in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.
Our results suggest that externalizing problems and cognitive and language difficulties may represent a general manifestation of familial risk for mood and psychotic disorders, while anxiety may be a specific marker of liability for mood disorders. Observer assessment may improve early identification of risk and selection of youth who may benefit from targeted prevention.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of an improved growth, dietary nutrient availability and overall health of broiler chickens reared on recycled litter when fed a standardised combination of essential oils (EO; carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin). To assess the effect of dietary treatments, feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, availability of dietary nutrients and energy, villus morphometry, excreta sialic acid concentration, hepatic antioxidants and serum amyloid A (SAA) when fed to broiler chickens were evaluated. Counts of Eimeria spp. oocysts were also determined in excreta samples. Four experimental diets were offered, including two basal control diets based on either wheat or maize that contained 215 g CP/kg and 12.13 MJ/kg metabolisable energy and another two diets using the basal control diets supplemented with the EO combination at 100 mg/kg diet. Each diet was fed to eight floor pens, containing two birds each, following randomisation. Birds fed the EO-supplemented diets had an improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Birds fed maize-based diet had an improved daily weight gain and FCR (P<0.05) compared with wheat-fed birds. Wheat-based diet tended (P=0.056) to have greater N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy and had greater fat retention coefficient (P<0.05) compared with maize-based diets. No differences (P>0.05) were observed in villus morphometry, sialic acid secretion, number of oocysts and SAA. Feeding the EO improved (P<0.05) the retention of dietary Ca and Na. Compared with maize, feeding wheat-based diets improved the retention coefficients for Ca, P and Na (P<0.05). Feeding dietary EO improved (P<0.05) the concentrations of the hepatic antioxidants, including carotene, coenzyme Q10 and total vitamin E. The hepatic concentration of carotene of the maize-fed birds was 55.6% greater (P<0.05) compared with the wheat-fed birds. These results demonstrated that the addition of a standardised combination of EO in wheat- and maize-based diets provided benefits in terms of feed efficiency, mineral retention and antioxidant status of the birds when reared on recycled litter.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represent a disease continuum with common genetic causes and molecular pathology. We recently identified mutations in the T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) protein as a cause of ALS +/− FTD. TIA1 is an RNA-binding protein containing a low complexity domain (LCD) that promotes the assembly of membrane-less organelles, such as stress granules (SG). Whole exome sequencing of two family members with fALS/FTD revealed a novel missense mutation in the TIA1 LCD (P362L). Subsequent screening identified five more TIA1 mutations in six additional ALS patients, but none in controls. All mutation carriers presented with weakness, behavioral abnormalities or language impairments and had a final diagnosis of ALS +/− FTD. Autopsy on five TIA1 mutation carriers showed widespread neurodegeneration with TDP-43 pathology. Round eosinophilic inclusions in lower motor neurons were a consistent feature. Cellular assays revealed abnormal SG dynamics in the presence of TIA1 mutations. In summary, missense mutations in the LCD of TIA1 are a newly recognized cause of ALS/FTD with TDP-43 pathology and strengthen the role of RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis in this disease.
Introduction: It is critical for planning, clinical care and resource optimization to understand patterns of emergency department (ED) utilization. Individuals who have experienced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are known to have more unhealthy behaviors and worse health outcomes as adults and therefore may be more frequent ED users. Adverse childhood experiences include physical, sexual and emotional abuse or neglect, substance abuse in the family, witnessing violence, having a parent incarcerated or parents getting divorced or separated. To date there are few studies exploring the relationship between ACE and ED utilization. Methods: This a mixed qualitative and quantitative study. It includes analysis of data collected through a survey, a retrospective chart review and focus group discussions. The survey was administered to a convenience sample of adult patients (CTAS 2 -5) presenting to EDs in Kingston Ontario, and consisted of two validated tools that measured exposure to ACE and resiliency. Demographic data and ED utilization frequency for 12 months prior to the index visit were extracted from an electronic medical record for each patient completing the survey. A sample of participants with a high ACE burden (ACE score > 4) were invited to participate in focus groups to explore their experiences of care in the ED. Demographic, ED utilization and health status data were summarized and statistically significant patterns between high ACE and lower ACE patients were determined using Chi2t or t-tests. Transcripts from the focus groups were thematically analyzed using NVivo software by 2 independent researchers. Results: 1693 surveys were collected, 301 (18%) were deemed to have a high ACE score, data analysis is ongoing. The primary outcome is the relationship between ACE and the frequency of ED utilization among adult patients presenting to EDs in Kingston, ON. Secondary outcomes include evaluating the role of resilience as a potential mitigating factor, describing the demographics of high ACE burden frequent ED visitors, and the experiences of care for individuals with high ACE burden in the ED. These outcomes will be utilized to inform hypotheses for future studies and potential interventions aimed at optimizing ED utilization and patient care experience. Conclusion: This study provides novel insight into the relationship between ACE burden and ED utilization while also describing the demographics and experiences of care for ED patients with a high ACE score. Data analysis is on-going.
Introduction: Aeromedical helicopters and fixed wing aircraft are used across Canada to transfer patients to definitive care. Given height limitation in aeromedical transport, CPR performance can be affected. An adapted manual compression technique has been proposed by H. Koch (pron. Cook) that uses the elbow to compress the sternum rather than the conventional hand. This preliminary study evaluated the quality of Koch compressions versus conventional bimanual compressions. Methods: Paramedics (5), registered nurses (3) and a physician (1) were recruited. Each participant performed a 2 minute cycle of each technique, were randomized to determine which technique was performed first, and rested 5 minutes between compression cycles. A Resusci Anne SkillReporter manikin atop a stretcher in a BK117 helicopter was used. The compressors performed without feedback or prompting. Outcomes include compression rate, depth, recoil, and fatigue. Results: The mean conventional compression rate was (bpm) 118 +/− 13 versus 111 +/− 10 in the Koch scenario (p=0.02) (target 100 to 120). Mean conventional compression depth (mm) was 44 +/− 9 versus 49 +/− 7 in the Koch scenario (p=0.01) (target 50 to 60). The mean percentage of compressions with complete release in the conventional scenario was 86 +/− 20 versus 84 +/− 22 in the Koch scenario (p=0.9) (target 100%). Using a Modified Borg Scale of 1 to 10, mean provider fatigue after conventional CPR was 7 (+/− 1.6) versus 3 (+/− 1.2) using Koch technique (p<0.001). On average, Koch technique improved the percentage of compressions at target rate by 26%, the percentage at correct depth by 9%, overall compression quality score by 13% and were more less fatiguing. Conclusion: Using an elbow in a height-restricted environment improved compression depth and reduced provider fatigue. From our limited data, Koch compressions appear to improve compression quality. Further study and external validation are required.
Phase-equilibrium relations have been determined at 1000 kg/cm2 water pressure for compositions within the system NaAlSi3O8-KalSi3O8-NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4 in the area adjacent to the temperature minimum. The composition and temperature of the minimum are Ne50Ks19Qz31 and 750° ± 7° C respectively. The compositions of 102 plutonic rocks and 122 extrusive rocks, from Washington's tables, that carry 80% or more of normative Ab + Or + Ne have been plotted; the areas of high density show a marked similarity to the positions of the low-temperature regions of the synthetic system and suggest that many undersaturated rocks are derived by fractional crystallization from a trachytic magma.
Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the activity of numerous enzymes. Supplemental zinc is considered normal for ruminant livestock to ensure that requirements are met. Although zinc deficiency is not generally recognised in the UK, there is considerable evidence that this supplemental zinc is beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partially replacing zinc oxide with a zinc proteinate in the diet of ewes in late pregnancy and lactation on performance and health of ewes and lambs.
Secondary copper deficiency in ruminant animals is induced by high dietary levels of molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe) or sulphur (S). Within the rumen, sulphur reacts with Mo to form a series of thiomolybdate molecules (TM) which may chelate copper. This reduces copper absorption or if TM is absorbed, inhibits copper metallo-enzyme activities. Parental administration of TM has resulted in an increase in Cu to the brain and an increase in Mo to the pituitaries (Haywood et al., 1998). This redistribution may alter neurological, endocrine and reproductive function. However, there are no reports on effects of endogenously produced TM on brain or pituitary trace element accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary Mo or Fe on copper status and mineral retention in the pituitary gland and ovary of growing lambs.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have the highest co-morbidity rates within the internalizing disorders cluster, yet no Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programme exists for their combined treatment.
We designed a six-lesson therapist-assisted iCBT programme for mixed anxiety and depression. Study 1 was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the iCBT programme (n = 46) versus wait-list control (WLC; n = 53) for patients diagnosed by structured clinical interview with MDD, GAD or co-morbid GAD/MDD. Primary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire nine-item scale (depression), Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale (generalized anxiety), Kessler 10-item Psychological Distress scale (distress) and 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (disability). The iCBT group was followed up at 3 months post-treatment. In study 2, we investigated the adherence to, and efficacy of the same programme in a primary care setting, where patients (n = 136) completed the programme under the supervision of primary care clinicians.
The RCT showed that the iCBT programme was more effective than WLC, with large within- and between-groups effect sizes found (>0.8). Adherence was also high (89%), and gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. In study 2 in primary care, adherence to the iCBT programme was low (41%), yet effect sizes were large (>0.8). Of the non-completers, 30% experienced benefit.
Together, the results show that iCBT is effective and adherence is high in research settings, but there is a problem of adherence when translated into the ‘real world’. Future efforts need to be placed on developing improved adherence to iCBT in primary care settings.
Ferrimagnetic oxide films have been shown to have potential for use as Magneto-optical information storage Materials. Cobalt ferrite films are particularly interesting for magneto optical information storage due to their high magneto optical rotation . In this work, synthesized soluble cobalt (II) and iron (III) Methoxyethoxides were mixed in stoichiometric ratios for use as Co and Fe precursors in the preparation of CoFe2O4ferrimagnetic films. The decomposition of the precursors was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis.
CoFe2O4 films were prepared by the dip coating technique using fused silica substrates. These films were then heat treated at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 600°C to study the transformation from an amorphous film to a crystalline film as determined by x-ray diffraction. The Magnetic hysteresis behavior of the films as a function of heat treating temperature and hence crystallinity was also studied. As a general trend, films having a greater degree of crystallinity exhibited larger values of saturation magnetization and remanent Magnetization. The amorphous film was found to exhibit the highest coercive field, but low values of saturation and remanent Magnetization. The effect of heat treating under the influence of a magnetic field of 1.88 kÖe was found to enhance crystallization only slightly and had very little effect on the magnetic properties of the film.
Characterising the morphology of thin films for use in device applications requires the ability to study both the structure within the plane of the film, and also through its thickness. Environmental scanning electron microscopy has proved to be a fruitful technique for the study of such films both because contrast can be seen within the film without the need for staining (as is conventionally done for electron microscopy), and because cross-sectional images can be obtained without charging artefacts. The application of ESEM to a particular blend of relevance to photovoltaics is described.
The synthesis and characterization of several polymeric titanates and their conversion to carbon deficient TiC is described. The physical properties of one of these titanates allows it to be drawn into fibers and applied to substrates as thin films. Pyrolysis of these fibers and films to carbon deficient TiC is described.
Hydrogen is found to readily diffuse into InGaN, InAIN and InGaAIN epitaxial layers during plasma exposures at 170 – 250 °C for 40 sec - 30 min. The diffusivity of hydrogen is > 10−11 cm2-s−1 at 170 °C, and the native donor species are passivated by association with the hydrogen. Reactivation of these species occurs at 450–500°C, but the hydrogen remains in the material until ≥ 800 °C.
Atom-probe techniques have been used to characterise nanostructured metallic materials prepared by thermal evaporation and by sputtering. Multilayer samples of Fe-Cr have been prepared by sputter deposition and analysed using the Oxford position-sensitive atom probe. This has made it possible to observe the quality of interfaces in the material, and also accurately determine local compositions at each layer within the multilayer stack. Preliminary experiments aimed at producing dual phase nanocrystalline films by thermal evaporator deposition are also reported.
The composition and fabrication of a high strength cementbased composite containing graded stainless steel aggregate and fine silica are described. The microstructure, physical properties and temperature cycling durability of this material are examined and some examples are given of technological applications as a molding/tooling material.
Thermal stability of a novel rubbery ORMOSIL of condensed tetraethoxysilane
(TEOS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was investigated along with methods
by which to improve this stability. Based upon literature review of siloxane
systems, modifications of the base ORMOSIL system was made which included
substitution of polydimethyldiphenylsiloxane (PDMDPS) for PDMS, adding
antioxidant, and adding iron compounds. Relative enhancement was
investigated in terms of resilience measurements, and was also analyzed with
thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal anaysis
The infrared transmission, and possible high nonlinear optical susceptibility of Bi(Pb)-Ca- Sr-Cu-O glasses as well as their being the precursors for high temperature superconductors make them potential materials for integrated optical fibers. In this work, the glass formation and the fabrication of glass fibers have been investigated. The properties of the glasses have been studied. The infrared cutoff of the glasses is above 7 μm, and a high refractive index (˜ 2.9) and a high density (˜ 6 g/cm3) indicate the possible high nonlinear optical susceptibility. After being heat treated at high temperatures, the glasses become superconductors which show the response to the optical radiation due to the bolometric effect. Fabrication of an integrated optical fiber system incorporating the transmitting medium, optical modulator and detectors is possible.
The light ion impurities C, O and H have been implanted or diffused into GaN and related compounds and their effect on the electrical properties of these materials measured by Hall, C-V and SIMS as a function of annealing temperatures from 300-1100ºC. While C in as-grown GaN appears to create an acceptor under MOMBE conditions, implanted C shows no measurable activity. Similarly, implanted O does not show any shallow donor activity after annealing at ≤ 700°C, but can create high resistivity regions (106 Ω/□) in GaN, AlInN and InGaN for device isolation when annealed at 500–700°C. Finally, hydrogen is found to passivate shallow donor and acceptor states in GaN, InN, InAIN and InGaN, with dissociation of the neutral complexes at >450°C. The liberated hydrogen does not leave the nitride films until much higher annealing temperatures (>800°C). Typical reactivation energies are ∼2.0eV for impurity-hydrogen complexes.
An Organically-modified silicate (Ormosil) which contains 28 wt% polydimethylsiloxane and 72 wt% silica has been used as a matrix to fabricate CdS-doped glassy nanocomposites by using the sol-gel method. Samples were prepared both in bulk and film forms. High semiconductor concentrations, up to 20 wt% CdS could be obtained and the semiconductor microcrystallites were formed at temperatures much lower than that of the purely inorganic glass matrix. Preparation methods of these CdS-doped Ormosils are described. Optical behaviors of these nanocomposites under normal and intense photon influx were studied.