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To use Internet search data to compare duration of compliance for various diets.
Using a passive surveillance digital epidemiological approach, we estimated the average duration of diet compliance by examining monthly Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate the time spent on a diet by new January dieters (NJD) and to estimate the percentage of dieters dropping out during the American winter holiday season between Thanksgiving and the end of December.
Internet searches in the USA for recipes related to popular diets over a 15-year period from 2004 to 2019.
Individuals in the USA performing Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets.
All diets exhibited significant seasonality in recipe-related Internet searches, with sharp spikes every January followed by a decline in the number of searches and a further decline in the winter holiday season. The Paleo diet had the longest average compliance times among NJD (5.32 ± 0.68 weeks) and the lowest dropout during the winter holiday season (only 14 ± 3 % dropping out in December). The South Beach diet had the shortest compliance time among NJD (3.12 ± 0.64 weeks) and the highest dropout during the holiday season (33 ± 7 % dropping out in December).
The current study is the first of its kind to use passive surveillance data to compare the duration of adherence with different diets and underscores the potential usefulness of digital epidemiological approaches to understanding health behaviours.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in human hospitals. The Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) made CRE reportable in April 2018. In May 2019, the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital (MJRVH) reported an NDM-5 Escherichia coli cluster in companion animals to the PDPH. In total, 15 infected animals (14 dogs and 1 cat) were reported between July 2018 and June 2019, with no new infections after June 2019. Limited literature is available on the prevalence of CRE in companion animals, and recommendations for dealing with CRE infections currently target human healthcare settings. Methods: A collaborative containment response included assessing interspecies transmission to veterinary staff and a comprehensive evaluation of the infection control program at MJRVH. MJRVH notified all owners of affected animals verbally and via notification letters with PDPH recommendations for CRE colonization screening of high-risk individuals. CRE screening of exposed high-risk employees was conducted by the University of Pennsylvania Occupational Health service and PDPH. Human rectal swabs were analyzed at the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (ARLN) Maryland Laboratory. PDPH were invited to conduct an onsite infection control assessment and to suggest improvements. Results: No pet owners self-identified in high-risk groups to be screened. In total, 10 high-risk staff were screened, and no colonized individuals were detected. Recommendations made by the PDPH to MJRVH included improvement of infection prevention and control policies (eg, consolidation of the infection control manual and identification of lead staff member), improvement in hand hygiene (HH) compliance (eg, increasing amount of HH supplies), improvement of environment of care (eg, decluttering and evaluation of mulched animal relief area), and improvement of respiratory care processes (eg, standardization of care policies). MJRVH made substantial improvements across recommendation areas including revision of infection control manual, creation of a full-time infection preventionist position, individual alcohol hand sanitizers for patient cages, and environmental decluttering and decontamination. PDPH and MJRVH maintained frequent communication about infection control improvements. Conclusions: No positive transmission to high-risk staff members suggest that, like in human healthcare facilities, transmission of CRE to caretakers may not be a common event. Stronger communication and collaboration is required from Departments of Public Health (DPH) to the veterinary profession regarding the reporting requirements of emerging pathogens such as CRE. Veterinary facilities should view DPH as a valuable resource for recommendations to fill in gaps that exist in infection control “best practices,” particularly for novel pathogens in veterinary settings.
Disclosures: Jane M. Gould reports that her spouse receives salary from Incyte.
Background: The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in companion animals will be a game changer for infection prevention and control strategies in veterinary and human healthcare facilities. CRE have emerged as an important cause of human healthcare-associated infections and are a major clinical and public health problem. Although reports of CRE from animals are still very rare, they have been documented in China, Europe, and the United States. Methods: In April 2019, a passive veterinary surveillance system identified the blaNDM-5 gene in an E. coli isolated from a dog in Philadelphia in July 2018. CRE are reportable to the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH), and in May 2019, the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital at the University of Pennsylvania (MJRVH) reported a cluster of carbapenem-resistant E. coli (CR-E. coli) isolated from 14 animals to the PDHP. This cluster of 17 isolates, that all contained a blaNDM-5 gene, was the first report of a CR-E. coli outbreak at a US veterinary facility. The first isolate, E. coli 24213-18, was sequenced on the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) Sequel Sequencer and has been uploaded to GenBank. Whole genome sequencing was performed on all 17 isolates using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Pathogen Detection Isolates Browser using AMRFinder. Results: PacBio sequencing confirmed E. coli ST167 and identified a circular IncFII plasmid of 139,547 bp that contained the blaNDM-5 gene, along with many additional resistance genes. In June 2019, a retrospective review of hospital records was completed and showed that, from July 2018, 17 CR- E. coli were isolated from 14 animals. Conclusions: Control of CRE infections in human healthcare settings is challenging because the organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract and can go undetected. The same issue is to be expected with companion animals. Healthcare-associated spread of CRE E. coli in a veterinary facility emphasizes the importance of rapidly identifying and characterizing carbapenem-resistant isolates from animals. Methods to control the spread of CRE in veterinary medical settings have not yet been studied, and related investigations will be critically important to limit the transmission of these pathogens in animal populations. The risk of transmission of CRE from animals to people is currently poorly understood. CRE will be a major challenge across all health fields as these organisms become more prevalent in the community. It is likely that a ‘One Health’ approach to surveillance, infection prevention, and antimicrobial stewardship will be required to limit the spread and potential global dominance of CRE.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
Identifying early risk factors for the development of social anxiety symptoms has important translational implications. Accurately identifying which children are at the highest risk is of critical importance, especially if we can identify risk early in development. We examined continued risk for social anxiety symptoms at the transition to adolescence in a community sample of children (n = 112) that had been observed for high fearfulness at age 2 and tracked for social anxiety symptoms from preschool through age 6. In our previous studies, we found that a pattern of dysregulated fear (DF), characterized by high fear in low threat contexts, predicted social anxiety symptoms at ages 3, 4, 5, and 6 years across two samples. In the current study, we re-evaluated these children at 11–13 years of age by using parent and child reports of social anxiety symptoms, parental monitoring, and peer relationship quality. The scores for DF uniquely predicted adolescents’ social anxiety symptoms beyond the prediction that was made by more proximal measures of behavioral (e.g., kindergarten social withdrawal) and concurrent environmental risk factors (e.g., parental monitoring, peer relationships). Implications for early detection, prevention, and intervention are discussed.
Three-dimensional printing is a revolutionary technology that is disrupting the status quo in surgery. It has been rapidly adopted by otolaryngology as a tool in surgical simulation for high-risk, low-frequency procedures. This systematic review comprehensively evaluates the contemporary usage of three-dimensional printed otolaryngology simulators.
A systematic review of the literature was performed with narrative synthesis.
Twenty-two articles were identified for inclusion, describing models that span a range of surgical tasks (temporal bone dissection, airway procedures, functional endoscopic sinus surgery and endoscopic ear surgery). Thirty-six per cent of articles assessed construct validity (objective measures); the other 64 per cent only assessed face and content validity (subjective measures). Most studies demonstrated positive feedback and high confidence in the models’ value as additions to the curriculum.
Whilst further studies supported with objective metrics are merited, the role of three-dimensional printed otolaryngology simulators is poised to expand in surgical training given the enthusiastic reception from trainees and experts alike.
We read with interest the recent editorial, “The Hennepin Ketamine Study,” by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.
Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators’ reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111–113
Prior theory and research have linked negative appraisals (NA), emotion reactivity (ER), and cognitive reactivity (CR) to depression; however, few studies have examined whether even two of these constructs simultaneously, but none have done so in child or adolescent populations. A total of 571 youths (ages 9–13) completed a novel procedure in which all three constructs were assessed in response to the same personally relevant, hypothetical, peer victimization events. Multilevel modeling enabled the extraction of dynamic, within-person, latent-variable measures of NA, ER, and CR. All three constructs were related to children's depressive symptoms in ways that were commensurate with most (but not all) theoretical frameworks. Gender and age differences also emerged. Support for an NA-predicts-ER-predicts-CR model suggests ways that these constructs can be integrated into a more complete, transtheoretical understanding of the cognitive-emotional substrate of depression in children.
Objective: To conduct a formative evaluation of a transitional intervention for family caregivers, with assessment of feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and potential benefits. Methods: The intervention aimed to provide emotional support, information on community resources, and information and support for development of coping skills for the caregivers of patients aged 65 and older who were to be discharged home from an acute medical hospital admission. We used a one-group, pre- and three-month post-test study design. Results: Ninety-one patient-caregiver dyads were recruited. Of these, 63 caregivers (69%) received all five planned intervention sessions, while 60 (66%) completed the post-test. There were significant reductions in caregiver anxiety and depression following the intervention, and high rates of satisfaction. Discussion: This transitional intervention should be further evaluated, preferably with a control group, either as a stand-alone intervention or as one component of a comprehensive transitional intervention for older patients and their caregivers.
Objectives: Caregivers of youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure report impaired communication, which can significantly impact quality of life. Using data collected as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD), we examined whether cognitive variables predict communication ability of youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: Subjects (ages 10–16 years) comprised two groups: adolescents with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and non-exposed controls (CON). Selected measures of executive function (NEPSY, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System), working memory (CANTAB), and language were tested in the child, while parents completed communication ratings (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – Second Edition). Separate multiple regression analyses determined which cognitive domains predicted communication ability. A final, global model of communication comprised the three cognitive models. Results: Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition significantly contributed to communication ability across groups. Twenty Questions performance related to communication ability in the CON group only while Word Generation performance related to communication ability in the AE group only. Effects remained significant in the global model, with the exception of Spatial Working Memory. Conclusions: Both groups displayed a relation between communication and Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition. Stronger communication ability related to stronger verbal fluency in the AE group and Twenty Questions performance in the CON group. These findings suggest that alcohol-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on learned verbal storage or fluency for daily communication while non-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on abstract thinking and verbal efficiency. Interventions aimed at aspects of executive function may be most effective at improving communication ability of these individuals. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1026–1037)
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Reforestation in the Inland Northwest, including northeastern Oregon, USA, is often limited by a dry climate and soil moisture availability during the summer months. Reduction of competing vegetative cover in forest plantations is a common method for retaining available soil moisture. Several spring and summer site preparation (applied prior to planting) herbicide treatments were evaluated to determine their efficacy in reducing competing cover, thus retaining soil moisture, on three sites in northeastern Oregon. Results varied by site, year, and season of application. In general, sulfometuron (0.14 kg ai ha–1 alone and in various mixtures), imazapyr (0.42 ae kg ha–1), and hexazinone (1.68 kg ai ha–1) resulted in 3 to 17% cover of forbs and grasses in the first-year when applied in spring. Sulfometuron+glyphosate (2.2 kg ha–1) consistently reduced grasses and forbs for the first year when applied in summer, but forbs recovered in the second year on two of three sites. Aminopyralid (0.12 kg ae ha–1)+sulfometuron applied in summer also led to comparable control of forb cover. In the second year after treatment, forb cover in treated plots was similar to levels in nontreated plots, and some species of forbs had increased relative to nontreated plots. Imazapyr (0.21 and 0.42 kg ha–1) at either rate, spring or summer 2007, or at lower rate (0.14 kg ha–1) with glyphosate in summer, provided the best control of shrubs, of which snowberry was the dominant species. Total vegetative cover was similar across all treatments seven and eight years after application, and differences in vegetation were related to site rather than treatment. In the first year after treatment, rates of soil moisture depletion in the 0- to 23-cm depth were correlated with vegetative cover, particularly late season soil moisture, suggesting increased water availability for tree seedling growth.