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While constant change characterises ecology, subtidal ecologists seem set to take a deep dive in to the biological processes that accelerate and compensate for environmental change. Similar to the technological and collaborative progress that benefited the present generation of authors, continuing progress may assist future generations of subtidal ecologists to figure out why kelp forests are characterised by global mosaics of long-term loss, gain and stasis. Where and how might kelp decline or flourish or simply persist future ocean change? Our review takes a biogeographic perspective to synthesise ecological patterns and the processes that create them. On this basis, we consider the modification of ecological processes by oceans undergoing physical and chemical change and, as a result, consider their future ecology. We find that future oceans will make life beyond the capacity of kelp to exist on many coasts, but not all coasts will be beyond the capacity of a kelp’s life. Consequently, this review provides a sign post for future research into the future decline or persistence or even increase of kelp forests.
To deepen understanding of the relationship between food insecurity, acculturation, and diagnosis of CHD and related health outcomes among immigrant adults.
Using cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey 2011 to 2015, we address two research questions. First, what is the relationship of household food insecurity and acculturation with: CHD, angina pectoris, heart attack, self-rated poor health and obesity? Second, what is the association of food insecurity with these health outcomes over years of living in the USA? We estimate multivariate logistic regressions without (question 1) and with (question 2) an interaction term between food insecurity and acculturation for CHD and related health outcomes.
Low-income immigrant adults.
Food insecurity and acculturation are both associated with diagnosis of CHD and related health outcomes among immigrant adults. Food insecurity and acculturation are associated with the health of female immigrants more than males. Also, the differences by food security status in the probability of having several poor health outcomes (self-rated heath, obesity, women’s angina pectoris) are largest for those in the USA for less than 5 years, decrease for those who have lived in the USA for 5–14 years, and are larger again for those in the USA for 15 or more years.
Recent and long-term food-insecure immigrants are more vulnerable to CHD and related health outcomes than those in the USA for 5–14 years. Further research is needed to understand why.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Effective community engagement in T3–T4 research is widespread, however, similar stakeholder involvement is missing in T1–T2 research. As part of an effort to embed community stakeholders in T1–T2 research, an academic community partnered team conducted discussion groups with researchers to assess perspectives on (1) barriers/challenges to including community stakeholders in basic science, (2) skills/training required for stakeholders and researchers, and (3) potential benefits of these activities. Engaging community in basic science research was perceived as challenging but with exciting potential to incorporate “real-life” community health priorities into basic research, resulting in a new full-spectrum translational research model.
Two competing schools of thought have emerged to explain how the Montgomery bus protest of 1955–56 brought about changes on the city's Jim Crow buses. The dominant explanation attributes the changes to the bus boycott led by Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Montgomery Improvement Association. A second interpretation emphasizes the critical role of the Supreme Court's decision striking down the state and local bus segregation laws. This essay prooides a third explanation: that these two strategies–the boycott and the litigation–interacted, each shaping and reinforcing the other. Each strategy war a critical part of the struggle, but neither brought change by itself. This essay argues that the two strategies of the Montgomery protest created a synergy that was the key to bringing about changes on the buses.
Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) represent a diverse, emerging source of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with broad application in optoelectronics and energy. Chemical functionalization has evolved into a powerful tool to tailor properties of these 2D TMDs; however, functionalization strategies have been largely limited to the metallic 1T-polytype. The work herein illustrates that 2H-semiconducting liquid-exfoliated tungsten disulfide (WS2) undergoes a spontaneous redox reaction with gold (III) chloride (AuCl3). Au nanoparticles (NPs) predominantly nucleate at nanosheet edges with tuneable NP size and density. AuCl3 is preferentially reduced on multi-layer WS2 and resulting large Au aggregates are easily separated from the colloidal dispersion by simple centrifugation. This process may be exploited to enrich the dispersions in laterally large, monolayer nanosheets. It is proposed that thiol groups at edges and defects sides reduce the AuCl3 to Au0 and are in turn oxidized to disulfides. Optical emission, i.e. photoluminescence, of the monolayers remained pristine, while the electrocatalytic activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction is significantly improved. Taken together, these improvements in functionalization, fabrication, and catalytic activity represent an important advance in the study of these emerging 2D nanostructures.
We examined the prospective associations of objective and subjective measures of stress during pregnancy with infant stress reactivity and regulation, an early-life predictor of psychopathology. In a racially and ethnically diverse low-income sample of 151 mother–infant dyads, maternal reports of stressful life events (SLE) and perceived stress (PS) were collected serially over gestation and the early postpartum period. Infant reactivity and regulation at 6 months of age was assessed via maternal report of temperament (negativity, surgency, and regulation) and infant parasympathetic nervous system physiology (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) during the Still Face Paradigm. Regression models predicting infant temperament showed higher maternal prenatal PS predicted lower surgency and self-regulation but not negativity. Regression models predicting infant physiology showed higher numbers of SLE during gestation predicted greater RSA reactivity and weaker recovery. Tests of interactions revealed SLE predicted RSA reactivity only at moderate to high levels of PS. Thus, findings suggest objective and subjective measures of maternal prenatal stress uniquely predict infant behavior and physiology, adjusting for key pre- and postnatal covariates, and advance the limited evidence for such prenatal programming within high-risk populations. Assessing multiple levels of maternal stress and offspring stress reactivity and regulation provides a richer picture of intergenerational transmission of adversity.
The search for extraterrestrial habitable planets will require long observation times and the intelligent selection of appropriate parent stars and target biosignatures. While life can certainly develop in the absence of photosynthesis, such life forms on earth exhibit metabolic rates several orders of magnitude less than the activity accompanying a photosynthetic-driven ecosystem. The most accessible spectral biosignatures are those accompanying a system driven away from thermodynamic equilibrium by photosynthetic activity. For example, the co-existence in a planetary atmosphere of significant amounts of ozone, oxygen, and methane would be a strong indication of biotic activity. Investigating the issue of the Habitable Zone from the standpoint of the constraints inherent in photosynthesis it appears that the absorption characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms on this planet make it likely that photosynthetic activity can exist on planets orbiting stars to red-ward of the Sun on the H-R diagram. Such a possibility is encouraging for terrestrial planet finder efforts since stars classified red-ward of our sun (G3 to K7) account for more than 55% of our nearest neighbors.
Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the feasibility of using in-woods mobile pyrolysis systems to convert excess forest biomass into biochar. Biochar may be applied to forest sites in order to positively influence soil properties (nutrient leaching, water holding capacity), but its biggest benefit may be in facilitating reforestation of degraded or contaminated sites, and in sequestering carbon in soils. The majority of data on biochar applications on forest sites focus on seedling responses and short-term impacts on nutrients, soil physical properties and microbial changes. Long-term field research is necessary to determine water use, carbon sequestration, nutrient use, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the subsequent alteration of forest growth and stand dynamics.
The following is a partial list of samples of archaeological interest processed between February 1981 and October 1985 at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The list contains samples from west-central Illinois that were related to projects conducted by current or former researchers at the Center for American Archeology (CAA) (formerly Foundation for Illinois Archaeology) and Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, or, as noted, by colleagues from other institutions. Although some of the samples reported here came from non-cultural contexts and are primarily of geological significance, all were from or related to archaeological investigations.
The following date list includes all samples processed from December 1969 through November 1970 at the Illinois State Geological Survey Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The benzene liquid scintillation technique was used, following the method of Noakes, Kim, and Stipp (1965), and Noakes, Kim, and Akers (1967). Detailed sample preparation procedures used in this laboratory have been reported by Kim and Ruch (1969), and Kim, Ruch, and Kempton (1969).
The following list contains samples of geologic interest that were processed from June 1980 through March 1983 at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The benzene liquid scintillation technique was used following laboratory procedures previously reported by Coleman (1973, 1974).
Groundwater samples were collected from several different depths in Illinois glacial deposits at a site in east-central Illinois. Dissolved gases were extracted from many of the water samples, measured volumetrically, and analyze by gas chromatography. The DIC was precipitated as barium carbonate and analyzed for both δ13C and 14C. Due to the formation of microbial CH4, some of the DIC had unusually heavy δ13C values of −3 to −1‰. The standard groundwate 14C-age correction models were developed to account for carbonate dissolution as the primary carbon input beneath the soil zone. If the heavy δ13C values observed in this study are used in readily available groundwater dating models without accounting for the effect of microbial methane formation, many of the resultant calculated ages are negaitive (future ages) mathematically unsolvable. Isotopic and analytical result show a positive correlation (r2 = 0.90) between the δ13C of the DIC and the concentration of methane in the groundwater. With this correlation, we were able to correct the δ13C values of the DIC which were altered due to microbial CH4 formation. This adjustment of δ13C values, along with estimation of dead carbon input from the redox processes, allowed us to calculate 14C ages using standard groundwater age correction models.
The following list contains samples of geologic interest that were processed from February 1974 through May 1980 at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The archaeologic samples processed during the same period will be published in our next date list. The benzene liquid scintillation technique was used following laboratory procedures previously reported by Coleman (1973; 1974).