To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Buprenorphine (BUP) is used for opioid use disorder during pregnancy but causes neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). The goal of this study was to determine the contribution of the active metabolite, norbuprenorphine (NorBUP), to the development of NOWS when the parent drug, BUP, is administered during pregnancy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps delivered BUP (0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg/day) ± NorBUP (1 mg/kg/day) to pregnant Long-Evans rats from gestation day 9 until after delivery. NOWS was measured between 3 and 12 hours after delivery. Withdrawal was precipitated by an intraperitoneal injection of a mu opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX; 0, 1 or 10 mg/kg), and movement duration (MD; a validated proxy for NOWS) was measured using Noldus Ethovision. Concentrations of BUP, NorBUP, and their glucuronide conjugates in the brains of neonatal littermates not undergoing withdrawal testing were determined using LC/MS/MS. Two-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analyses tested for interactions between BUP and NorBUP on MD and related brain concentrations to MD, respectively. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There was no interaction effect between BUP and NorBUP on MD for either sex or at any dose of naltrexone. In females, but not males, BUP (1 mg/kg/day) significantly increased NorBUP-induced MD by 58% following an injection with 1 mg/kg NTX. A multiple linear regression model that included BUP and NorBUP brain concentrations as predictors of MD was significant and well-fitting [FEMALES: F (2, 40) = 23.97, P < .0001, adj R2 = 0.52; MALES: F (2, 40) = 5.84, P = .0059, adj R2 = 0.19]. There was a differential contribution of NorBUP brain concentrations to MD based on sex. The partial regression coefficient for NorBUP was 51.34 (p < .0001) for females and 19.21 (p = 0.093) for males. The partial regression coefficient for BUP was similar for females and males (FEMALES:βBUP = 10.62, p = .0017; MALES:βBUP = 11.38, p = .009). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time a differential contribution of NorBUP to BUP-associated NOWS in each sex, suggesting sex differences in NorBUP susceptibility and implicating that treatment strategies reducing prenatal NorBUP exposure may be more effective for females than males.
Avian influenza (AI) is an important disease that has significant implications for animal and human health. High pathogenicity AI (HPAI) has emerged in consecutive seasons within the UK to cause the largest outbreaks recorded. Statutory measures to control outbreaks of AI virus (AIV) at poultry farms involve disposal of all birds on infected premises. Understanding of the timing of incursions into the UK could facilitate decisions on improved responses. During the autumnal migration and wintering period (autumn 2019– spring 2020), three active sampling approaches were trialled for wild bird species considered likely to be involved in captive AI outbreaks with retrospective laboratory testing undertaken to define the presence of AIV.
Faecal sampling of birds (n = 594) caught during routine and responsive mist net sampling failed to detect AIV. Cloacal sampling of hunter-harvested waterfowl (n = 146) detected seven positive samples from three species with the earliest detection on the 17 October 2020. Statutory sampling first detected AIV in wild and captive birds on 3 November 2020. We conclude that hunter sourced sampling of waterfowl presents an opportunity to detect AI within the UK in advance of outbreaks on poultry farms and allow for early intervention measures to protect the national poultry flock.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The Zadko telescope is a 1 m f/4 Cassegrain telescope, situated in the state of Western Australia about 80-km north of Perth. The facility plays a niche role in Australian astronomy, as it is the only meter class facility in Australia dedicated to automated follow-up imaging of alerts or triggers received from different external instruments/detectors spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the location of the facility at a longitude not covered by other meter class facilities provides an important resource for time critical projects. This paper reviews the status of the Zadko facility and science projects since it began robotic operations in March 2010. We report on major upgrades to the infrastructure and equipment (2012–2014) that has resulted in significantly improved robotic operations. Second, we review the core science projects, which include automated rapid follow-up of gamma ray burst (GRB) optical afterglows, imaging of neutrino counterpart candidates from the ANTARES neutrino observatory, photometry of rare (Barbarian) asteroids, supernovae searches in nearby galaxies. Finally, we discuss participation in newly commencing international projects, including the optical follow-up of gravitational wave (GW) candidates from the United States and European GW observatory network and present first tests for very low latency follow-up of fast radio bursts. In the context of these projects, we outline plans for a future upgrade that will optimise the facility for alert triggered imaging from the radio, optical, high-energy, neutrino, and GW bands.
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
The Gaia satellite, planned for launch by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2013, is the next-generation astrometry mission following Hipparcos. Gaia’s primary science goal is to determine the kinematics, chemical structure, and evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy. In addition to this core science goal, the Gaia space mission is expected to discover thousands of Solar System objects. Because of orbital constraints, Gaia will only have a limited opportunity for astrometric follow-up of these discoveries. In 2010, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) initiated a program to identify ground-based optical telescopes for a Gaia follow-up network for Solar System Objects to perform the following critical tasks: confirmation of discovery, identification of body, object tracking to constrain orbits. To date, this network comprises 37 observing sites (representing 53 instruments). The Zadko Telescope, located in Western Australia, was highlighted as an important network node because of its southern location, longitude, and automated scheduling system. We describe the first follow-up tests using the fast moving Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 2005 YU55 as the target.
The new 1 m f/4 fast-slew Zadko Telescope was installed in June 2008 about 70 km north of Perth, Western Australia. It is the only metre-class optical facility at this southern latitude between the east coast of Australia and South Africa, and can rapidly image optical transients at a longitude not monitored by other similar facilities. We report on first imaging tests of a pilot program of minor planet searches, and Target of Opportunity observations triggered by the Swift satellite. In 12 months, 6 gamma-ray burst afterglows were detected, with estimated magnitudes; two of them, GRB 090205 (z = 4.65) and GRB 090516 (z = 4.11), are among the most distant optical transients imaged by an Australian telescope. Many asteroids were observed in a systematic 3-month search. In September 2009, an automatic telescope control system was installed, which will be used to link the facility to a global robotic telescope network; future targets will include fast optical transients triggered by high-energy satellites, radio transient detections, and LIGO gravitational wave candidate events. We also outline the importance of the facility as a potential tool for education, training, and public outreach.
Clozapine shows neuroleptic-like inhibition of locomotor activity and conditioned avoidance responding in rodents, although tolerance develops on repeated treatment. EEG-based studies show strong arousal-inhibiting activity of clozapine as well as neuroleptic-like effects on both caudate spindle duration and rat sleep-waking patterns. Effects such as apomorphine blockade, catalepsy and strong increases of plasma prolactin levels are not seen, however, and chronic treatment does not lead to dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity. Binding studies show clozapine's highest affinities to be for dopamine D4, 5-HT1c, 5-HT2, α1, muscarinic and histamine H1 receptors, but moderate affinity is also seen for many other receptor subtypes. Microdialysis studies indicate a preferential interaction with striatal D1 receptors, whereas autoradiographical studies indicate upregulation of D1 and downregulation of 5-HT2 receptors after chronic clozapine. Clarification of the mechanisms underlying clozapine's special attributes is often hampered by a failure to examine compounds which show a close chemical relationship to clozapine, but which produce extrapyramidal side-effects in man, such as clothiapine, loxapine and amoxapine.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.