To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
The Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease whose treatment requires strict clinical care and continuing education such as medication, nutrition and physical activity. Education is a decisive factor in preventing complications that may arise from the failure of therapy. Therefore, the therapeutic adherence must include a psycho-social approach.
To study the degree of adherence to the pharmacologic treatment and dietary habits in patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the influence of the level of education, sex and type of diabetes.
A cross-sectional study was conducted of the descriptive-correlational type. The sample consisted of 100 diabetic type I and type II individuals and was obtained by convenience at the health center of S. Martinho do Bispo, in Coimbra - Portugal, during the period from May till June 2009.
Results and conclusions
The results indicate a high adherence to therapy, reflected trhough the diet and also the pharmacological treatment. However, the higher adherence found was related to prescription of medication. The demographic variables such as sex and level of education of patients, seem to positively influence the adherence to treatment.
Adolescence is a developmental stage characterized by profound and diverse changes - individual, familial and social. The corresponding challenge of adapting can determine a chrysies period, in which may take place symptoms of psychological disorder, such as Self-destructive behaviours.
The present study is a part of a wider investigation, in the extent of the work for a doctorate in Psychology about Influent factors in stress and well-being of youngsters presenting Self-destructive behaviours: quality of family relations, attachment and parenting styles.
This preliminary study is a comparative one between a sample of youngsters, ranging from 12 to 21 years old, with a history of self-destructive behaviours, who resorted to the consult of the Suicide Studies Group of the Hospital of Santa Maria, and a normative sample comprising youngsters who have no such history, attending schools of the Lisbon region and the country's Centre region. The goal is to compare the two samples relatively to the psychological adjustment - assessed through the presence of psychopathological symptoms - (YSR; Fonseca & Monteiro, 1999), self-esteem (SES; Faria, L., 2000) and stress perception (PSS; IPSSO, 2000), assessed through self-report questionnaires.
The results reveal the presence of significant differences between the clinical group and the control group, concerning the variables at study.
Several studies associated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6). Serum IL-6 levels were found to be significantly increased in subjects with MDD and with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD). Moreover, ketamine, a drug with fast-acting antidepressant properties, has proven to reduce IL-6 levels in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, despite the clear influence of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of depression and in antidepressant response, studies evaluating the impact of IL-6 functional genetic polymorphisms on treatment response phenotypes are scarce.
We aim to evaluate the role of IL6-174G>C, IL6-6331T>C and IL6R D358A A>C functional polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse and TRD.
We genotyped the referred polymorphisms in a subset of 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 18 months.
We found that patients carrying IL6-174 GG genotype are more prone to develop TRD (OR=4.125; 95%CI: [1.151-14.786]; p=0.038). We also observed that patients carrying IL6-6331 TC genotype have a higher risk of relapse (OR=3.988; 95%CI: [1.176-13.516]; p=0.022), and present a lower time to relapse, TC: 26 weeks vs. TT: 45 weeks (p=0.041, Log-rank test). No association was found between IL6R D358A genetic polymorphism and any of treatment phenotypes.
The IL6-174G>C and IL6-6331T>C polymorphisms influence antidepressant treatment response in our subset of MDD patients. These polymorphisms may possibly contribute to the elevated IL-6 levels found in patients with TRD. This research was partially supported by an AstraZeneca Grant
Recent studies suggested that immune activation and cytokines might be involved in depression. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) is less reported in depression but is still relevant since it is expressed in the brain and serum levels of IL-18 have been found to be increased in patients with moderate to severe depression. Therefore, it seems reasonable that IL-18 promoter SNPs may have an effect in antidepressant response phenotypes.
We aim to evaluate the role of IL18-607C>A and IL18-137G>Cpromoter polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse and treatment resistant depression (TRD).
We genotyped the referredpolymorphisms in a subset of 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 27 months.
We found that patients carrying IL18-607CA or AA genotypes are more prone to relapse after AD treatment (OR=4.145; 95%CI: [1.038-16.555]; p=0.043) and present a lower time to relapse than patients carrying CC genotype (69 vs 115 weeks, p=0.019, Log-rank test). We also observed that patients carrying IL18-137GC or CC genotypes have a higher risk of relapse (OR=3.988; 95%CI: [1.176-13.516]; p=0.022) and display relapse earlier than the ones carrying GG genotype (64 vs 112 weeks, p=0.006, Log-rank test). No association was found between the evaluated genetic polymorphisms and remission or TRD.
The IL18-607A>C and IL18-137G>Cpolymorphisms seems to influence relapse after antidepressant treatment in our subset of depressed patients. These polymorphisms may possibly contribute to the elevated IL-18 levels found in patients with moderate to severe depression.
S100B is a calcium-binding protein produced by the astrocytes that has been used as a biomarker of brain inflammation. S100B has been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology, being considered a marker of state and prognosis.
Studying the relationship between serum S100B levels and psychopathology in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
At admission and discharge, serum S100B levels were measured in 20 never-medicated FEP in-patients and 20 healthy controls. Psychopathology was assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). The total, positive, negative and general psychopathology scores were assessed. Results are presented as mean±sd. and S100B levels in pg./ml.
At admission, patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations than healthy subjects (39.2±6.4 vs. 33.3±0.98, p<0.02). S100B levels increased from admission to discharge (39.2±6.4 vs. 40.0±6.8, p=0.285) but they do not reach statistical significance. There were no correlations between PANSS (total, positive, negative and general) scores and S100B at admission and discharge. Individual item by item PANSS correlations with S100B elicited a positive correlation with P5 (grandiosity) (r=0.486, p=0.030) and G5 (mannerisms/posturing) (r=0.514; p=0.02) at discharge. There also was a positive trend with G7 (motor retardation) (r=0.409; p=0.073) at discharge.
FEP in-patients have significantly increased serum levels of S100B proteins, suggesting an activation of glial cells that may be associated with a neurodegenerative/inflammatory process. Apart from the study of total scale scores, the analysis of individual item is also recommended. The long-term treatment effect (one year or more) may be relevant to see their relationship to S100B levels.
Although asthma has been one of the most investigated topics in psychosomatics, studies and papers on psychopathology in asthma are fairly scarce and of diverse meaning. Furthermore, psychopathology acoording to sex in asthma is not a common research topic.
Aim This study aims at analyzing psychopathology sex differences in asthmatics.
The psychopathology profile in a sample of 84 adult asthmatics in a hospital outpatient facility, mean age 34.62 (s.d.12.78), 36 male / 48 female, is studied. The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) Self-Report Questionnaire was administered.
The symptomatic profile is characterized by higher scores in women, with a main elevation in the dimensions of Somatization (1.92), Depression (1.66), Obsession-Compulsion (1.62) and Anxiety (1.44) whereas lower scores are recorded in men, with a profile dominated by Hostility (1.70), Anxiety (1.68), Interpersonal Sensitivity (1.58) and Depression (1.44). These scores mainly contribute to the psychopathology pattern according to sex.
The possible clinical implications of the observed psychopathology sex differences should be taken into account in the management of these patients.
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic inherited disease characterized by hamartomatous growths in several organs as brain, skin, kidneys, hearth and eyes. The estimated incidence is approximately 1:6000 live births. The diagnosis is made clinically. Seizures are present in 87% of patients. Psychiatric comorbidity has been reported.
We report the clinical course of two patients with previous diagnosis of TSC. Psychiatric symptoms start in the adulthood without seizures history and absence of Subependimal Giant Cells Tumor (SGCT). The evolution and clinical features are described.
Married 33-years-old woman with two children affected with TSC. She was diagnosed after headache presentation in 2011. Initial MRI showed periventricular glioneuronal hamartomas. In January 2013 start with self-injurious (swallowing of objects) and autistic behaviours as well as several hospital urgency room visits. In addition, the patient presented with dull mood, emotional indifference and intellectual impairment, with no response to medication.
Married 43-years-old woman with a daughter affected with TSC. Diagnosis was made in 1999 and psychotic symptoms (delusional beliefs and auditory hallucinations) started in 2011 without previous psychiatric history. The MRI in 2013 shown subependymal nodules. Treatment with risperidone was effective.
Psychiatric symptoms are very often associated to the physical findings on TSC, even in adulthood diagnoses.
Psychiatric comorbidities are well described in literature. about 10-20% adult patients with TSC present clinically significant behavioral problems as self-injuries, frequently associated with SGCT. The European Expert Panel recommended regular assessment of cognitive development and behaviour and symptomatic treatment.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin related to the differentiation and survival of neurons as well as synaptic plasticity during brain development. It has been found reduced levels of BDNF in first-episode psychosis (FEP). There are contradictory results regarding its relation to psychopathology.
Establishing the relationship between serum BDNF levels in a group of 28 inpatients with FEP and psychopathology measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
BDNF serum levels at admission, discharge, three, six, nine and twelve months were related with psychopathology measured with the PANSS (positive, negative and general psychopathology subscales). Data are present as mean.
At admission PANSS scores were high, decreasing progressively in the following determinations due to psychopathological improvement, although over the time remained higher scores on the negative than in the positive subscale. At admission: PANSS-positive 22.78; PANSS-negative 17.85; PANSS-general psychopathology 39.67; at discharge: PANSS-positive 8.51; PANSS-negative 11.07; PANSS-general psychopathology 20.11; at six months: PANSS-positive 8.04; PANSS-negative 10.91; PANSS-general psychopathology 19.56; at twelve months: PANSS-positive 7.80; PANSS-negative 10.95; PANSS-general psychopathology 19.75. There is a negative correlation between BDNF levels and PANSS negative scores at admission (r=-0.337), with a trend towards significance (P=0.079). This correlation disappears at discharge because of psychopathology improvement and is not maintained in the following determinations.
Lower serum BDNF levels may be associated with worse clinical symptoms, especially negative symptoms. Further studies with a larger sample are needed to replicate our results.
Several lines of evidence suggest that cognitive deficits represent a core feature of schizophrenia.
The concept of “cognitive dysmetria” has been introduced to characterize disintegration at the system level of frontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry which has been regarded as a key network for a wide range of neuropsychological symptoms in schizophrenia.
The present multimodal study aimed at investigating effective and structural connectivity of the frontal-thalamic circuitry in schizophrenia.
Univariate fMRI data analysis and effective connectivity analysis using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) were combined to examine cognitive control processes in 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 matched healthy controls. BOLD signal and parameters of effective connectivity were related to parameters of corresponding white matter integrity assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
In the DTI analysis, significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) was detected in patients in the right anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), the right thalamus and the right corpus callosum. During Stroop task performance patients demonstrated significantly lower activation relative to healthy controls in a predominantly right lateralized frontal-thalamic-cerebellar network. An abnormal effective connectivity was observed in the right lateralized connections between thalamus, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. FA in the right ALIC was significantly correlated with the fronto-thalamic BOLD signal, effective connectivity and cognitive performance in patients.
Present data provide evidence for the notion of a structural and functional defect in the prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry, which seems to be the basis of the cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of seasonal suicide patterns among multiple geographically, demographically and socioeconomically diverse populations.
Weekly time-series data of suicide counts for 354 communities in 12 countries during 1986–2016 were analysed. Two-stage analysis was performed. In the first stage, a generalised linear model, including cyclic splines, was used to estimate seasonal patterns of suicide for each community. In the second stage, the community-specific seasonal patterns were combined for each country using meta-regression. In addition, the community-specific seasonal patterns were regressed onto community-level socioeconomic, demographic and environmental indicators using meta-regression.
We observed seasonal patterns in suicide, with the counts peaking in spring and declining to a trough in winter in most of the countries. However, the shape of seasonal patterns varied among countries from bimodal to unimodal seasonality. The amplitude of seasonal patterns (i.e. the peak/trough relative risk) also varied from 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33–1.62) to 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.1) among 12 countries. The subgroup difference in the seasonal pattern also varied over countries. In some countries, larger amplitude was shown for females and for the elderly population (≥65 years of age) than for males and for younger people, respectively. The subperiod difference also varied; some countries showed increasing seasonality while others showed a decrease or little change. Finally, the amplitude was larger for communities with colder climates, higher proportions of elderly people and lower unemployment rates (p-values < 0.05).
Despite the common features of a spring peak and a winter trough, seasonal suicide patterns were largely heterogeneous in shape, amplitude, subgroup differences and temporal changes among different populations, as influenced by climate, demographic and socioeconomic conditions. Our findings may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of seasonal suicide patterns and aid in improving the design of population-specific suicide prevention programmes based on these patterns.
Given the difficulty in obtaining robust chronologies from tree rings in tropical regions, the search for appropriate species is very important. Both dendrochronology and radiocarbon (14C) measurements are required to validate the use of any specific tree. Some species have proved to be reliable for representing atmospheric 14C concentration over time, such as Cedrela fissilis and Araucaria angustifolia. However, not only the species have to be validated, but also different climatic conditions may result in different growth patterns for the same species. In this work, we study the annual growth rings of Cedrela fissilis from a dry tropical forest patch typical of a highly seasonal climate in central Brazil. 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to compare the isotopic ratios of tree rings with the 14C concentrations in the atmosphere during the nuclear tests based on curve Bomb13SH 1-2. Results are similar to the bomb peak curve within the period from 1958 to 1980 AD and serve as a crucial test for the cross-dating analyses using the skeleton plot technique.
Spineless cactus is a useful feed for various animal species in arid and semiarid regions due to its adaptability to dry and harsh soil, high efficiency of water use and carbohydrates storage. This meta-analysis was carried out to assess the effect of spineless cactus on animal performance, and develop and evaluate equations to predict dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) in meat lambs. Equations for predicting DMI and ADG as a function of animal and diet characteristics were developed using data from eight experiments. The dataset was comprised of 40 treatment means from 289 meat lambs, in which cactus was included from 0 to 75% of the diet dry matter (DM). Accuracy and precision were evaluated by cross-validation using the mean square error of prediction (MSEP), which was decomposed into mean bias, systematic bias and random error; concordance correlation coefficient, which was decomposed into accuracy (Cb) and precision (ρ); and coefficient of determination (R2). In addition, the data set was used to evaluate the predicting accuracy and precision of the main lamb feeding systems (Agricultural and Food Research Council, Small Ruminant Nutritional System, National Research Council and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) and also two Brazilian studies. The DMI, CP intake (CPI), metabolizable energy (ME) intake and ADG increased when cactus was included up to 499 g/kg DM (P<0.001). In contrast, animals fed high levels of cactus (>500 g/kg DM) had a decreased DMI, CPI and NDF intake, but increased feed efficiency (P<0.001) and similar ADG compared with those without cactus addition. The DMI was positively correlated with initial BW, final BW, concentrate and ADG, while it was negatively correlated with cactus inclusion and ME of the diet. On other hand, ADG was positively correlated with DMI, initial and mean BW and concentrate, and it was negatively correlated with cactus inclusion. The two developed equations had high accuracy (Cb of 0.95 for DMI and 0.94 for ADG) and the random error of MSEP was 99% for both equations. The precision of both equations was moderate, with R2 values of 0.53 and 0.50 and ρ values of 0.73 and 0.71 for DMI and ADG, respectively. In conclusion, the developed equation to predict DMI had moderate precision and high accuracy, nonetheless, it was more efficient than those reported in the literature. The proposed equations can be a useful alternative to estimate intake and performance of lambs fed cactus.
Temporal and spatial scarcity of water in semi-arid and seasonal ecosystems often leads to changes in movements and behaviour of large vertebrates, and in the neotropics this dynamic is poorly understood due to logistical and methodological limitations. Here we used camera trapping to elucidate variation in patterns of seasonal use of waterholes and pathways by 10 large-mammal and four large-bird species in the dry forest of north-western Costa Rica. From 2011 to 2015, we deployed trail cameras at 50 locations, including waterholes and three types of pathway (roads, human trails and animal paths). We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of location and seasonality on the rates at which independent photographs were taken. We found interacting effects of location and seasonality for the capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus), the tiger heron (Trigrisoma mexicanum), the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the tapir (Tapirus bairdii) suggesting that these species were the most influenced by waterholes during the dry season. Comparison of waterhole sites and specific types of pathways (roads, animal paths and human trails) showed that location influenced photo-capture rates of almost all species, suggesting a useful insight to avoid and account for bias in camera trap studies. Furthering our ecological understanding of seasonal water regimes and large vertebrates’ behaviours allow for better understanding of the consequences of climate change on them.
Tetraspanins, such as CD81, can form lateral associations with each other and with other transmembrane proteins. These interactions may underlie CD81 functions in multiple cellular processes, such as adhesion, morphology, migration, and differentiation. Since CD81's role in neuronal cells’ migration has not been established, we here evaluated effects of CD81 on the migratory phenotype of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. CD81 was found enriched at SH-SY5Y cell's membrane, co-localizing with its interactor filamentous-actin (F-actin) in migratory relevant structures of the leading edge (filopodia, stress fibers, and adhesion sites). CD81 overexpression increased the number of cells with a migratory phenotype, in a potentially phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)–Ak strain transforming (AKT) mediated manner. Indeed, CD81 also co-localized with AKT, a CD81-interactor and actin remodeling agent, at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K, the canonical AKT activator, led both to a decrease in the acquisition of a migratory phenotype and to a redistribution of intracellular CD81 and F-actin into cytoplasmic agglomerates. These findings suggest that in neuronal-like cells CD81 bridges active AKT and actin, promoting the actin remodeling that leads to a motile cell morphology. Further studies on this CD81-mediated mechanism will improve our knowledge on important physiological and pathological processes such as cell migration and differentiation, and tumor metastasis.
This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].